The End Of Reconstruction
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SS8H7 The student will evaluate key political, social and economic changes that occurred in Georgia between 1877 and 1918. a. Evaluate the impact the Bourbon Triumvirate, Henry Grady, International Cotton Exposition, Tom Watson and the Populists, Rebecca Latimer Felton, the 1906 Atlanta Riot, the Leo Frank Case, and the county unit system had on Georgia during this period. EQ: What were the political, social and economic changes that occurred between 1877 and 1918? How did these events effect Georgia?
The End of Reconstruction End of Republican Rule in Georgia Rufus B. Bullock
In 1868, the Republican party
gained control of Georgia. Rufus Bullock was elected governor. He wanted equal rights for African Americans. Most Democrats did not A campaign began to remove republicans from power. During this time, the KKK attacked many African Americans in Georgia
As a part of the Radical Reconstruction, federal troops were sent to Georgia to restore order. After they withdrew, in 1870, the Democrats regained control. The republican party was referred to as the Party of Lincoln, and the southern states associated it with anti-South policies.
John B. Gordon
From 1872 to 1890, the Bourbon Democrats controlled
the Georgia Government Bourbon Democrats were Conservative Democrats and led by the Bourbon Triumvirates Colquitt, Brown, Gordon Instrumental in keeping segregation alive They wanted Georgia’s economy to become more industrialized, not based solely on agriculture. During their power, the cotton textile industry grew. Production of cottonseed, cattle feed, and fertilizer began. Atlanta became prosperous again.
Henry Grady Journalist for the Atlanta
Constitution “Spokesman for the New South” Through speeches and writing, he promoted industry and crop diversification as a means to help the economy in Georgia, particularly Atlanta. Encouraged northern investors to develop industries in Georgia Spoke about unity and trust between the north and south
International Cotton Exposition
The International Cotton exposition was held in Atlanta, in 1881. It was a fair to bring money to Atlanta’s cotton textile business. Displayed equipment Sugar, rice, and tobacco were
shown Because of the exposition, millions of dollars were invested in Atlanta New jobs created Similar expositions were held there in 1887 and 1895 Atlanta became known as the NEW SOUTH
Thomas Watson and the Populists Tom Watson State Historical Marker Located at the McDuffie County Courthouse in Thomson, Ga.
Small farmers in Georgia were upset because they were not
prospering during this time. Prices of farm products were dropping Farmers owed many loans and were charged a great deal of money by railways to ship products. Farmers formed the Farmer’s Alliance to help one another. This was called populism. These groups formed a political party called the People’s Party also known as the Populist party. Thomas Watson was a leader and the party became powerful in Georgia. Democrats were worried that they might take over and so to keep control, the Democrats won the election by breaking the law, or “stealing “ the election.
Farmers’ Alliance Propaganda
Rebecca Latimer Felton Writer, teacher, and reformer With husbands career, she
entered the public’s eye Supporter of women’s suffrage, the right to vote Helped win women’s right to vote Pushed social reform at state level to instate Prohibition End convict lease system, a system of leasing convicts to private businesses for cheap labor
At the age of 87, became the
first woman to serve in the U.S. Senate, in 1922. The governor appointed her to the position in order to temporary fill a vacated seat. Lived until she was 94
The 1906 Atlanta Riot Headlines in local newspapers, such as the one appearing in the September 21, 1906, issue of the Atlanta Journal, provoked white men to begin a riot in the city on September 22, 1906.
Violent events by whites against
African Americans (race riot) Dozens of African Americans were killed and many more wounded Began because of stories of African American men attacking white women Stories later proved to be untrue Tension started because of the competition of jobs among whites and blacks Whites were also worried that the African American upper class was becoming too powerful
News of the riots circulated the country and focused
the eyes of the nation on the problems of Atlanta. Many African Americans began turning to aggressive tactics in order to achieve equality and justice.
The Leo Frank Case Leo Frank was a Jewish man from
Georgia who was lynched, or hung, by a mob because of anti-Semitism. Anti-Semitism- a belief system against Jewish people.
Frank was a factory manager who was accused of
murdering a young girl employee. The case went to trial and he was found guilty. However, much of the evidence against Frank was faulty and suspicious. The governor of Georgia, John Slaton, reviewed Frank’s case and eventually decided that Frank was innocent. Anti-Semites refused to accept his innocence. A group of citizens lynched Frank before he could enjoy his freedom.
County Unit System
In 1917, Georgia established the county unit system(a
way of giving votes in primary elections. Each county was given a certain number of votes, called unit votes. Counties were divided into three categories- urban, town, and rural. Candidates that received the most votes in a county won all of the unit votes given to that county. Problem with the system was it didn’t always represent what the population wanted. There were more rural counties than other counties, but not as many people lived in those counties. As a result, the county unit system was eventually abolished.
