Ten Significant Innovations and Changes in the Industrial Revolution

May 10, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, European History, Europe (1815-1915), Industrial Revolution
Share Embed Donate

Short Description

Download Ten Significant Innovations and Changes in the Industrial Revolution...


English Textiles


As the population grew in Britain, the demand for cloth increased. Spinning cotton by hand took too much time. John Kay invented the fly-shuttle in 1733. This machine required only one weaver to operate. In 1765, James Hargreaves invented the spinning jenny, which allowed workers to spin eight threads at a time rather than one. These devices cut down the work hours needed to produce cloth. In 1769, Richard Arkwright made the water-frame, but it produced coarse thread. Then, Samuel Crompton combined Arkwright’s invention with the spinning jenny a decade later that produced good quality thread. In 1789, Samuel Slater brought over the ideas of the textile industry to America and the first water-powered cotton mill was built in Rhode Island. The new inventions of the English textiles sped the process of producing cloth very quickly. I consider this a major change because this was the beginning of the factory system in the Industrial Revolution. There were many changes after changes in the English textiles. The old system of producing cloth was done at home. The production was too slow and it did not catch up to the rapid growth of population. Then, new machines were being invented. The production became efficient and quicker. Soon, people began working in larger facilities. As we discussed in class, people were able to produce good quality cloth that were affordable. This was one of the reasons why England was the center of industrialization. Because of these movements during

The telephone is also one of the important inventions of the Industrial Revolution. In 1876, Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone. Before the telephone was invented, telegraphs were used. Telegraphs used bursts of electricity to send messages by Morse code. Telegraphs made it possible to communicate between towns, but these messages could only be sent to special telegraph offices. Telephones allowed people to communicate at home personally. The first long distance telephone lines were placed in 1884. Copper wire was used since it could send signals over long distances. In 1891, switchboard operators were replaced by automated dial systems. At first, telephones could be used only between big cities, but as the network became larger, eventually each household had a telephone. I think the telephone was a great convenience for the people in America. People back then lived far away from each other. With poor transportation, they could not see each other often. Now, they could communicate with each other and hear their voice without seeing that person directly using the telephone. This invention helps our lives much more today. The wireless telephone system developed quickly, and the majority of the people now own a cell phone. At first, the computer network system started using the telephone line. With the telephone and network system, the world became smaller. Our lives may have become convenient, but they came with too much information,

the Industrial Revolution, we have factories today.

making us busier than before.



References Adam Smith [Sketch]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.harpers.org/archive/2007/07/hbc-90000622 Bell on the telephone in New York (calling Chicago) in 1892 [Photograph]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.americaslibrary.gov/jb/recon/jb_recon_telephone_1.html

Ten Significant Innovations and Changes in the Industrial Revolution

The development of canals in Britain. (n.d.). The open door web site. Retrieved from http://www. saburchill.com/history/chapters/IR/020.html [The first canal in England] [Painting]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://sthelensnews.blogspot.com/2007/10/ sankey-canal.html Friendrich, C. D. (1818). The wanderer above the sea of fog [Oil on canvas]. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Caspar_David_Friedrich_032.jpg Hine, L. W. (n.d.). [Children working in the mill] [Photograph]. Retrieved from http://www.history place.com/unitedstates/childlabor/hine-empty.htm Hine, L. W. (n.d.). [Newsies] [Photograph]. Retrieved from http://www.historyplace.com/unitedstates/ childlabor/hine-jumps.htm History of canals. (n.d.). History world. Retrieved from http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainText Histories.asp?historyid=aa19 Industrial Revolution [Painting]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.flickr.com/photos/blvesboy/ 2121487586/ Industrial Revolution- textile industry. (n.d.). Industrial Revolution research. Retrieved from http://www.industrialrevolutionresearch.com/industrial_ revolution_textile_industry.php Karl Marx [Photograph]. (n.d.). Retreived from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Karl_Marx_001.jpg [The light bulb] [Photograph]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.worldculture.org/pages/1anniversaries.html McNeese, Tim. (2000). The Industrial Revolution. St. Louis, Missouri: Milliken Publishing Company. [Spinning jenny] [Drawing]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.industrialrevolutionresearch.com/ industrial_revolution_textile_industry.php [Steam engine] [Diagram]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.saburchill.com/history/chapters/IR/ 017.html Stearns, P. N., & Hinshaw, J. H. (Eds.). (1996). The ABC-CLIO world history companion to the Industrial Revolution. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, Inc. Telecommunication timeline. (n.d.). The telephone: Ringing in a new age. Retrieved from http://www.schoelles.com/Telephone/telindex.htm [Women in the Industrial Revolution] [Sketch]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.trueroots.us/blog/ 2009/05/08/a-brief-history-of-motherhood/ [Working conditions of the Industrial Revolution] [Painting]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www. saburchill.com/history/chapters/IR/039.html


