THE NOUN PHRASE IN KOENOEM

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ASPECTS OF KOENOEM VERB PHRASE

OPAREMI, SAIDAT OLABISI MATRIC NO. 07/15CB085

A LONG ESSAY SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF LINGUISTICS AND NIGERIAN LANGUAGES, FACULTY OF ARTS, UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN, KWARA STATE, NIGERIA IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF ARTS, B.A. (HONS) LINGUISTICS

MAY, 2011.

i

CERTIFICATION This essay has been read and approved as meeting the requirement of the Department of Linguistics and Nigerian languages, University of Ilorin, Ilorin.

………………………………. MR. S.O.O. ABUBAKRE Supervisor

……………………………… Date

………………………………………………… PROFESSOR A.S. ABDULSSALAM Head of Department

……………………………… Date

…………………………………. External Examiner

……………………………… Date

ii

DEDICATION This research work is dedicated to Almighty Allah who shower his blessing over me, and my parents, Mr. and Mrs. Oparemi for their moral and financial support in an effort to make my educational career to be a successful one, may God continue to protect you all the ways (Amen).

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT To God be the glory for the great things he has done on this note, I send my profound gratitude to Almighty Allah, the maker of the universe, the one that makes ways where there seems to be none, God that render help when all hopes. Seems to be no more. He is the beginning and the end. I thank you for your love, care, affection and encouragement during these hard and good times of my life, I shall be grateful to you. The joy of every student is having a good and sincere supervisor, therefore my thanks goes to my supervisor Mrs. S.O.O. Abubakre for her total support and true concern about my project work. I seek for God protection for her and her family. My profound gratitude also goes to my H.O.D. professor Abdulssalam and other lectures in Linguistics Department for their effort in seeing me through my course in the university. iv

My thanks goes to every one in one way or the others that help me in my life of education like, my lovely parents Alhaji and Alhaja Oparemi.

My brothers and sisters and Alhaji Mr. Yusuf

(Aku). I am indeed not forget my lovely Oparemi Rauf and my lovely sister Oparemi Aishat Olanike for their unrelenting effort in seeing me through my course successfully, you are one in a million,may God be with you (Amen). I am mostly indebted to all my friends and course mates like Jimoh, Abiola, Bolaji, Basitat, Adefila Rasheedat, Abioye Alimat, Kayode Moji, Julius Victor, Orelope Hassan, Jemil Adisa, Odebode Akeem, Mummy Pelumi, Yusuf Toyin, honest and others, may God continue to guide them all the ways (Amen).