SS8H7 a QUIZ 1. The term “populism” describes: A. Southern farmers working
together. B. The belief in southern states that African Americans deserved equal rights. C. The idea that races could be kept separate as long as there were equal facilities for both. D. A movement of violence or unfairness against Jewish people.
2. Henry Grady was known as the: A. Leader of the Confederates. B. Journalist from Georgia. C. Great emancipator. D. Spokesman of the New South.
3. All of these were reasons for
Georgia farmers to join the Farmers’ Alliance EXCEPT:
A. Dropping prices on farm
products. B. Loan burden. C. Segregation of railway cars. D. Increased charges by railways to ship their products.
4. Anti-Semitism is associated with:
A. Plessy v. Ferguson. B. Leo Frank. C. Rufus B. Bullock. D. Rebecca Latimer Felton.
Jim Crow South SS8H7 The student will evaluate key political,
social and economic changes that occurred in Georgia between 1877 and 1918. b. Analyze how rights were denied to African-Americans
through Jim Crow laws, Plessy v. Ferguson, disenfranchisement, and racial violence. EQ: How were African Americans denied rights?
The 13th, 14th, and 15th
Amendments increased the rights for African Americans after the Civil War. When formerly Confederate states rejoined the Union, they had to first agree to honor the amendments. Most however, only followed the 13th amendment.
The southern states did not
honor the others because they feared equal rights for African Americans. Southern states regularly denied rights to African Americans.
Jim Crow Laws
Jim Crow Laws mandated the segregation of African Americans and whites. Signs were hung in public places designating “Whites only” for some public places and “Colored only” for others.
African Americans were commonly called “colored” at that time.
Plessy v. Ferguson Plessy v. Ferguson , (1896), was a
landmark United States Supreme Court decision in the jurisprudence of the United States, upholding the constitutionality of racial segregation even in public accommodations (particularly railroads), under the doctrine of " separate but equal". "Separate but equal" remained standard doctrine in U.S. law until its final repudiation in the later Supreme Court decision Brown v. Board of Education(1954).
The railroad tried to make Homer Plessy (African
American) move from a “Whites Only” passenger car. Plessy refused and was arrested. In 1896, the U.S. Supreme court ruled that segregation was not against the Constitution. This is where “Separate but Equal” became known. It was legal for states to keep the races separate as long as there were equal facilities for both races.
Most public facilities, however, such as hospitals and
schools, were not of the same quality for African Americans as those for whites. For example, money that was set aside for African American schools often went to white schools instead. Some African schools often did not have enough books for all students. Some schools did not even have chalkboards.
15th Amendment gave
formerly enslaved men the right to vote. Many whites felt this right was a threat to their way of life. Southern states made it more difficult for African Americans to vote.
act of denying a person the right to vote. Furthermore, all women
were disenfranchised because none of them were allowed to vote.
Disenfranchisement of African
American men was accomplished partly by poll taxes, property tests, and literacy tests. A poll tax, which was adopted in Georgia, was a fee that a voter had to pay in order to vote. A voter also had to demonstrate that he owned property. Poll taxes and property tests prevented many poor people, including African Americans, from voting.
Literacy test From Georgia
Voters were required to pass a literacy test, which determined whether or not they could read or write.
Most African Americans could not pass this test because under slavery, they had not been able to learn how to read and write.
Laws also prevented poor, uneducated whites from voting. Southern lawmakers didn’t want to lose white votes. They passed the grandfather clause- if a
person had an ancestor to vote before 1867, he was permitted to vote. since 1867 was the first year African Americans could vote, the cause only helped whites
White Primaries also denied
African Americans the right to vote. A primary is an initial election in which voters of a political party nominate candidates. In many states, the Democratic party wouldn’t let African Americans to be members. Only male white members of the Democratic party were allowed to participate in primaries.
Race riots and terrorist activities of the KKK increased
at this time. As African Americans gained more power, whites reacted with fear and violence. Often, whites would attack African Americans in groups, such as the race riots in Atlanta in 1906. Such violence continued for decades, with lynchings becoming a increasingly common event throughout the South. Not until the civil rights movement of the 1960’s would violence against African Americans slow in the region.
SS8H7 b QUIZ
1. The term “separate but equal” describes: A. The way that land was apportioned among farmers in the South after the Civil War. B. The belief in Southern states that African Americans deserved equal rights. C. The idea that races could be kept separate as long as there were equal facilities for them both. D. A method of voting used in the South during Reconstruction. 2. Who was Homer Plessy? A. Governor of Georgia during Reconstruction B. Inventor of the cotton gin C. A lawmaker who helped to draft the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution D. An African American who refused to move to a segregated railway car
3. How did southern states limit the
rights of African Americans after the end of Reconstruction?
A. Redrawing state boundaries B. Passing Jim Crow laws C. Educating illiterate whites D. Hosting cotton expositions
4. All of these methods were used for the disenfranchisement of African American men EXCEPT:
A. Amending the Constitution. B. Property tests. C. Literacy tests. D. Poll taxes.
Civil Rights Advocates SS8H7 The student will evaluate key
political, social and economic changes that occurred in Georgia between 1877 and 1918. c. Explain the roles of Booker T. Washington, W. E. B.
