The Italian Renaissance

January 8, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, World History, Middle Ages
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The Italian Renaissance

Presented By: Kristyn Nicole Abhold Taylor Rose Warner Chris Kenichi Winden

The Italian Renaissance 

Like a newly lit candle, the Italian Renaissance was able to lead Europe out of the Dark Ages and into an era where scholarship, art, literature, politics, and society flourished. It was a time when the past was rediscovered and old ideas were improved. Society, politics, and philosophical ideas were constantly evolving. The rich and powerful fought over art instead of land. It was also an era where the concept of separation of church and government gained momentum and the scale of power began to shift from the church to the rich.

Politics in Italy 

Renaissance Italy had no single ruler but the country consisted of about twenty small city states with different forms of government

As Italian cities grew and prospered many of them chose to become self-governing states- other communities formed republics which were dominated by the leading merchants in that region.

These communities quickly became industrial powerhouses which ultimately led to rivalries between communities. Many political brawls occurred in Italy, most were regarding trade routes and resources.

Politics in Italy Continued 

In the mid 1400’s the house of Medici led to the end of republicanism and other forms of government and implemented princely rule as the new popular form of government.

The Medici family dominated many Italian city states throughout the renaissance from about 1434-1737. The Medici’s were the richest family in Italy and quite possibly all of Europe at the time. They headed Europe’s largest bank and were thoroughly involved in politics. In one way or another, the Medici family had their hands in all of the city-states in Italy.

The Medici family gained a lot of power from their own rule by way of fear. Rule in renaissance Italy was chaotic and unpredictable

Commerce in Italy 

Commerce was a positive aspect to the ever changing political climate in Italy

Trade and business experienced a dramatic uproar during the Italian renaissance. Feudalism was nearly extinct and the population began to increase, banks flourished, and new technology in manufacturing led the people into an economic revolution

In the 1300s and 1400s Italy dominated all trade

Italy had a very diverse economy where many different goods were produced. Each region had its own specialty good

Overseas exploration helped develop many different trade routes that made trade more universal and convenient. It also brought many different goods to Italy.

Religion 

The religious climate of the Italian Renaissance was in a state of decay

The power of the Pope and the Catholic Church was being abused and had become more political than religious. The Popes were more concerned about strengthening their borders from constant invasions by the French than saving souls.

During this corrupt and morally bankrupt period, the Italian people became disenfranchised with the Church and strict devotion began to wane. Different cults and beliefs emerged in its place.

Humanism 

One of the most influential movements of the Italian Renaissance was the Humanist movement. The Humanists, were a reflection of the radical times, they gravitated more toward the intellectual or philosophical rather than religious side of life and spoke openly against the Church.

They were branded atheists. however, They did believe that there was a god. However, they preached of tolerance of different religious viewpoints and believed that there were no absolute truths such as those taught by the Church. Instead they believed in individualism and that a person should find solace within himself.

Though the Humanist movement did not directly attack or contradict the Catholic Church, it did provide a startling different viewpoint.

The main goal of the Humanists was not Religious change; but instead the study of art and its ancient texts.

Literature 

There were a great number of themes in 13th-century literature: Humanism was emerging as a new outlook and this undoubtedly fueled the fire for many Italian writers.

Many humanistic writers used the classic works of Plato and Aristotle as the focus of their inspiration

All of the prevalent themes were a realization of the beauty of the world and an optimistic faith in Man and Nature.

Dante Alighieri, Petrarch and Boccaccio were some of the more widely known writers of the time. all with very humanistic styles

Renaissance Art 

"The artistic talents of the High Renaissance sought to create coherent works of pictorial illustration, which would enhance the vivid qualities and aura of a work of art. The essential characteristic of High Renaissance art was unity. It was an equilibrium attained through intuition. Unity in a piece of art could not be obtained through rational understanding or technical skill"

Art 

The vast increase of wealth of the small city-states of Italy, as a result of trade and banking, was directly responsible for the blossoming the arts during the Italian Renaissance

Florence was the center of Renaissance society. It was a place where people of importance supported the arts

The most prominent of these contributors was Cosimo de' Medici (1389-1464), who discreetly gained control of the city and imposed his power and authority from behind the scenes

He generously spent his fortune on scholars, painters, poets, and sculptors.

