The Industrial Revolution
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The Industrial Revolution Chapter 5 (1750-1914)
The Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution was neither sudden nor swift. Production shifted from hand tools to machines. Power such as steam and electricity replaced human and animal power.
Beginnings of the Industrial Revolution in Britain
The French Revolution disrupted the political and economic life of France.
This was one reason that Britain emerged as the leader of the Industrial Revolution.
The Agricultural Revolution
One key to the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in Britain was a revolution in agriculture that greatly increased the amount and variety of food produced. Since the Middle Ages, farmers had planted the same crop in a given field year after year. Every 3rd year they left the field fallow to prevent the soil from wearing out. In the 1730s, Charles Townshend (1675-1738) discovered that fields did not have to be left to fallow if farmers would rotate the crops they planted in a field.
The Agricultural Revolution
Jethro Tull (1674-1741): developed a seed drill that planted the seeds in straight rows. The seed drill reduced the amount of seed used in planting. It also allowed farmers to weed around the straight rows of growing crops. Seed Drill
The Agricultural Revolution
During the 1700s, iron plows replaced less efficient, wooden plows. Iron Plow
In the 1800s, mechanical reapers and threshers began to replace hand methods of harvesting crops.
Changes in the Textile Industry Mechanical Inventions
John Kay (1704-1780): invented the flying shuttle which replaced the hand-held shuttle used in weaving.
The Flying Shuttle
James Hargreaves (17201778): developed a way to speed up spinning where a person could spin several threads at once.
Monument to John Kay Lancashire, UK
Changes in the Textile Industry
Richard Arkwright: devised a machine that could hold up to 100 spindles. He used water power to turn it thus the machine was called the water frame.
Samuel Crompton: developed the spinning mule – the production of cotton thread was increased.
Edward Cartwright: built a loom where the weaving was powered by water. A worker could produce 200 times more cloth in a day than before.
Changes in the Textile Industry Eli Whitney (1765-1825) gave the British cotton industry a further boost. Before cotton fibres could be spun into cloth, workers had to remove sticky seeds, an extremely slow process. Whitney invented the cotton gin – a machine that tore the fibres from the seeds thus speeding up the process of cleaning cotton fibres. This increased raw cotton production and made it cheaper. By the 1830s, Britain was importing 280 million pounds of raw cotton/year and had become the cotton manufacturing center of Cotton Gin the world.
The Factory System
The factory system brought workers and machines together in one place to manufacture goods. Everyone worked a set number of hours each day and workers were paid daily or weekly wages.
Development of the Steam Engine
In 1698, Thomas Savery constructed a steam driven pump to remove water from flooded coal mines.
In the early 1700s, Thomas Newcomen developed a safer steam-powered pump but it broke down frequently and required a lot of coal to fuel it.
James Watt improved Newcomen’s engine. His version got four times more power from the same amount of coal.
Thomas Newcomen’s Steam Engine
Development of the Iron & Coal Industries
Producing and operating the new machines, including the steam engine, required large quantities of iron and coal. Fortunately Britain had extensive deposits of both. During the Industrial Revolution, the iron and coal industries benefited from improved production techniques.
Development of the Iron & Coal Industries
Abraham Darby: developed a way to use coke (coal with the gases burned off) in place of charcoal. Henry Cort: developed a puddling process in which molten iron was stirred with a long rod to allow impurities to burn off. Iron produced in this manner was stronger than iron produced in other ways and less likely to crack under pressure. Cort also developed a technique to run molten iron through rollers to produce sheets of iron.
In the 1850s, Henry Bessemer (1813-1898) developed a procedure that blasts cold air through heated iron to remove impurities. The result was stronger, more workable steel.
Advances in Transportation and Communication
In the 1700s, the need for rapid, inexpensive transportation led to a boom in canal building in Britain. In 1759, the Duke of Bridgewater (1736-1803) built a canal to connect his coal mines and his factories.
John McAdam (1756-1836)
The Scottish engineer invented a road surface made of crushed stone. This surface made roads usable in all weather.
