The Hundred Years` War

January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, World History, Middle Ages
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Chapter 12 The Hundred Years’ War & Decline of the Church

 Hundred Years War  England & France forged their identities  Fought intermittently between 1337 & 1453  Began as a feudal war – developed two powerful & territorially integrated states  Challenges to the Catholic Church 

Kings sought greater influence over the clergy

 Theologians rejected many of the church’s positions  Legitimacy of its power  Damaged prestige  The Babylonian Captivity  The Great Schism

 Social Change    

Growing cities Tightening membership in Guilds Stratification of gender roles Peasant and urban revolts Sexual issues became public concern

1337 – 1453 England and France fought over English feudal claims to the French throne 116 years of intermittent war England won every important battle Except the last one

Causes Aquitaine Inherited in the 12thC by England (Capetian dynasty) Capetian dynasty died out in 1328  French nobles did not want England’s king Edward III to exercise his royal claim in France.  French nobles seeking to weaken French monarchy supported Edward

 Econ competition over the rich Flemish wool-producing towns  Flemish aristocracy supported France  Merchant class suported England

The war presented many opportunities for honor, advancement, and wealth for nobles

• Importance • Nationalism grows • Both countries sesationalized the evils of the other • Fostered mutual hatred • Military • Ended medieval tactics and chivalric rules of war • England won most of the battles • Used artillery for the 1st time & the longbow, • Which unhorsed knights in armor, superior to the crossbow

• The cannon meant stone castles were obsolete

• France won the war • Joan of Arc – spurred nationalistic fervor

• Joan of Arc • Peasant girl • 16 years old • Heard voices urging her to help the dauphin (uncrowned king) • Convinced king to allow her to accompany an army to the siege of Orleans. • Her leadership inspired the soldiers • 10 days later England withdrew • 10 days after that Charles was crowned • Joan was captured by Burgundians • Sold her to England • Tried and executed for witchcraft and heresy • Cut her hair • Wore men’s clothes • Claimed to hear directly from God

• Became one of two patron saints of France

• Consequences • Death Toll was huge in contrast to medieval wars • Economies in France where the battles were fought, were devastated. • England’s economy suffered due to the stunning costs of the war • Plunder soldiers brought back added to their coffers • Gov raised taxes on wool – making it harder to sell aboard, thus hurting the econ • Parliament grew - Constitutional Monarchy advanced • Edward III called Parliament into session 37 our of the 50 years of his reign to ask for finances for the war. • Commons separated from the Lords • Commons – knights and wealthy burgers • Right to approve non-feudal levies – financial power • England only had one Parliament – other countries had dominate regional/provincial assemblies

• Seeds of change – Parliament

• Limited monarchy (nearly 800 years) • Origin • The Magna Carta

The barons of England forced King John to sign – 1215 Estab. Limitations on royal power Restricted judicial powers of the king Protected the barons, clergy and burghers (wealthy townsmen) from arbitrary arrest or cruel punishment • Granted trial by jury • Required the “common consent of the realm” for new taxes • • • •

• During the 100 Years’ War • The king needed the common consent to acquire more (and more) funds for the war • Parliament became more powerful

• A feudal origin the Magna Carta guaranteed right to the ruling elites, that were extended over the centuries to all royal subjects

• Catholic Church • Inadequate and conflicted leadership • Putting it under the domination of powerful states • Demand from within to restructure from a papal hierarchy to councils made up from the clergy • The growth of lay piety • Mysticism

• The Babylonian Captivity 1309 – 1376 • The popes resided in Avignon • Under the domination of the French king (not in Rome) • Focused on internal administrative reforms • Return to Rome (after nearly 70 years) • Dispute over who should be pope • Fueled by nationalism • Two popes were elected • Urban VI – Italian • Clement VII – cousin of the king of France • States supported according to their political interests

• The Great Schism • Effort to reform the monarchical organization of the church by sharing power with church councils representative of all Christians • Defensor Pacis of 1324 - Marsiglio of Padua • Intellectual underpinnings of the conciliar movement • Argued that the church must be subordinate to the state • The church had no right to own property • Led to his excommunication • John Wyclif (later his ideas were used by Martin Luther) • The only source of Christian doctrine & practice – the Scriptures • Scriptures should be read in the vernacular by the laity • Common religious practices were illegitimate • • • • •

Veneration of saints and pilgrimages Simony (buying/selling of church offices) Pluralism (holding several offices at the same time) Absenteeism (holding an office, but living in another place) Property ownership

• AP Tip • Pilgrimages and veneration of saints were also an important part of the urban economy • Pilgrimages fostered trade and the founding of towns along their routes

• Lollards

• Wyclif’s supporters • Used his ideas to justify peasant revolts -1381 • Same time as 1st Eng. Translation of the Bible • Women • Lollard’s supported women preachers • Significant impact – 15thC • Bohemia • Czech priest John Hus • Preached in native language – not Latin • Not a radical – but • Argued for Scripture to be accepted • Denounced abuses of the church • Communion for clergy and laity

• Czech nobles used ideas to push independence from Habsburg (Gr overlords) • Council of Constance 1415 – tried and executed for heresy • Hussite Wars – Nobles/people rebelled against Habsburgs • Council called an end to the Great Schism • Martin V – pope • Councils lose power – papacy wins power

AP tip! • Religion & Politics • Wyclif & Hus reveal the degree to which religious reform was tied to politics • Seeds of Change • Martin Luther would use their ideas a century later • Martin Luther was able to bring about reform they could not (Wyclif and Hus opposition too powerful – supports too weak)

• Lay Piety gain prominence • Disorder & disunity • disputes among various orders • particularly Franciscans & Dominicans • Disappointing performance of some priests • Absence of priests • The Black Death took many priests

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