In this booklet, there are information about the many innovations and changes that occurred during the Industrial Revolution, which took place from 1750 to 1914. There are information about English textiles, the steam engine, canals, Laissezfaire, child labor, women in the industrial revolution, romanticism, socialism, electricity, and the telephone. There are also paragraphs of why I consider those changes to be important. Enjoy!

About the Author

Nozomi Murayama was born in Berkley, California on October 23, 1997. She lived in Quincy, Massachusetts until she moved to Kobe, Japan in 5th grade. She now attends the international school Canadian Academy. Ten Significant Innovations and Changes in the Industrial Revolution is her first book. When she is not finishing homework, she enjoys playing the violin and the piano.

Ten Significant Innovations and Changes in the Industrial Revolution

Nozomi Murayama


Steam Engine

In 1879, an American inventor Thomas Edison invented the first electric light. This caught on quickly in America, unlike Britain. In Britain, the source of light was coal, a cheap and abundant resource. The demand for electric lights was not as high as in America. There were many other inventions created that used electricity. In 1800, an Italian inventor Alessandro Volta invented the chemical battery. In 1866, Michael Faraday, an Englishman, made the electromagnetic generator. With the help of these innovations, in 1887, American inventor Frank Sprague designed the electric railway. Later, Sprague also invented an electric elevator, which later led to skyscrapers to be built. I think electricity is one of the most important discoveries for both the past and the present. Electricity changed people’s lives dramatically during the Industrial Revolution. Just by looking around me, I see many things powered by electricity. I see my computer, air conditioner, and my room lights. Outside my room, I see the refrigerator, stove, microwave, and the television. I think without electricity, I cannot survive even a single day. Electricity is not only used to power appliances. It is used for transportation as clean power source. The number of electric cars is increasing. Whenever I go somewhere off Rokko Island, I take the Rokko Liner, an automated train run by electricity. Because of these inventions, our lives are very easy and efficient.

One of the great inventions created in the Industrial Revolution was the steam engine. In 1712, Thomas Newcomen invented a steam engine that pumped water out of coalmines. The machine had a piston inside a cylinder. Steam was created from a boiler below the cylinder. The vacuum made by the steam caused the piston to rise. The piston was connected to one end of a wooden beam that acted like a seesaw. On the other end, pump rods were attached. When the piston end of the beam rose, the other end went down into the mine. The steam inside the cylinder condensed which brought down the piston. The other end rose, pumping water out. Although this was very efficient compared to the older ways, there were still problems. Heat and fuel were being wasted. James Watt designed a new steam engine that cut the amount of fuel used by 75 percent in 1775. I think the steam engine was one of the great inventions created during the Industrial Revolution because this invention brought many changes that were related to the steam engine. First, Watt improved Newcomen’s steam engine because it wasted too much heat and fuel. I think it was ridiculous that while the engine was pumping water out of the mine to get more coal, the engine’s boiler was using coal to make steam. Later, factories began using steam engines for their waterpower. Then Richard Trevithick created the steam locomotive. Robert Fulton invented the steamboat and Thomas Edison opened the first commercial power plant. I think it was amazing that the steam engine could be put in use in many ways. People living during these times must have been excited and surprised to see their lives become


efficient rapidly. Over the years, these new things were improved and led to our modern trains, boats, and power plants.




