The French Revolution
Download The French Revolution...
The French Revolution- Video Questions Copy the following questions in your notebook and answer them while watching the video. 1. 2. 3. 4.
How did the population boom affect France in the 18th century? Why did King Louis XVI call the Estates-General in 1788? What were the three estates of the Estates-General? What was the Tennis Court Oath? Why did women march to Versailles in October 1789? How did Napoleon become the leader of France?
Define/study the following terms: ancien régime, estate, bourgeoisie, deficit spending, Estates-General, cahier, faction, émigré, republic, suffrage, guillotine, nationalism, plebiscite, annex, guerrilla warfare, scorched-earth policy, abdicate, legitimacy Identify the following individuals and discuss their significance to the French Revolution: King Louis XVI, Marie Antoinette, Olympe de Gouges, Maximilien Robespierre, and Napoleon Bonaparte
French Revolution- Study Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
What two far-reaching events took place in 1789? How did the French Revolution compare to the American Revolution? Give a definition of the term bourgeoisie. State the immediate cause of the French Revolution. How did most members of the Third Estate want to fix France’s financial problems? What dramatic event took place on July 14, 1789, which saved the Third Estate from the King’s forces? What did the National Assembly do in response to peasant revolts and fear of foreign troops? What name did the National assembly give to its charter of basic liberties?
Why did Olympia de Gouges write a Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen? 10. The National Assembly took what action to control the Catholic Church? 11. Who was Georges Danton? Maximilien Robespierre? 12. What was the Committee of Public Safety? 13. What was the Reign of Terror and when did it take place? 9.
The French Revolution & Napoleon
Long-range causes of the Revolution The failure of the ancien régime (the French ruling class) to fulfill the needs of French society The radical dissolution of the power of the French ruling class (the king and the nobility)
The Three Estates 1.
The Three Estates
Relics of Feudalism
“Walking up a long hill…I was joined by a poor woman who complained of the times, and that it was a sad country;…she said her husband had but a morsel of land, one cow, and a poor little horse, yet they had [42 lbs.] of wheat and three chickens to pay as rent to one [lord], and [4 lbs.] of oats, one chicken and 1s. [shilling] to pay to another, besides very heavy tailles and other taxes.” -Arthur Young, from Travels, 1780
Bourgeoisie (Middle Class)?
Prelude to the French Revolution
Financial Mismanagement (War and Extravagance)
Kings Louis XIV and Louis XV • Colonial wars with England • Participation in the American Revolution • Extravagance of the Royal Court at Versailles •
Louis XIV of France The Sun King r.1643-1715
Liberal Revolution King Louis XVI called the Estates-General to convene at Versailles in spring, 1789 The Estates-General was unable to reach any kind of harmonious agreement
The Three Estates Meet
“Therefore, what is the Third Estate? Everything; but an everything shackled and oppressed. What would it be without the privileged order? Everything, but an everything free and flourishing. Nothing can succeed without it, everything would be infinitely better without the others.” -Abbe Sieyes
The National Assembly
The storming of the Bastille
The storming of the Bastille
The Great Fear
Peasant uprisings spread throughout France during the summer of 1789 Militias were formed to defend citizens against the potential invasion of forces friendly to the monarchy
Declaration of the Rights of Man
August, 1789, the nobles conceded to National Assembly’s reforms The Declaration of the Rights of Man provided for a limited monarchy and a unicameral legislature based on the doctrine that “all men are born free and equal before the law”
The Women March to Versailles The king refused to accept the Assembly’s reforms or the Declaration Citizens of Paris feared the king would take action against the Assembly October 1789- thousands of women marched to Versailles with weapons (sticks and pitchforks) King Louis and his family returned to Paris with them
Constitution of 1791 Presented to the people by the National Assembly Maintained the monarch but limited royal powers Unicameral legislature whose members were chosen by voters (males who paid a minimum tax) Delegates were seated according to their political beliefs
Civil Constitution of the Clergy (1791)
Tumultuous times in France Political disagreements resulted in unrest and violence King Louis XVI and family tried to leave France for Austria but were captured The revolution worried other European monarchs (Austria) French revolutionary leaders reacted and declared war on Austria in 1792
Radical Revolution 1792, reaction to military defeat and economic shortages at home The limited monarchy was suspended and a National Convention was called (1792-1795)
“All are burning with a desire to fight! We need boldness…and France will be saved.” -Georges-Jacques Danton
Death of a King In June, 1791, King Louis was captured trying to leave France He was tried and convicted for treason and beheaded on January 21, 1793
“I forgive my enemies; I trust that my death will be for the happiness of my people, but I grieve for France and I fear that she may suffer the anger of the Lord.” -King Louis XVI
Committee of Public Safety - a council of twelve men instilled with the power to enforce the law and act in the interests of their fellow citizens. This entailed preventing foreign invasion.
