The Golden Age of Athens!

January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Arts & Humanities, Performing Arts, Comedy
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The Golden Age of Athens!

Historians often refer to the  Time period between 460 and 429 BCE as the Golden Age!  What does this term suggest to you about life in Athens during this time?  Scholars use the term, “Golden Age” to refer to a historical period marked by prosperity and by great achievements in the arts 

Politics and Govt

Philosophy

Math &

5th c. BCE Athens

Science

The Golden Age

Poetry

The Age of Pericles

Art, Sculpture

History

Architecture

Drama/Theatre

How Athens ….

•Citizens still voted •Still gathered at acropolis and agora •Each summer held festival to honor Athena

•Used Navy to become leader in Greek affairs

•gained wealth through trade •Acropolis had new buildings to show increased wealth and power •Built a marble temple to Athena called Parthenonruins still there today •By 460 B.C. Athens is the leading city-state in Greece

Golden Politics  Pericles,

great

Athenian leader  3 GOALS for ATHENS:  Strengthen democracy, strengthen the empire & glorify Athens

Golden Politics  Democracy:

 Increased

the number of public officials who received salaries  Introduced direct democracy; allowed for increased participation

Golden Politics  As

Athens flourished, resentment began to develop on the Peloponnesus Peninsula  Resisted Athens & formed their own alliance (The PELOPONNESIAN LEAGUE)

Architecture: The many public buildings and temples were constructed with marble and featured slender, well-proportioned columns. • Many modern public buildings imitate the three great styles of Greek columns: •

Doric Column

Ionic Style Column

Corinthian Column

Golden Art  Art

and Sculpture:  Grace, strength, perfection  Portrayal IDEAL beauty  Focused on harmony, order, balance and proportion

Golden Proportion

Subjects were gods, goddesses and athletes • They realistically depicted the human body utilizing various materials such as marble, bronze, ivory and gold. •

Myron, •

c. 450 BC

The discabolus portrays strength, motion and ideal serenity, while honoring Olympic athletes.

Hermes

Praxiteles-

“The Praxitelian curve ”-

Aphrodite Praxiteles

the illusion of life through light, shadow, polished marble and contraposto

Golden Drama  Tragedy:  SERIOUS

DRAMA; love, hate, war & betrayal  The main character is generally a tragic hero with a fatal flaw, usually excessive pride

Golden Drama  Comedy:  Slapstick

comedy & crude humor  Poked fun at politics, ideas and respected leaders

Aeschylus, 525- 456 BC

The Father of Tragedy >Employed a dialog between one actor and the chorus >Introduced the Trilogy

Sophocles, 495-406 BC



Dramatic plays added a 3rd actor, dealt with the conflict between a person’s will and his fate; include Oedipus Rex, Antigone and Electra,

Euripides, 480-406 BC

Examined political and social ideas and vigorously criticized war, prejudice, hypocrisy and greed • “Aeschylus and Sophocles showed how men ought to be, Euripides showed men as they are.” • Ahead of his time, felt unappreciated-left Athens for Macedonia. •

The Greeks and History

Knowledge of the past had consisted of myths and legends. The first true historians attempted to base their writings on facts.

Herodotus (484-425 B.C.E.) • Called the “father of history” • The Inquiries or The Histories • Traveled to learn and write about the Persian Wars • Much information about foreign customs, etc. • Gave the gods a role in historical events

Thucydides (471-400 B.C.E.)

• Called the “first scientific historian” • History of the Peloponnesian Wars • Discussed cause and effect • Gave the people involved the main role in historical events

Herodotus,

484 – 424

BC

The “Father of History” • Described the Persian invasions of Greece… • He embellished facts with fable, superstition and hearsay but was the first to try and “recount the past so that future generations can benefit.” •

Pythagoras

Hippocrates

Leaders in Greek Science



Lived circa 580 B.C.E.-circa 490 B.C.E.



Called the “father of numbers” – mathematician who believed everything could be numbered



Pythagorean Theorem: “The square of the hypotenuse of a right angle is equal to the sum of the squares on the other two sides.”

Pythagoras

Hippocrates, 460-377 BC •



“Father of Medicine”attributed disease to natural, not supernatural causes. The “Hippocratic Oath” to uphold medical standards is still taken by medical students upon graduation.

Resentment  As

Athenian wealth & power INCREASED, so did hostility among other city-states  Led to the Peloponnesian War:

The Peloponnesian War: The Alliance System Fails!

The Peloponnesian War Athens abusing funds from Delian League  27 year war ensues  Enthusiasm for the war high on both sides  Pericles brings all the people into the city  He depends on the navy, high walls and food supplies to string out the war 

What caused the Peloponnesian War? 

FEAR!!



Athens's fear of the Peloponnesian Leagues Army



Sparta’s fear of Athenian trade power

The Aftermath  What

happened to Athens after the Peloponnesian War?  DECLINE of the Golden Age  NO MORE empire, power or wealth

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