After the steam engine was invented, there was an increase in demand for coal. However, the supply of coal was always limited and the transportation was costly. Before, coal was transported over muddy roads. People realized that using rivers for transportation was easier and efficient, but there was a problem. The rivers did not always flow for efficient transportation. The Duke of Bridgewater thought of an idea to create artificial waterways/canals to go where they were needed. This new idea allowed goods to be transported quickly and cut expenses. Bridgewater employed James Brindley to build canals for him in 1750. The first canal was built in 1761. Brindley was successful with the first canal. He later built over 580 kilometers of the British canal network. I consider canals to be one of the major changes because it greatly improved the way to transport goods. Canals were widely used and were much more efficient than transporting goods by roads. Traveling by roads took a great deal of time because of bad weather and the roads’ poor conditions. Bridgewater wanted a more reliable way to transport his coal. Since the canal system was very successful, Bridgewater was able to cut down the price for coal. Then, more people could afford to buy Bridgewater’s coal. I think this led to the general good of his business. I think because of the success of his canals, they became widely spread around the world now. New ideas of faster and flexible routes for transportation were made. The Suez and Panama Canal are two of the famous canals in the world. They are both important canals and are used for world shipping. The Suez Canal connects Asia and Europe, so one does not have to travel around the southern tip of Africa. The Panama Canal connects the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean so one

The Industrial Revolution brought efficiency, but abuse as well. Workers were exploited and were working in unsafe conditions. This gave birth to socialism. In 1839, the word socialism was first used. Socialists believed that there should not be different classes of people and everyone was equal. Some believed that competition was the cause of different classes, and the government should help everyone so no class of people was more powerful than another. One of the great socialist thinkers was Karl Marx. He combined four ideas, materialistic view, class warfare, surplus value, and dialectical change, to develop his theory of socialism. Marx encouraged class warfare because he believed that that would overthrow the workers’ opposite. This theory, Marxism, led to communism in the twentieth century. If I were a worker during the Industrial Revolution, I would have agreed with the great socialist thinkers. Everything they believed brought benefits to the workers. Even though I believe these ideas are great, I do not quite agree with Karl Marx’s theory. I agree with Marx about achieving equality between the workers and their opposites, but I do not agree about what to do to achieve that. Marx encouraged workers to overthrow the higher class by violence. I think socialism had a major impact to the world because this was the beginning of two main groups, socialism and capitalism. Socialism was developed into one big country, the Soviet Union. On the other hand, capitalism was developed into the United States of America. Those two countries had been in the Cold War for several decades. Around the late 20th century, most of the socialism countries collapsed.

does not have to travel around South America. 3


Child Labor

Women in the Industrial Revolution

Before the Industrial Revolution, children were working under their parents’ directions, so they learned the skills that were needed to support families of their own when they became adults. During the Industrial Revolution, this system changed. The children began working in factories, and the directions came from foremen instead of their parents. They worked from early in the morning to late at night. The jobs they performed were often dangerous. The children’s health was not good, because the working conditions were very bad. It was until the 1830s when the English Parliament created laws that limited the types of jobs children performed, decreased the work time, and raised the wages. Before I learned about child labor in class, I read the book Counting on Grace. When I finished reading the book, I saw the darkness of child labor. Then, many questions came to my mind. Why didn’t the mill owners think about the children’s future? Why did child labor last so long? As Grace emphasized, I think education is an important factor for a brighter future. Because children could not get an education, they were usually working in the factories even when they became adults. Child labor is still going on today. The main reason why child labor cannot be stopped is poverty. Without children working, some families cannot survive. I know that getting rid of child labor completely is a very difficult issue. I wonder if there are any ways we can do to help, big or small.

