The Golden Age of Athens!
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The Golden Age of Athens!
Historians often refer to the Time period between 460 and 429 BCE as the Golden Age! What does this term suggest to you about life in Athens during this time? Scholars use the term, “Golden Age” to refer to a historical period marked by prosperity and by great achievements in the arts
Politics and Govt
5th c. BCE Athens
The Golden Age
The Age of Pericles
How Athens ….
•Citizens still voted •Still gathered at acropolis and agora •Each summer held festival to honor Athena
•Used Navy to become leader in Greek affairs
•gained wealth through trade •Acropolis had new buildings to show increased wealth and power •Built a marble temple to Athena called Parthenonruins still there today •By 460 B.C. Athens is the leading city-state in Greece
Golden Politics Pericles,
Athenian leader 3 GOALS for ATHENS: Strengthen democracy, strengthen the empire & glorify Athens
Golden Politics Democracy:
the number of public officials who received salaries Introduced direct democracy; allowed for increased participation
Golden Politics As
Athens flourished, resentment began to develop on the Peloponnesus Peninsula Resisted Athens & formed their own alliance (The PELOPONNESIAN LEAGUE)
Architecture: The many public buildings and temples were constructed with marble and featured slender, well-proportioned columns. • Many modern public buildings imitate the three great styles of Greek columns: •
Ionic Style Column
Golden Art Art
and Sculpture: Grace, strength, perfection Portrayal IDEAL beauty Focused on harmony, order, balance and proportion
Subjects were gods, goddesses and athletes • They realistically depicted the human body utilizing various materials such as marble, bronze, ivory and gold. •
c. 450 BC
The discabolus portrays strength, motion and ideal serenity, while honoring Olympic athletes.
“The Praxitelian curve ”-
the illusion of life through light, shadow, polished marble and contraposto
Golden Drama Tragedy: SERIOUS
DRAMA; love, hate, war & betrayal The main character is generally a tragic hero with a fatal flaw, usually excessive pride
Golden Drama Comedy: Slapstick
comedy & crude humor Poked fun at politics, ideas and respected leaders
Aeschylus, 525- 456 BC
The Father of Tragedy >Employed a dialog between one actor and the chorus >Introduced the Trilogy
Sophocles, 495-406 BC
Dramatic plays added a 3rd actor, dealt with the conflict between a person’s will and his fate; include Oedipus Rex, Antigone and Electra,
Euripides, 480-406 BC
Examined political and social ideas and vigorously criticized war, prejudice, hypocrisy and greed • “Aeschylus and Sophocles showed how men ought to be, Euripides showed men as they are.” • Ahead of his time, felt unappreciated-left Athens for Macedonia. •
The Greeks and History
Knowledge of the past had consisted of myths and legends. The first true historians attempted to base their writings on facts.
Herodotus (484-425 B.C.E.) • Called the “father of history” • The Inquiries or The Histories • Traveled to learn and write about the Persian Wars • Much information about foreign customs, etc. • Gave the gods a role in historical events
Thucydides (471-400 B.C.E.)
• Called the “first scientific historian” • History of the Peloponnesian Wars • Discussed cause and effect • Gave the people involved the main role in historical events
484 – 424
The “Father of History” • Described the Persian invasions of Greece… • He embellished facts with fable, superstition and hearsay but was the first to try and “recount the past so that future generations can benefit.” •
Leaders in Greek Science
Lived circa 580 B.C.E.-circa 490 B.C.E.
Called the “father of numbers” – mathematician who believed everything could be numbered
Pythagorean Theorem: “The square of the hypotenuse of a right angle is equal to the sum of the squares on the other two sides.”
Hippocrates, 460-377 BC •
“Father of Medicine”attributed disease to natural, not supernatural causes. The “Hippocratic Oath” to uphold medical standards is still taken by medical students upon graduation.
Athenian wealth & power INCREASED, so did hostility among other city-states Led to the Peloponnesian War:
The Peloponnesian War: The Alliance System Fails!
The Peloponnesian War Athens abusing funds from Delian League 27 year war ensues Enthusiasm for the war high on both sides Pericles brings all the people into the city He depends on the navy, high walls and food supplies to string out the war
What caused the Peloponnesian War?
Athens's fear of the Peloponnesian Leagues Army
Sparta’s fear of Athenian trade power
The Aftermath What
happened to Athens after the Peloponnesian War? DECLINE of the Golden Age NO MORE empire, power or wealth