The need for good transportation led to the development of the railroad industry. For years, mine carts had been pulled along iron rails by workers or donkeys. In 1829, George Stephenson (1781-1848), a mining engineer, developed the Rocket, the first steam-powered locomotive.
George Stephenson’s “Rocket”
The Rocket could barrel along iron rails at 36 miles (58 km) per hour, an astounding speed at the time.
Between 1840 and 1850, the British built over 5,000 miles (8,000km) of railway tracks. As steel rails replaced iron rails, trains reached speeds of 60 miles (96km) an hour. An American engineer, Robert Fulton (1765-1815),
developed a way to use steam power for ships. In 1807, Fulton successfully tested the Clermont, a paddle-wheeled steamship, on the Hudson River.
In 1837, Samuel F.B. Morse (1791-1872), an American, devised the telegraph, which sent messages by electrical impulses.
Why Britain Led the Industrial Revolution
The Agricultural Revolution came increased food production, freeing many labourers to work in industry. Britain had plentiful iron and coal resources, and it developed an excellent transportation system to speed the flow of goods. British merchants had made huge profits from the international trade in tobacco, sugar, tea, and slaves. British entrepreneurs had the financial resources to invest in industries such as textiles, mines, railroads, and shipbuilding. Britain also had a large colonial empire that supplied raw materials to its factories. The British government lifted restrictions on trade, giving manufacturers and merchants opportunities to make large profits. It encouraged road and canal building schemes and maintained a strong navy to protect British merchant ships all over the world.
Patterns of Civilization
P. 416 – #3,4 & 6
The Spread of Industrialization
In the early 1800s, Joseph Marie Jacquard (1752-1834) developed the first power loom that could be used to weave complex patterns. The Jacquard loom had a punched card system that controlled the intricate patterns. Textiles produced on Jacquard looms commanded high prices among the fashion-conscious upper classes in Europe.
Advances in Science and Technology
In 1800, Alessandro Volta (1745-1827), an Italian physicist, used his knowledge of electricity to build one of the first electric batteries.
The work of Michael Faraday (1791-1867), an English scientist, led to the construction of the first electric generators, which eventually replaced steam engines in many factories.
In 1866, the first underwater telegraph cable across the Atlantic Ocean was successfully installed. In 1877, Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922) invented the telephone.
By the end of the century, Italian physicist Guglielmo Marconi (1874-1937) had developed a way to send electric signals without wire or cable. His invention was called the wireless in England and the radio in America.
Thomas Alva Edison (1847-1931) produced a stunning array of inventions in his New Jersey workshop. Among Edison’s inventions were the phonograph and the incandescent light bulb. He also designed an electric generating plant that provided power to light the streets of New York City.
A Revolution in Transportation
Perhaps the most significant advance was the development of the internal combustion engine. The internal combustion engine had a number of advantages over the steam engine. For example, it could be started and stopped more easily.
In 1886, the German scientist Gottlieb Daimler (1834-1900) devised an internal combustion engine that was fueled by gasoline and could power a small vehicle. Daimler used his engine to build one of the first automobiles.
The first motorcycle was invented by Daimler. Daimler and the first small vehicle.
A few years later, another German engineer, Rudolf Diesel (1858-1913), developed an internal combustion engine that could power larger vehicles such as trucks, ships, and locomotives. This diesel engine, as it became known, used petroleum oil for fuel.
Patterns of Civilization P. 421 # 2 & 4
Effects of Industrialization
The beginning of the Industrial Revolution was marked by a population explosion that was to have far-reaching effects. The population in Europe grew from 140 million people to 463 million. The Agricultural Revolution improved the diets of many people, so the people were healthier. Medical discoveries and public sanitation reduced the numbers of deaths caused by disease. Furthermore, in the 1800s, European nations fought no major wars.
Problems of Growing Cities
Until the 1800s, cities, which were often located along land or water trade routes, served mainly as marketplaces. But the Industrial Revolution changed the nature of cities. Cities seemed to spring up almost overnight as people flocked to mill and factory sites. When people poured into these fast-growing cities in search of jobs, living conditions grew worse.