Before the Industrial Revolution, women did household chores and worked in the fields with their husbands. When the Industrial Revolution came along, it changed women’s lives greatly. Women now had job opportunities and earned independent wages. In the 1851 census, more than 30% of the workers were women. Although women got some freedom, their work options were limited because they were believed to be incapable to perform those jobs. After the English Parliament created laws about child labor, it was decreasing. In the textile industry, mill owners needed more workers, so they replaced children with women. It took time until people accepted women to be capable of working at any job as much as men. I think this is an important issue during the Industrial Revolution because women were exploited. Women got some freedom, but were still working under the direction from men. Their job choices were limited too, because many people believed that women were mentally and physically unable to perform certain jobs. The majority of women were short-term workers, because they often stopped working after they marry and have children. From that fact, I understand why some people did not hire women to work certain jobs, but from the women’s point of view, I think it was very unfair. Just because women marry and have children does not mean they have to stop working. Men do not stop working after marriage. Now, women and men have the same amount of chance to get the same job. Although there is equality, working mothers’ lives


are difficult with house chores and childcare. 6



The Enlightenment of the century led to Romanticism in the early 19th century. The Enlightenment gave little value to emotions and feelings. Romantics wanted to express their emotions in new ways. Writers, musicians, and artists wanted to let the audience escape from the industrialized world. The stories, music, and paintings were often set in far away places. One of the famous Gothic works is Frankenstein by Mary Shelley. Romantic poets expressed their emotions in a positive way that showed nature’s beauty. Painters ignored the restrictions of neoclassicism and used vivid colors with excitement. Composers created music that was very emotional. Some pieces of music were based on popular literature. I think it is important to know that the Industrial Revolution was not only about industrializing. I did not know that the Romantic period of music and Romanticism of the Industrial Revolution was related. During the Industrial Revolution, the workers’ lives were very mechanical and based on the clock. Gradually, their identities disappeared. Musicians and artists wanted those people to escape from the industrialized world by their romantic works. My favorite composers like Saint Saens, Wieniawski, and Sarasate composed very beautiful music with strong expressions. Compared to the composers in previous musical periods like Beethoven and Mozart, their musical style has more freedom in expressing emotions. Most of the classical music people know now is from the Romantic period. I think those pieces of music are the most comfortable to listen to for

With successful factories, the owners became very wealthy. Adam Smith developed a philosophy called Laissez-faire. He wrote the book The Wealth of Nations in 1776. He said that the economy was better when the government left it alone. Smith believed that people should work towards their own self-interest and that would add to the general good. David Ricardo expanded Smith’s ideas. He developed the iron law of wages. He said that workers should be paid as little as possible. If the workers had higher wages, they could support a larger family, therefore a surplus of labor would be created leading to poverty. The government did not care about problems of child labor, workers in poverty, education, and public services. Eventually, the difference between the rich and poor became greater. I think Laissez-faire had a positive effect on England, but had a downside to it as well. People were allowed to follow their own self-interest, which I think is a fair idea. I think if the people were more interested in their jobs, they would work harder and add to the general good of the country. On the other hand, workers were living in poverty because of the iron law of wages. Ricardo’s new idea led factory owners to become wealthy, but led workers to poverty. Although this philosophy led England’s economy to become better, I do not think it was worth having social problems like child labor and severe poverty. Laissez-faire spread all the way to America and caused a big difference between the rich and the poor. This ended up as the Great Depression. In the present day, the world’s economy’s conditions are not good and many people are unemployed. There is still a big difference between the rich and the poor. I wonder if there is


a system that works best for everyone in the world. 7

people in any era.


View more...


Copyright � 2017 NANOPDF Inc.