DuBois, John and Lugenia Burns Hope, and Alonzo Herndon. EQ: Who were the people creating political, social, and
economic changes between 1877 and 1918? How did they accomplish these changes? What were the changes?
Booker T. Washington
Born into slavery Grew up during Reconstruction and
educated by a freedmen’s school. This motivated him to champion education for other African Americans. Headed the Tuskegee Institute in 1881 in Alabama (prepared African Americans for agricultural and domestic work) Washington became a well-known educator and thinker. His idea of accommodationism was explained in a widely acclaimed speech
Washington gave his speech to the Cotton Exposition of 1895.
Many historians believe the speech is one of the most significant in the United States History.
Poor social and economic
conditions of African Americans Racial relations in the economically unstable South were another of his concerns. He encouraged African
Americans to embrace jobs in agriculture, mechanics, commerce, and domestic service.
Washington’s speech focused on what he called the “Negro Problem”
He asked African Americans to “dignify and glorify common labor”. This idea was greeted happily by southern whites.
Washington argued that,
for African Americans, seeking social equality was a mistake. He believed progress
would come gradually and could not be forced.
Washington stated that both whites and African
Americans could “be as separate as fingers, yet one as the hand in all things essential to mutual progress.” This speech also called for whites to take the initiative in improving social and economic relations between races His ideas of shared responsibility and the importance of education over equality came to be known as the Atlanta Compromise.
On September 18, 1895, African-American spokesman and leader Booker T. Washington spoke before a predominantly white audience at the Cotton States and International Exposition in Atlanta. His “Atlanta Compromise” address, as it came to be called, was one of the most important and influential speeches in American history. Although the organizers of the exposition worried that “public sentiment was not prepared for such an advanced step,” they decided that inviting a black speaker would impress Northern visitors with the evidence of racial progress in the South. Washington soothed his listeners’ concerns about “uppity” blacks by claiming that his race would content itself with living “by the productions of our hands.”
W. E. B. Du Bois Du Bois was one of the
critics of Washington’s accommodationism. Prominent professor at Atlanta University in 1897 He recognized Washington’s speech as being important but disagreed with his ideas
He viewed the
After writing The Souls of
Black Folk, Du Bois founded accommodationist approach the Niagara movement. as simply accepting the racism of southern whites. Civil rights activists gathered at Niagara Falls to assemble According to Du Bois, “Mr. a list of demands, which Washington represents in included the end of Negro thought the old segregation and attitude of adjustment and discrimination. submission.” Eventually the activists He felt African Americans involved formed the NAACP should fight for total racial (National Association for the equality. Advancement of Colored People).
Du Bois took a leadership position in the organization
and was the editor of their publication, Crisis. After spending years with the NAACP, Du Bois went
back to Atlanta University to conduct more research.
Lugenia Burns Hope
John Hope Burns became
He supported public
the first African American president of Morehouse College in 1906. 23 years later, the first black president of Atlanta University Under his leadership Atlanta U. became the first college in the nation to offer graduate education for African Americans
education, healthcare, job opportunities, and recreational facilities for African Americans. Embraced the Niagara Movement A part of the NAACP as well as the southern-based Commission on Interracial Cooperation
Lugenia Hope created the first woman-
run social welfare agency for African Americans in Georgia. She was also a member of the NACW (National Association of Colored Women) created in 1896. She also championed universal suffrage.
Alonzo Herndon Died in 1927 as the wealthiest
African American in Atlanta He was involved in and supported many local institutions and charities devoted to advancing African American life in Atlanta.
By 1904, Herndon’s
barbershops were known as the best in America. His success allowed him to by a failing mutual aid association. Established the Atlanta Mutual Insurance Association (AMIA) Grew in assets from $5,000 in 1905 to over $400,000 in 1922
Herndon was one of the founding members of the
National Negro Business League, which was started by Booker T. Washington in Boston. In 1905, he was among the twenty-nine men who founded W.E.B. Du Bois’s Niagara movement.
SS8H7 c QUIZ
1. The African American leader
3. John Burns Hope was the first
who supported a gradual approach to civil rights and racial equality was:
A. W.E.B. DuBois B. Martin Luther King, Jr. C. Alonzo Herndon D. Booker T. Washington 2. W.E.B. DuBois established the civil rights movement known as the:
A. Atlanta Compromise B. Niagara movement C. Equality Now movement D. National Association for African Americans
African American president of Morehouse College and Atlanta University, Atlanta University was the first: A. University to allow African Americans into the student body. B. University to integrate classes. C. To focus on the graduate education of African Americans. D. African American-led university to receive funds from the government.
4. Alonzo Herndon owed his
leadership role and involvement in DuBois’s Niagara movement primarily to his: A. Business success B. Charity involvement C. Academic achievement D. Accommodationist view