Manchester was the center of the British cotton industry, and its population had grown to 455,000. The rapid growth of Manchester brought severe problems. Thousands of factory workers crowded into poorly built houses. The city had an inadequate water system and almost no sanitation system. Overcrowded city slums became the breeding grounds for disease. In many cities, pigs roaming the streets were the only “garbage collectors.” Manchester was not even chartered as a city so it could not tax citizens to raise money for improving living conditions.
Working in a Factory
Most of the new city residents found themselves working in factories, where working conditions were as miserable as living conditions outside the factory. The supply of unskilled workers was large, so wages were very low. Work days lasted from 12 to 16 hours, or from sunrise to sunset. Men, women, and children worked six days a week. There were no paid holidays, vacations, or sick leaves. Factories were often unhealthy, dangerous places to work. Fumes from machines combined with poor ventilation made the air foul. The loud, monotonous noise of machines assaulted the ear. Lighting was poor, and machines were not equipped with safety devices, so accidents occurred frequently. A worker injured on the job received no compensation.
Changing Roles for Women
Traditionally, most women had either helped farm the land or worked in the home earning money through the domestic system. Some women also worked as servants in the homes of the wealthy. To help support their families in the industrial economy, many women went to work in the factories or the mines. Working in a factory added greatly to a woman’s responsibilities. She worked outside her home for 12 to 16 hours a day. Yet, she still had to cook, clean, and sew for her family. As the standard of living improved many working class families could start to live on the income of only one person. As a result, a new pattern of family life emerged. Husbands tended to be the sole wage earners, and women remained at home.
Patterns of Civilization P. 425 - #1 - 3
Demands for Change in Britain
Because the Industrial Revolution began in Britain, workers there were the first to feel its effects. They suffered from low wages, dangerous working conditions, and frequent unemployment. Initially, the British Parliament had little sympathy for the workers.
Eventually, in 1831, Parliament began a series of investigations of factory and mine conditions.
What was…? Mines Act Ten Hours Act P.426
The 1842 Mines Act
No female was to be employed underground. No boy under 10 years old was to be employed underground.
Ten Hours Act
Also known as the 1847 Factory Act was a piece of British legislation which limited
all women and adolescents between 13 and 18 years of age to working 10 hours in the textile mills.
Rise of Labour Unions
Early in the Industrial Revolution, factory workers began forming associations to gain better wages, hours, and working conditions. These early worker associations later developed into labour unions. Labour unions developed first in Britain, and from the start they were met with strong opposition. The government saw labour unions as dangerous organizations. Moreover, employers argued that the shorter hours and higher wages demanded by unions would add to the cost of goods, reduce profits, and hurt business. Parliament passed the Combination Acts in 1799 and 1800 to outlaw labour unions.
Slowly, local trade unions formed larger associations to support both political and economic goals. By 1868, over 100,000 workers belonged to trade unions. In the 1870s, British unions won the right to strike and picket peacefully. The success of the trade unions encouraged unskilled workers to form their own unions in the 1880s. By 1889, London dock workers were organized well enough to mount a strike in support of their demands for higher wages. The London dock strike effectively shut down one of the world’s busiest ports. From this point on, the strike was a common tool of labour unions.
Gains for Workers
Gradually, employers came to believe that workers would be more productive in a safe, healthy environment. They installed proper ventilation in factories, equipped machines with safety devices, and switched to new electric lighting.
Improving City Life
In Britain and France, city governments began programs to provide adequate water and sewage systems. Between 1850 and 1870, the city of Paris was almost completely rebuilt. Narrow, crooked streets were replaced by straight, wide boulevards. New and better houses were constructed, and large parks were opened for people to spend their leisure time. In London, a reform-minded member of Parliament, Sir Robert Peel (1788-1850), helped establish the first police in that city. Londoners referred to members of the new police force as Bobbies or Peelers.
Cities became safer with the installation of gas, and later electric, lights that lit the streets at night. In the 1890s, many Europeans cities adopted an American invention, the electric streetcar. Electric streetcars were much cheaper and cleaner than horsedrawn streetcars. Cities such as London, Boston, New York, Paris, and Berlin also built subway systems.
Section Review Patterns of Civilization P. 428 - # 2-5 P. 429 – Character Matching