PSSA ELA Item Type Training Text-Dependent Analysis .
Bucks County Intermediate Unit November 19, 2014
Development of TDAs Jeri Thompson, Ed.D. Senior Associate, Center for Assessment •
Consultant to PDE and DRC on the development of Text Dependent Analysis Questions Lead a state team of teachers who met last year to work though the TDA model and help develop staff development
Diane Simaska, Pennsylvania Department of Education Responsible for providing overall direction for development of text dependent analysis model
Agenda • Understanding Text-Dependent Analysis Questions & how they incorporated into the new ELA PSSA • Analyzing a Text-Dependent Analysis (TDA) Question • Analyzing the Text-Dependent Analysis Rubric • Scoring student work using the state TDA scoring guidelines • Developing TDAs
Background: • Pennsylvania Core Standards (PCS) identifies text-dependent analysis as the ability to “draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research”.
• Prompts to measure the PCS will move beyond general reading comprehension to specific questions that require the use of text-dependent evidence
Then & Now Written Responses Activity THEN: Open-Ended Items Grade 6: Explain why Rick’s job is dangerous, using at least three examples from the passage to support your response. Grade 6: Which editorial is more convincing? Use at least three examples from the editorials to explain your response.
Grade 7: What does the old woman represent? Use at least two examples from the passage to support your response. Grade 7: Give a word or phrase that describes both the student and the school representative. Use at least one example from each editorial to explain your response.
Grade 8: Describe one way the setting of “Autumntime” is similar to cities of today. Describe two ways the setting is different from cities of today. Use details from the passage to support your response. Grade 8: Explain the main conflict in the passage and how it is resolved. Use at least two examples from the passage to support your explanation (Grade 8)
NOW: Text Dependent Analysis Questions Grade 6: The passage and the poem address a similar theme. Write an essay analyzing how the passage and the poem develop this theme. Use evidence from both of the passage and the poem to support your response. Grade 6: The passage discusses how the body regulates its internal clock. Write an essay analyzing the importance of the body’s clock to people’s everyday lives. Use evidence from the passage to support your response. Grade 7: The drama focuses on events in the life of Florence Nightingale. Write an essay analyzing how the three-scene structure of the drama emphasizes certain characteristics of Florence. Use evidence from the drama to support your response. Grade 7: In the letter Adams informs her daughter about the experience of moving to a new city and living in a new home. Write an essay analyzing how Adams responds to her new surroundings. Use evidence from the letter to support your responses. Grade 8: The plot of “Joe’s Reward is driven by specific events that take place. Write an essay analyzing how the passage draws on elements commonly found in myths. Use evidence from the passage to support your response. Grade 8: The editorial focuses on teen use of text messaging. Write an essay analyzing how the author develops the main argument in the editorial. Use evidence from the editorial to support your response.
PSSA testing based on previous standards • Understand the main ideas within a text – The passage is mainly about…
• Understand supporting details within a text – The author writes…, which statement best supports this claim?
• Understand the meaning of a word within a sentence – What is the meaning for the word …in the sentence?
• Understand the meaning of phrases within a sentence – What word best describes the phrase…?
• Understand explicit information from the text – Identify two challenges that the main character encountered …
• Inferring information from the text – State the theme or the author’s message
ELA PSSA testing based PA Core Standards • Explain the relationships or interactions between two or more… • Compare and contrast the overall structure… • Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence… • Integrate information from several texts on the same topic to… • Analyze multiple accounts of the same event or topic…
PA Core Standards and Instructional Shifts 1. Balancing the reading of informational and literary texts so that students can access nonfiction and authentic texts, as well as literature 2. Focusing on close and careful reading of text so that students are learning from the text 3. Supporting writing from sources (i.e., using evidence from text to inform or make an argument) so that students use evidence and respond to the ideas, events, facts, and arguments presented in the texts they read 4. Stressing an academically focused vocabulary so that students can access more complex texts
Instructional Shifts and TDAs Text-Dependent Analysis Question: 1. Supports the key shifts – point students towards parts of the text most important to pay attention to 2. Highlights and scaffolds key knowledge and information from texts 3. Requires students to examine and use evidence from the text to analyze core understandings and key ideas 4. Expects students to construct a well-written essay to demonstrate analysis of the text, moving beyond answering and generating questions about explicit and implicit information, summarizing, and being aware of vocabulary or text structure
PA Core Standards & New ELA PSSA Overall increase in text complexity, higher level thinking skills assessed, and overall rigor of the assessments.
TDA essays are part of what will be an overall increase in the complexity and rigor of the PSSA test. TDAs more rigorous than previous open-ended written responses.
ELA PSSA Testing Blueprint Core Passage MC items Reading questions related directly to passages
Field Test Items & extra TDA essay
Core Standalone MC items Grammar & Usage
Core EBSR—2 & 3 point response Two-part Evidence-Based Selected Response MC questions. The second part asks for one or two pieces of evidence that would support their answer in the first part of the question.
