The Final Days of WWI - George Washington High School

January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, European History, World War II (1939-1945)
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The Final Days of WWI IB 20th Century History

Defeat of Central Powers 

1918 Russia was out of the War (Russian Revolution)

Central Powers focus on taking over Paris

May 1918 just 37 miles from Paris but U.S. troops arriving everyday.

End of September 1918: 

Turkey asks for peace

Austria-Hungarian empire breaks up


– an agreement to stop

fighting November

11, 1918 at 11:00 a.m. all fighting stops and WWI comes to an end

Terms of Armistice  Germany

agrees to:  Cancel treaty with Russia  Give up a large part of its navy including all submarines  Turn over much of its munitions  Release war prisoners

Cost of WWI 

8.5 million dead  1.8 million Germans, 1.8 million Russians  1.4 million French  1 million Austria and Hungary  1 million British  110,000 U.S.

21 million wounded

Total cost was more than $300 billion

War Deaths by Country

The Story so far… 

World War I is over, the killing has ceased.

January 18, 1919, a conference was built at the Palace of Versailles. 

The Allied powers, the victors of WWI, meet to clean up the war mess.

Paris Peace Conference 

Where – Versailles (outside of Paris)

When – January 1919

Why – To arrange terms of peace

Who – 

British Prime Minister David Lloyd George

French Premier Georges Clemenceau

Italian Prime Minister Vittorio Orlando

U.S. President Woodrow Wilson

Meeting at Versailles 

Paris Peace Conference  Delegates representing 32 countries  Major decisions were made by the Big Four:  Woodrow Wilson (U.S.)  Georges Clemenceau (France)  David Lloyd George (Great Britain)  Vittorio Orlando (Italy)

Conflict of Interests  France

wanted security over another German attack, return of Alsace-Lorraine

 Britain

wanted Germany’s African’s colonies & destruction of Germany’s navy

 Italy

also wanted land

 Japan

wanted German colonies in the Pacific

“I can predict with absolute certainty that within another generation there will be another world war if the nations of the world do not concert the method by which to prevent it." Woodrow Wilson, 1919

Woodrow’s Plan 1918 

Woodrow proposed his Fourteen Points  Outlined a plan for maintaining peace  Proposed the following points: 

1st Point: End all secret treaties

2nd Point: Freedom of the Seas

3rd Point: Free trade

4th Point: Reduce national armies (trying to stop militarism)

5th Point: Colonial Fairness (trying to stop harsh imperialism)

6th-13th Points: Rearranging borders (self-determination)

14th Point: Create a general association of nations that would negotiate solutions to world conflicts (The League of Nations)

Unsatisfied with Wilson’s plan 

Plan threatened national security

Plan was too nice– GB and France thought it lacked punishment against Germany  

Wanted to take away Germany’s power Clemenceau wanted Germany to pay for France’s suffering  

France lost more than 1,000,000 soldiers and civilians during wartime. This was about 11% of the population. France’s land was destroyed and devastated.

Why did the US Reject the Treaty of Versailles? 

Critics of the Treaty believed that the League would drag the US into future European wars (Senator Henry Cabot Lodge)

Americans were “war weary” and wanted to return to isolationism

Wilson suffered a stroke and was unable to sell the treaty to the people

The US refused to join the League of Nations, making the League a “paper tiger” or weak on the world stage.

U.S. – Wanted organization to maintain world peace called League of Nations 

Idea was well liked

Many thought it was not realistic

Reparations – payment for war damages

Who should pay? How much?

What Kind of Peace? 

Option 1: Fair and not so harsh that it would kindle future wars

Option 2: Germany caused the war, should be punished harshly to prevent them from ever being powerful again.

Treaty of Versailles 1919 

French, British, and U.S. argued and finally compromised. The product was The Treaty of Versailles.

Signed between Germany and the Allied powers, June 28. 1919. 

Adopted Wilson’s 14th point, created League of Nations  Aimed for world peace, stopping further wars  General Assembly, 32 allied and neutral nations  Executive Council, the 5 Allied Powers  U.S.  Great Britain  France  Italy  Japan

Germany and Russia were left out of the League of Nations.

Treaty of Versailles 1. Pay reparations 2. Admit guilt

7. Allow allied troops in Rhineland

3. Give up territory

8. Establish “Polish Corridor” to sea

4. Not build up Rhineland

9. Not manufacture war materials

5. Free Poland

10. Make army smaller

6. Make Danzig a free city

11. Establish League of Nations

Punishments Against Germany

Treaty of Versailles also punished Germany:  Portions of Germany’s territories were taken away, colonies in Asia and Africa were given to League of Nations to be administered.  Military restrictions  Article 231-” Germany was solely responsible for the war”, therefore, had to pay reparations to the Allies. AlsaceLorraine is given up to France


Major Provisions League of Nations

Germany Loses Territory

Germany is restricted in its military

War Guilt

32 Allied Nations,

Germany has to return AlsaceLorraine to France

Cannot buy/build military weapons or war machines

Is declared totally responsible for World War I

But… Germany & Russia are excluded

Germany loses all of its overseas territory in Africa & Pacific

Set limit to size of army

Has to pay the equivalent $33 Billion to Allies in 30 years

End of World War I > Europe in 1914

End of World War I > Europe in 1919

New Nations Formed

Negotiated between Allies and defeated nations (Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire) 1919, 1920. It literally broke down Europe into many tinier new nations. 

Austro-Hungarian Empire was broken down into independent nations: Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia

Ottomans had to give up all the land lost in Southwest Asia, losing Palestine, Iraq, and Transjordan to British rule. Syria and Lebanon went to France. The Ottomans could only keep Turkey.

Russia lost territory to Romania and Poland. Also, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania (formerly part of Russia) become independent nations.

Europe Before WWI

After WWI

Unlasting peace 

U.S. rejected the treaty  Americans thought that if they wanted peace, they should get themselves out of European affairs.

Germany is upset  War-guilt clause caused them to hate the Allies.  Economically devastated  Militarily restricted  In their point of view, unfairly sanctioned

Colonies were unsatisfied that they could still not gain independence

Japan and Italy did not get what they wanted out of the war—land, so also backed out.

Without consent or support of U.S., the League of Nations could not do anything to amend or take any action.

Observer at Versailles noted the treaty was merely, “a peace built on quicksand.”

Legacy of WWI 

This was a New kind of war. New weapons and technology were introduced killing people faster, and more efficiently than ever before.

War was brought to the global scale

People could see that war could get extremely destructive.

Causes of WWI

•Nationalistic pride •Competition for colonies •Military buildup •Tangled web of alliances •Assassination of Franz Ferdinand

Effects of WWI

•Destruction in Europe •Boom in American economy •Suppression of dissent in the U.S. •Allied victory •Defeated empires lose their colonies •The U.S. emerges from the war as a world leader and an economic giant

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