The Economic Revolution 1820 -1860
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The Market Revolution 1820 -1860 Agrarian to Industrial Changes in America
The Rise of Interchangeable Parts
Remember the story of Chauncey Jerome Started
as an apprentice for a master clockmaker Started on company by age of 24 and realized he could mass produce clocks by using interchangeable parts. Prices dropped from $20 to $2
Industrial Revolution Individuals efforts to make industrial changes Leads to a new economic era, but also led to class-divided society
Division of Labor in the Factory Take semi-skilled workers and teach the employee a specific task. No longer a master cobbler in shoe factories, but mass production of product. Leads to lower prices.
A mill could grind 100,000 bushels of grain a year with six employees
Samuel Slater Father of the Industrial Revolution British government forbade anyone migrating to the America’s who were textile mechanics . Slater comes to the U.S. in 1789 having memorized Richard Arkwright's spinning frame plans. Worked with Moses Brown in Providence Rhode Island.
Samuel Slater Father of the Industrial Revolution
Before machinery, thread was spun by unmarried women, orphan girls, and widows with no prospects for remarriage. Thus the term for unmarried women became “spinster”
English manufacturers could undersell American goods Larger
population More landless people willing to work in factories Lower wages, less opportunities
The Lowell Factory Girls Francis Cabot Lowell went to England and stole the best of the ideas of the British Factory System Opens factories in Waltham, Massachusetts Built the largest and fastest mill in the world. To lower prices, recruit farm girls and women to work in the mill
The Lowell Factory Girls
Lowell Factory Girl
Oh! isn't it a pity, such a pretty girl as I Should be sent to the factory to pine away and die? Oh! I cannot be a slave, I will not be a slave, For I'm so fond of liberty, That I cannot be a slave.
Lowell Factory Girl
We must leave our looms. We are daughters of free men and are being forced to work under conditions that approach slavery. Do we need this money so badly that we will submit to these inhumane working conditions while this aristocracy of mill owners lives off the profits of our sweat? Are we not entitled to reasonable breaks in our toil to eat our meals as decent people do - not racing to our boardinghouses and bolting our food like piglets at the trough? And is it not reasonable to limit the workday to ten hours so we have time in the evenings to improve our minds as we were promised? WE must prevent our sex from being made into living machines to do the bidding of incorporated aristocrats and reduced to a sum for their services hardly sufficient to keep soul and body together. The mill managers have been deaf to our petitions and our rallies. They will only hear us when the factories are stilled by workers leaving their looms to secure their dignity and their rights
Wage Workers and Labor Movement Craft unions came first Carpenters, Stone cutters, cabinet Makers Organized to deal with the Master artisans who hired them Wanted a ten hour work day with and hour for breakfast and lunch ( Day would be 6 – 6 Industrialization worked against them
Eli Whitney Yale graduate Cotton Gin Manufacturing of military weapons In 1798, given a large contract to manufacture muskets for U.S. Government Interchangeable parts, new ways to use machines in manufacturing Father of “mass production”
Expansion of Markets Westward expansion Government land being sold at $1.25 an acre For $100 a farmer could buy 80 acres of land
The National Road – Cumberland, Md. To Vandalia, Ill. 1818 - 1839
Transportation The Steamboat – 1807 Robert Fulton – The Clermont traveled up the Hudson River – Why important? Later will help improve transportation on the Mississippi R. Canals- To carry corn and wheat and manufactured goods – Canal system
Robert Fulton & the Steamboat
Erie Canal System
The Erie Canal, 1820s
The Erie Canal 1st
major engineering feat in America. Supported by the New York City Merchants, Gov. DeWitt Clinton, and the tax payers. Moved millions of cubic yards of dirt, quarry rocks and build locks to raise and lower boats
The Erie Canal Brought prosperity to central and western New York Towns and industries developed along the route Led to a canal building boom
The Erie Canal
I've got a mule, and her name is Sal, Fifteen miles on the Erie Canal. She's a good ol' worker an' a good ol' pal, Fifteen miles on the Erie Canal. We've hauled some barges in our day, Filled with lumber, coal, and hay, And we know every inch of the way From Albany to Buffalo.
