The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain
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The Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain
Test Questions • 1. Define capital, entrepreneur, cottage industry, puddling, industrial capitalism, and socialism. • 2. What was the most important inventions of the Industrial Revolution and who invented them. • 3. How did the Industrial Revolution change the way families lived and worked. • 4. List the causes and effects of the Industrial Revolution.
The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain • The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain and slowly spread to other Western Nations. • The causes were… • 1. Improved farming methods leading to increased food supply. • 2. More disposable income for families to buy manufactured goods. • 3.An increase in capital (money to invest) • 4. Great Britain’s abundant natural resources and supply of markets (colonial empire)
The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain • • • • • •
Wealthy entrepreneurs were looking for ways to invest and make profits. In the 1800’s, Great Britain surged ahead in the production of cotton goods. This two-step process of spinning and weaving done by individuals at home was called the cottage industry method of production. A series of inventions – the flying shuttle, the spinning jenny, and the water powered loom invented by Cartwright in 1787 – made production faster. Slowly work was performed at the factory rather than at home. Cottage industry was being replaced by factory industry.
The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain • • • • • • • •
The invention of the steam engine by Watt in 1782 created a new power source for factories. The steam engine used coal. Cotton mills moved from water power sources. By 1840, cotton cloth was Britain’s most valuable product. Sold all over the world. The coal industry expanded. Coal transformed the iron industry producing a better quality of metal. Iron production soared due to a new smelting process called puddling invented by Cort. Iron production went from 17,000 tons in 1740 to 3,000,000 by 1852.
The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain • • • •
A more efficient method to move resources and goods was invented called the railroad. The first public railroad (called the Rocket) was open in 1832 and traveled 32 miles at 16 miles per hour. 20 years later, trains were going 50 MPH and Great Britain had 1600 miles of track. Trains lowered the transportation cost for goods and people, and created larger markets.
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The regular, ongoing cycle of economic growth became the basic feature of the Industrial Revolution. The factory became another basic feature, creating a new kind of labor force. 24 hour shift work was created to keep the machines running for higher profits. Workers were quickly becoming machines themselves due to the repetitive work environment.
The Spread of Industrialization The Spread of Industrialization • • • • • • • • •
Britain became the world’s greatest industrial nation. It produced ½ the world’s cotton goods. Beyond Great Britain, industrialization spread to Belgium, France and Germany. Governments began to build infrastructures to aid industrialization. (canals and railroads) The Industrial Revolution began to influence the United States. In 1800, 6 out of 7 workers were farmers. By 1860, only 1 out of 2 were farmers. Large cities were built around factories. In 1807, Fulton in the U.S. built the first steam powered boat and by 1860, every river, lake and ocean had steamboats.
The Spread of Industrialization • • • • • •
The railroad became the most important transportation development of the Industrial Revolution. In 1800, the U.S. had 100 miles of track. By 1860, we had 30,000 miles of track. The railroad turned the United States into one massive market. Labor for the growing factories came from the farm population. Most were women (80%), including whole families working in a single factory.
Social Impact in Europe Social Impact in Europe • • • • • • • • • •
The Industrial Revolution created two new social classes. 1. The Industrial middle class 2. The Industrial working class Europe’s population nearly doubled between 1750 and 1850. The main reason was the decline in disease. The increase in food supply caused a healthier disease resistant population. People moved into the cities to find work in the factories increasing the population of cities. 9 British cities had populations over 100,000. Increased populations of the cities caused worse living conditions. Urban social reforms called for better conditions for the workers in the cities.
Social Impact in Europe • Commercial capitalism system based upon industrial capitalism ( an economic system based upon industrial production). • Factory owners became the new social class called the growing middle class. • Their characteristics were initiative, vision, ambition, and money making. • The working social class faced horrible working conditions – 12 to 16 hour work days, six days a week. • There was no minimum wage and no job security.
Social Impact in Europe • • • • • • •
In Britain, 2/3 of the working force was women and children in the cotton factories. The Factory Act of 1833 set age 9 as the minimum age to work. Children ages 9-13 could only work 8 hours a day. Ages 13-18 could work only 12 hours a day. Women were paid ½ wages of men. In 1844, married women were forbidden to work excessive hours thereby creating the modern nuclear family. Husbands worked at the factories, while women were expected to take care of the family home and children.
Social Impact in Europe • These poor social conditions led to a new movement called socialism. • Under socialism, society (usually government) owns and controls the means of production, owns the natural resources, factories and etc. • Early socialism wanted to replace competition with cooperation, and believed in the equality of all people. • Their critics called them utopian socialists. • Karl Marx thought the utopian socialists were impractical and what was needed was a total transformation of society by force.