Art 

Italian Renaissance artists studied the natural world through direct observation

As a result, artists concentrated on secular themes of subjects stemming from Roman and Greek history and mythology

The first generation of artists during the early Renaissance, including Donatello and Masaccio (painting), shared many significant characteristics.  

They were passionate about art and believed that there was potential for incredible growth The artists of the Renaissance preferred to generate art forms that correctly emulated the natural world and sought to convey human personality and behavior into their works.

These art forms were often large sculptural forms or illustrative works that were studies in the effects of color and light, the balance of measurable space, and accurate representations

Art: High Renaissance 

Around the mid 15th century, Florence had produced a new generation of artists that included such masters as Sandro Botticelli and Pollaiuolo. Soon, other Italian city-states, Venice, Urbino, Naples, Padua, Milan, and Ferrara, started to search for new artists to bring fame and fortune to their doorstep. This caused competition and rivalries to spring up between artists and even among the city-states.

Towards the end of the 15th century, the initial significant advances of artistic Renaissance style established the principles of linear perspective, proportion, and contraposto (twisted pose). However, many artists were anxious to escape this style and technique and started to strive for personal expression.

Art: High Renaissance 

The essential characteristic of High Renaissance art was unity. Technique alone could not produce a masterpiece.

The artistic talents of the High Renaissance sought to create coherent works of pictorial illustration, which would enhance the vivid qualities and aura of a work of art.

The technique of the High Renaissance only flourished for a brief period (c. 1495-1520) and was dominated by some of the most gifted artists of all time, among them   

Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), Michelangelo Bounarroti (1475-1564), Raphael Sanzio (1483-1520).

All three artists also studied the anatomy of the human body, through the dissection of human cadavers, an illegal practice at the time.


Leonardo Da Vinci

Michelangelo Bounarroti

Raphael Sanzio

Art: Late Renaissance 

A major turning point in the advancement of Renaissance art was the invasion of Rome in 1527, which momentarily ended Florence’s role as a source of support and compelled artists to travel to other centers in Italy, Spain, and France.

Anticlassical tendencies became apparent in Italian art. Mannerism was a major artistic movement during this time that emphasized grace and elegance.

Although the Late Renaissance lasted twice as long as the High Renaissance, it too had to come to an end, but it will always be thought of as one of the greatest periods of artistic innovation.

Architecture 

The architecture during the Renaissance, like everything else during that time period, was a return and rediscovery of the classical period of the Romans and Greeks

Before the Renaissance the prevalent architectural style had been the Gothic style of the medieval times, when renaissance architects came around, the style changed dramatically

Perhaps one of the greatest influences of Renaissance architecture was the classical architect Vitruvius and his treatise De architectura. (Renaissance Architecture)

Vitruvius developed the foundation and instructions on how to create a building in the classical form. All structures and columns were based upon three basic orders: Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian

Architecture 

The Doric order consisted of the sturdier more masculine designs, and in a multi-storied building it would be considered to be the base or first story as it was strong enough to support additional stories

The Ionic order was also sturdy but consisted of thinner pillars and contained as Vitruvius claimed an overall “more graceful” touch

The Corinthian order consisted of more decorative columns and motifs and was almost always the highest story of a multi-story building. The Corinthian order was like the penthouse of our modern times.

Yet the two most important of Vitruvius’s principles were his emphasis on symmetria, or symmetry, where all the pieces of a structure were geometrically balanced and his desire that all the parts of a structure are harmonious or have general flow with one another, which was known as disposito.

Renaissance Architecture

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