Jacobins (Girondins and The Mountain)
The Reign of Terror (1793-1794) Maximilien Robespierre Over 35,000 killed in an effort to eliminate the possibility of a counterrevolution The Terror ended with the death of Robespierre
For the test on Friday, be prepared to write a detailed response to each of the directives below. Use correct grammar and write in complete sentences. Each answer should be at least 5-6 complete sentences in length. 1.
Discuss the long-term origins of the French Revolution and the events leading up to the formation of the National Assembly in 1789. Explain what happened to Napoleon’s Grand Army during the winter of 1812.
Causes/origins of the French Revolution?
1. 2. 3.
Unequal taxation Economic depression Financial Mismanagement (Government)
Liberal Revolution (1789-1792)
– – – – –
Meeting of the Estates-General in May, 1789 National Assembly, June 17, 1789 Tennis Court Oath The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of Citizen, August 1789 Constitution of 1791 (called for a limited monarchy)
Radical Revolution (1792-1795)
The Paris Commune The National Convention
This phase of the revolution was controlled by radicals (consequence of military defeat and continuing economic problems) Jacobins (extreme radical group) The National Convention (1792-1795) Est. to write a new constitution Abolished the monarchy and instituted a republic Execution of Louis XVI In January 1793 Committee of Public Safety and M. Robespierre The Reign of Terror 1793-1794 End of the National Convention in Oct. 1795
The formation of the Directory reflected the desire for stability in France The Constitution of 1795 – a new French government headed by five directors selected by a two-house legislative assembly (Council of 500 and Council of Elders) The Directory relied on military success for is public support. The new government was plagued by controversy and corruption Napoleon and the coup d’etat in 1799
Causes/origins of the French Revolution? 1. Unequal taxation 2. Economic depression 3. Financial Mismanagement (Government)
Political Stages of the French Revolution (1789-1799) – Liberal Revolution (1789-1792) National Assembly The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of Citizen, August 1789 Constitution of 1791 (called for a limited monarchy) Legislative Assembly – Radical Revolution (1792-1795) National Convention Constitution of 1792 (abolition of monarchy/republic established) Committee of Public Safety – The Directory (1795-1799) Constitution of 1795 (bicameral legislature and five executives) Controlled the army and maintained social stability
Age of Napoleon Study Questions 1. 2. 3. 4.
7. 8. 9.
Which two groups in French politics were opposed to the Directory? Where was Napoleon Bonaparte born? After the coup d’etat in 1799, what kind of government replaced the Directory in France? In what year did Napoleon crown himself emperor of France? How did Napoleon make peace with the Roman Catholic Church while still maintaining popularity with the French people? What were some of the rights recognized in the Napoleonic Code (Civil Code)? How did the Napoleonic Code treat women? On what was promotion in Napoleon’s military or government based? Who ruled Napoleon’s dependant states?
10. 11. 12. 13. 14.
How did Napoleon intend to cripple Great Britain with his Continental System? Define nationalism. What happened to Napoleon’s Grand Army in Russia in 1812? How did Europe respond to Napoleon’s army when it returned from Russia? When and where was Napoleon Bonaparte finally defeated? What happened to him after this defeat?
The Age of Napoleon 1799-1815
Napoleon Bonaparte (17691821) b. Corsica in 1769 1785-became a lieutenant 1794- CPS promoted him to the rank of brigadier general 1796- given command of the French army in Italy 1799-participated in a coup against the Directory and helped to form a new government (a consulate) in France
Domestic Policies Napoleon restored peace with the Roman Catholic Church Codification of French laws (Napoleonic Code) Administrative reform
Napoleon’s Empire French
Empire Dependant States Allied States
Napoleon’s Fate 1.
The collapse of Napoleon’s empire can be partly accredited to the tenacity of Great Britain. Nationalism not only helped to solidify France but it also helped to solidify and motivate the other European states, particularly those at odds with Napoleon’s Empire.
Napoleon’s Fall The Russian Winter (1812) Paris captured in March, 1814 Napoleon exiled to the island of Elba Monarchy restored in France Napoleon returned to Paris and ruled for 100 days Napoleon defeated at Waterloo in 1815 He was exiled to St. Helena where he died in1821
Be able to write about the causes of the French Revolution and the events leading up to the formation of the National Assembly. Also, prepare an explanation of Napoleon’s ultimate political demise.