The Media

January 6, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Arts & Humanities, Writing, Journalism
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The Media

The Media’s Functions   

Entertainment Reporting the news Identifying public problems  Setting the public agenda  The

  

investigative function Socializing new generations Providing a political forum Making profits

Characteristics of American Media Using the most advanced technology   

Internet Satellite transmission of real-time events Helicopters used to track unraveling events

Operating in a free environment 

1st Amendment 

Yet, time of “Red Scare” & McCarthyism

Privately owned 

 

Politically independent Operationally vigorous Ownership centralized in a few giant corporations

Characteristics of American Media Privately owned  

Ownership centralized in a few giant corporations Reporters highly vigorous, motivated, and responsive to signs of news worthy stories  Watergate scandal, e.g.

Types of Media Broadcasting media  Radio  Television

Print media 

 

Newspaper Magazines Others

Internet   

Online version of press Information source Venue of personal expression

Differences of Media Broadcast Media     

Essentially a headline service fewer topics little depth of coverage more audience/viewers Source of info for 80% of American adults

Print Media  

 

Not a source for the majority Audience are nation’s elites Leading papers set the reporting agenda In-depth coverage and better analysis

The Primacy of Television Currently the most influential type of media is television. Major

TV networks  NBC  CBS  ABC TV news network  CNN  Fox Public TV channels  PBS  C-SPAN

The Primacy of Television (cont.) 

Television’s Influence on the Political Process.  Viewers

can actually see news and history as it is happening 

Civil Rights Movement (50s and 60s) 





http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gZLvSnr6s50

Political assassinations 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lmc2EzkRDkI



http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D4KROpdUkrM&mode=related&search=

Tragedies  

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j4JOjcDFtBE http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZoPS5sM0qwE&mode=related&search=

The Primacy of Television (cont.) 

Television’s Influence on the Political Process.  Viewers can actually see news and history as it is happening 



Other protest movements  Vietnam War Protest  War in Iraq

Viewers can see how government conducts business   

C-Span & Congress in law making Live broadcast of Congressional hearings Live broadcast of president’s press conference

The Media and Political Campaigns 

Voters now receive most information from the electronic media, especially television. There are three types of television coverage employed by a campaign:  Advertising  Management of News Coverage  





Planning political events to accommodate the press Developing a good working relationship with reporters. Convincing the media to put the right “spin” or interpretation on a story.

Political Debates

The Media and Political Campaigns (cont.) Political

Campaigns and the Internet Politicians use WWW to reach out  http://clinton.senate.gov/  http://www.hillaryclinton.com/splash/

Opponents/supporters use WWW  http://www.stophernow.com/site/PageServer  http://www.hillaryclinton.com/

Ownership of US Media Concentration of Ownership of US Media  Political power is not distributed evenly;  Large concentrations of economic resources are present in society;  American media is a good example of concentration of ownership among a limited number of individuals & corporations. More

than ¾ of the daily newspaper are owned by large media conglomerates Major TV networks such as ABC, NBC and CNN serving most households Major TV networks supply about 65% of the programming to local affiliates.

Ownership of US Media Consequences of Media Ownership Concentration  “monopoly power” in the media  Public inability to access diverse views  Lack of competitiveness and more distortions in information  Manipulation of public due to concentration of ownership

Media Coverage Factors impacting media coverage in the US  The journalists/producers Via selection bias  In favor of news that have a great audience appeal for its dramatic 0r entertainment value   



Crimes Disasters Scandals

Freedom or discretion to interpret stories Personal views & preferences are reflected in analysis and description of events

 Sources of News

News coverage is also influenced by the individuals or events that are subjects of the news.

Media Coverage Factors impacting media coverage in the US  Sources of News News coverage is also influenced by the individuals or events that are subjects of the news. 

  



News leaks e.g., both Clinton & Ken Star reportedly leaked info to the media to sway news reports Issues press release Appear in media interviews; Appear in popular TV programs (SNL, Late Night Show) Use of extraordinary acts to attract media attention street demonstration protests (good for financially strapped orgs)

Media Coverage Factors impacting media coverage in the US  The audience of news

Media are business orgs; preferences of customers determine media coverage  views & positions of the “upscale” segments of audience receive much attention Topics the middle class is interested receive a lot of attention in media coverage. Issues such as:  Stock markets  Scientific breakthroughs  International politics In contrast, issues concerning the lower-middle and working class receive scant attention

Media Power Sources of Media Power 1. Agenda Setting Media help set agenda for political discussion 2. Framing The power to decide how political events and results and interpreted by the American people 3.

Media coverage of election and government Shape popular perceptions of politicians and political leaders

Events Media Have Had Great Impact on    

Civil Rights Movement Vietnam War protest movement Watergate scandal Terrorist attack on the US

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