(chorus) Low bridge, everybody down! Low bridge, for we're comin' through a town! And you'll always know your neighbor, You'll always know your pal, If you've ever navigated on the Erie Canal.
Growth Cities and Towns Chicago – fastest growing boom town Cleveland Detroit Buffalo St. Louis – 2nd fastest growing boom town
The Railroad In 1830 the first American-built locomotives were put into regular operation on the Baltimore and Ohio, Charleston and Hamburg, and Mohawk and Hudson railroads Vested interests, including turnpike and bridge companies, stagecoaches, ferries, and canals, sought laws to prohibit trains from carrying freight
The Railroad After 1830 that railroads were destined to become the nation's chief means of moving freight. During the 1830s, construction companies laid down 3,328 miles of track, roughly equal to all the miles of canals in the country. With an average speed of 10 miles an hour, railroads were faster than other vehicles and could travel in any season.
Results of the Transportation revolution The transportation revolution sharply reduced the cost of shipping goods to market and stimulated agriculture and industry. New roads, canals, and railroads speeded the pace of commerce and strengthened ties between the East and West.
Communication Revolution During the 1790s, it took 3 weeks for a letter to travel from New York to Cincinnati or Detroit and 4 weeks to arrive in New Orleans. In 1799 it took 1 week for news of George Washington's death to reach New York City from Virginia. A decade and a half later, it still took 49 days for word of the peace treaty ending the War of 1812 to reach New York from London.
The Telegraph As early as the 1720s, it was known that electricity could be conducted along a wire to convey messages Iit was not until 1844 that an American artist and inventor named Samuel F. B. Morse demonstrated the practicality of the telegraph and devised a workable code for sending messages
Changes in Social Structure
Business Elite Bankers Merchants Landlords By
1860 the 10% wealthiest families owned 70% of the wealth in America Able to accumulate mass wealth because of the tax system Set themselves apart from the rest of the population
Changes in Social Structure
The Middle Class Professional
groups such as lawyers, building contractors, business owners They managed the Wealthy peoples businesses Mostly in the Northeast, will go to high school then move into family businesses Puritan work ethic
Changes in Social Structure
New Urban Poor By
1840 half of the native born freemen were working for others They had money for food and rent and not for much Lived in slums amid great squalor and vermin Mass consumption of alcohol added to the squalor
Concern over Effects of Market Revolution 1. Acquisitiveness as threat to public good 2. Cycle of boom and bust 3. Irregular employment 4. Widening inequalities of living standards 5. Erosion of craft skills 6. Specter of wage dependency; “wage slavery”
Westward expansion 1. 2.
Contributing impact of transportation and communications revolutions Pace and magnitude
Westward expansion 3. Streams of migration a. From Lower South b. From Upper South c. From New England 4. Regional patterns a. Old Northwest b. Old Southwest
Rise of the Cotton Kingdom 1. Pace and magnitude 2. Contributing factors a. Industrial demand for cotton b. Invention of cotton gin c. Opening of Deep South to white settlement 3. Revitalization and spread of plantation slavery a. Growth of domestic slave trade b. Consequences for slaves c. Consequences for South’s social and economic development
Market society Commercialization of northwest farming 1. Eastern markets 2. Transportation networks 3. Availability of credit 4. Improved farm machinery
Market society Growth of cities 1. Place on western frontier 2. Pace of growth From craft production to mass production 1. Decline of artisan tradition a. Larger workshops b. Subdivision of tasks c. Increased supervision
Immigration Push Pull Factors 1840 – 1860
million Irish – stayed in the cities 1.5 million Germans – moved to farms in the West 750,000 English
Large rise of Catholicism Leads to Nativism
Protestantism worried about this Samuel Morse wrote books about the conspiracy of the Catholic Church Boston – Burning of convents Philadelphia – Riots when the Catholic Bishop persuaded the schools to add a Catholic Bible along with the Protestant Bible Blamed Immigrants for job losses among the poor Protestants Founding of the Know Nothing Party