TDA—Text Dependent Analysis Essay Writing Prompt Traditional writing prompt based on one of the eligible types.
Scoring Guides Then & Now: Proficient Then 3 Points • The response provides a complete answer to the task, e.g.., a statement that offers a correct answer as well as text-based support. • The response provides specific appropriate and accurate details (e.g., naming, describing, explaining, or comparing) or examples
Text-Dependent Analysis Questions… • May begin with a literal check for understanding but must also require analysis, synthesis, evaluation • Emphasize the use of explicit and implicit information from the text to support reasoning and analysis (detailed examination of the elements or structure of something, typically as a basis for discussion or interpretation)
Text-Dependent Analysis Questions A text-dependent analysis question does not rely on any particular background information extraneous to the text nor depend on students having other experiences or knowledge; instead it privileges the text itself and what students can extract from what is before them.
Text-Dependent Analysis Questions…
Across Texts Entire Text Segments
Paragraphs Sentence Word
Cognitive Rigor Matrix • Examine the Cognitive Rigor Matrix • Where does the rigor of previous PSSA open-ended items seem to ‘fit’? What is required for Text-Dependent Analysis Questions?
Text-Dependent Analysis Questions Require close reading of a text.
Require students to provide evidence from the text and to draw inferences based on what the text says in order to support an analysis. This is different from traditional reading comprehension questions which require students to read to get the “gist” of the text.
Students will be expected to engage in close reading to… • Analyze paragraphs on a sentence-by-sentence basis and sentences on a word-by-word basis to determine the role played by individual paragraphs, sentences, phrases, or words • Investigate how meaning can be altered by changing key words and why an author may have chosen one word over another • Probe each argument in persuasive text, each idea in informational text, each key detail in literary text, and observe how these build to a whole • Examine how shifts in the direction of an argument or explanation are achieved and the impact of those shifts
• Question why authors choose to begin and end when they do • Note and assess patterns of writing and what they achieve • Consider what the text leaves uncertain or unstated
Close Reading & TDA Close Reading—Doug Fisher & Nancy Frey How is close reading connected to TextDependent Analysis Questions? What types of text should be chosen for close reading? As you read, annotate the text and ‘read with a pencil’.
Expectations in Student Responses ELA Grades 4-8 Text Dependent Analysis Scoring Guidelines
• Examine the Proficient Level 3 of the guidelines • Discuss expectations
Responding to Text-Dependent Analysis Questions TDA Essay Expectations 1.
Introduction: compelling introduction or “hook” (e.g., quote, action, personal remark, question)
Development: clear focus and controlling idea throughout the essay; includes a short summary plus analysis or reflection
Conclusion: relevant statement/section; extends beyond a restatement of introduction
Organization: coherence – introduction, body, and conclusion support the focus; sequences and groups related ideas
Transitions: connects ideas and reasons
Language: appropriate use of vocabulary; authoritative voice; variety of sentence structure
Conventions of Standard English
Responding to TDA Questions
Scoring Sample Student Responses TDA Questions Grade 6 Item Sampler The passage and the poem address a similar theme. Write an essay analyzing how the passage and the poem develop this theme. Use evidence from both the passage and the poem to support your response. Nail Soup & The Poem of Stone Soup
• Read the passage and the poem • Refer to scoring guidelines and discuss: What would you expect to read in a proficient level response?
Scoring Sample Student Responses TDA Questions • Review the two student responses • Compare to scoring guidelines • Discuss why each response was scored as a 4 or a 3 •
Scoring Sample Student Responses TDA Questions
Scoring Sample Student Responses TDA Questions
ELA PSSA Eligible Content Grade 6 Item Sampler The passage and the poem address a similar theme. Write an essay analyzing how the passage and the poem develop this theme. Use evidence from both the passage and the poem to support your response.
Review TDA prompt and the ELA Assessment Anchors & Eligible Content handout What Eligible Content is being assessed through this TDA prompt?
Responding to Text-Dependent Analysis Questions 1. What a text says – summary or restatement 2. What a text does – description: discusses important aspects of the presentation of the text (choices of content, author’s perspective, language, and structure)
3. What a text means – analysis: interprets the text and asserts a meaning for the text as a whole (putting the message in a larger context and determine theme)
Creating a Text-Dependent Analysis What a text says… Does…
Framing Text-Dependent Analysis Questions
Framing Text Dependent Analysis Questions • It is critical that a text dependent question originate from the text itself. • CCS Anchor Standards suggest that questions focus on a on a word or phrase (Standard 4) or even a sentence, paragraph, or larger section of the text (Standard 5). • Yet an equally important feature of text dependent questions is that they should be framed as open ended and not leading questions, as genuine learning only happens when students can engage in an authentic conversation about the text instead of the questions (or teachers) providing the right answer immediately. • Effective text dependent questions therefore encourage students to spend time lingering over a specific portion of the text looking for answers instead of just a cursory look to get the gist of what is meant.
Framing Text Dependent Analysis Questions • An effective set of text dependent questions delves systematically into a text to guide students in extracting the key meanings or ideas found there. • They typically begin by exploring specific words, details, and arguments and then moves on to examine the impact of those specifics on the text as a whole. • Along the way they target academic vocabulary and specific sentence structures as critical focus points for gaining comprehension.
Getting Started with Text-Dependent Questions
Start small to build confidence 1. Select a text Choose wisely. Not every text is worthy of a close reading that requires an analysis lead by text dependent questions. Choose wisely.
2. Identify the core understandings and key ideas of the text. • In literature the core understandings and big ideas can focus on the theme, interactions of characters, events in the story, and important events. • In informational texts the core understandings and big ideas can focus on important ideas, text organization, and the author’s purpose, claims, or arguments.
Getting Started with Text-Dependent Questions 3. Locate and identify academic vocabulary, figurative language, and key text structures that are connected to the essential understandings and key ideas. 4. Create coherent sequences of text-dependent questions. • Do the questions require analysis? If not, revise your question. • Determine what would you expect to see in a proficient student response. • Check alignment to the standards/eligible content. Use the language from the standards/ eligible content in the questions as much as possible
Getting Started with Text-Dependent Questions 5. Create culminating PSSA TDA-style question(s). –A coherent sequence of text dependent questions will scaffold students toward successfully completing the culminating task –What would you expect to find in a proficient level response?
Let’s Practice… Read and annotate Thank You, Ma’am by Langston Hughes Record your thinking on the handout: Creating Text-Dependent Questions for Close Analytic Reading
Meg Burke, North Penn School District
Start Small to Build Confidence Reread the lines from Thank You, Ma’am closely. After that the woman said, “Pick up my pocketbook, boy, and give it here.” She still held him. But she bent down enough to permit him to stoop and pick up her purse. The she said, “Now ain’t you ashamed of yourself? Firmly gripped by his shirt front, the boy said, “Yes ‘m.” The woman said, “What did you want to do it for?” The boy said, “I didn’t aim to.” She said, “You a lie!” Text-dependent questions leading to analysis:
• Based on the dialogue above, what does the author want you to understand about the woman and about the boy? • What did the woman mean when she said “You a lie!” to the boy? And what did the boy understand when he heard this from the woman. • How does this exchange in dialogue propel the plot of the story?
Start Small to Build Confidence Reread the lines from Thank You, Ma’am closely. “I’m very sorry, lady, I’m sorry,” whispered the boy.
“Um-hum! And your face is dirty. I got a great mind to wash your face for you. Ain’t you got nobody home to tell you to was your face?” “No’m,” said the boy. “Then it will get washed this evening,” said the large woman starting up the street, dragging the frightened boy behind her.
Text-dependent question leading to analysis:
• What impact do these lines have on the story’s overall theme?
Start Small to Build Confidence Example of a possible culminating TDA question:
• Write an essay analyzing how the author develops Mrs. Luela Bates Washington Jones’ character and motivation throughout the passage. Use evidence from the passage to support your analysis.
Developing TDA Questions Step 1: Read and annotate the text
Step 2: Identify the essential understanding(s) and key supporting details from the text (what is noteworthy and what supports this) Step 3: Locate and identify academic vocabulary and key text structures that are connected to the essential understandings and key ideas Step 4: Identify the standards associated with the essential understandings and key supporting details from the text. Step 5: Create coherent Sequence of Text Dependent Questions
Step 6: Propose a culminating text-dependent analysis question Step 7: Identify the expected proficient-level response
Creating a Text-Dependent Analysis
TDA Question Checklist • Does the student have to read the text to answer the question? • Does the question require the reader to return to the text?
• Does the question target the core understandings and key ideas of the text? • Can the question be answered with careful reading rather than background knowledge? • Is the question open-ended, not leading or providing the right answer?
• Does the question require the reader to use evidence from the text to support his or her ideas or claims? • Does the question encourage students to spend time lingering over a portion of the text looking for answers instead of just a cursory look to get the gist of what is meant? • Does the question target standards/eligible content? • Does the question require the student to interpret or analyze author’s craft (literary devices, figurative language, text organization, viewpoint or potential bias) in order to create meaning (i.e. plot, theme, characterization, author purpose etc.)? • Does the question analyze interrelationships among concepts, issues, or problems within the text?
Creating your own TDAs
Closing thoughts… • Classroom experiences stay deeply connected to the text on the page • Students develop habits for locating evidence in both conversations, as well as in writing, to demonstrate analysis of a text • Teaching elements of well-written essays
• Development of text-dependent analysis questions on a consistent basis
Accessing Training PPTs from PDE PowerPoints & handouts have been posted by PDE to the SAS Website— http://pdesas.org
Click on Teacher Tools at the top, log in, and click on Learning Communities. Search for and join the Text Dependent Analysis Professional Development Community. Download PPTs, passages, scored student sample and handouts.
Terri Kelly —Quakertown Community School District [email protected]
Eve LaPier —Bucks County Intermediate Unit [email protected]
Paul Beltz —Central Bucks School District [email protected]