v

LIST OF SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS e

-

empty category

i

-

co-referentiality

t

-

trace

-

rewrite rule

θ

-

theta

Ap

-

Adjectival phrase



-

Intermediate level

A

-

Adjective

Adv -

Adverb

Deg -

Degree

Agr

-

Agreement

Cp

-

complementizer phrase

C

-

complementizer

Det

-

Determiner

PP

-

prepositional phrase vi

P

-

preposition

Np

-

Noun phrase

N

-

Noun

Vp

-

Verb phrase

V

-

verb

Spec -

Specifier

T

-

Tense

Ip

-

Inflectional phrse

I

-

Inflection

Fp

-

Focus phrase

F

-

Focus

Qm

-

Question marker

Rel

-

Relative pronoun

/ /

-

Phonemic symbol

[ ] -

Phonetic bracket

[ ̀ ] -

High tone vii

[ ́ ] -

Low tone

˜

Nasality

-

[ ] -

Square bracket or labeled bracket

TABLE OF CONTENT Title Page

i

Certification

ii

Dedication

iii

Acknowledgement

iv

List of Symbols and Abbreviation

v

viii

Table of Content

vi

CHAPTER ONE: THE KOENOEN LANGUAGE & ITS SPEAKERS 1.0

General Introduction

1

1.1

Historical background of the Koenoem Speakers

2

1.2

Socio-Cultural Profile

4

1.2.1

Religion

4

1.2.2

Festivals

5

1.2.3

Economy/Occupation

6

1.2.4

Marriage Divorce/Rites 7

1.2.5

Administrative System 8

1.2.6

Geographical Location 10

1.2.7

Topography 10 ix

1.2.8

Educational Background 11

1.3

Introduction to Genetic Classification of Koenoem Language 12

1.4

Scope and organization of the Study 15

1.5

Theoretical Framework 16

1.6

Data Collection and Analysis 18

1.7

Data Analysis 20

1.8

Brief Review of the chosen Framework 21

1.8.1

X-Bar Theory 24 x

1.8.2

Projection Principle 27

1.8.3

The Principle and Head Parameter 28

1.8.4

Theta Theory

31

1.8.5

Case Theory

34

1.8.6

Binding Theory

36

1.8.7

The Anaphors

37

1.8.8

Prenominals

37

1.8.9

Referential Expression

38

1.8.10

Bounding Theory

39

1.8.11

Control Theory

41

1.8.12

Government Theory

42

CHAPTER TWO:THE PHONO-SYNTAX OF KOENOEM Introduction 2.1

46

Sound Inventory

47 xi

2.1.1 Consonants of Koenoem Language

48

2.1.2

Distribution of Koenoem Consonant Sounds

50

2.1.3

Vowels of Koenoem Language

63

2.1.4

Distribution of Koenoem Language

65

2.2

Tone System in Koenoem Language

72

2.3

The Syllable Structure in Koenoem Language

75

2.4

Lexical Categories in Koenoem Language

80

2.4.1

Noun

82

2.4.1.1 Common Nouns

83

2.4.1.2 Concrete Nouns

84

2.4.1.3 Abstract Nouns

85

2.4.1.4 Proper Nouns

85

2.4.1.5 Countable Nouns

86

2.4.1.6 Uncountable Nouns

87

2.4.1.7 Place Nouns

88 xii

2.4.1.8 Collective Nouns

88

2.4.1.9 Compound Nouns

88

2.4.1.10 Animate Nouns

89

2.4.1.11 Noun Animate Nouns

90

2.4.2

Pronoun

90

2.4.2.1 Personal Pronoun

91

2.4.2.2 Reflective Pronoun

92

2.4.2.3 Interrogative Pronoun

93

2.4.2.4 Indefinite Pronoun

94

2.4.2.5 Demonstrative Pronoun

95

2.4.2.6 Possessive Pronoun

95

2.4.3

Verbs

96

2.4.3.1 Classes of Verb

98

2.4.3.2 Transitive Verb in Koenoem

98

2.4.3.3 Intransitive Verb in Koenoem

100

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2.4.3.4 Verb with Sentencial Complement 103 2.4.3.5 Verb with Sentencial Complement in Koenoem 104 2.4.3.6 Auxiliary Verb in Koenoem Language 106 2.4.3.7 Modal Auxilliaries 107 2.4.3.8 Primary Auxilliaries 107 2.4.4

Tense 109

2.4.4.1 Tense in Koenoem Language 110 2.4.4.2 Present Tense 110 xiv

2.4.4.3 Past Tense 111 2.4.4.4 Continuous Tense 111 2.4.5

Aspect in Koenoem Language 111

2.4.6

Adverb 112

2.4.6.1 Adverb of Time 113 2.4.6.2 Adverb of Frequency 113 2.4.6.3 Adverb of Degree 113 2.4.6.4 Adverb of Reason 114 xv

2.4.7

Adjective 114

2.4.7.1 Adjective of Colour in Koenoem Language 115 2.4.7.2 Comparison of Adjectives in Koenoem Language 116 2.4.8

Preposition 116

2.4.9

Conjunction 118

2.4.10

Interjection 118

2.5

Basic Word Order in Koenoem Sentences 119

2.5.1

Types of Sentences in Koenoem Language 121 xvi

2.5.1.1 Simple Sentence 122 2.5.1.2 Compound Sentence 123 2.5.1.3 Complex Sentence 124 2.5.1.4 Functional Classification of Sentences in Koenoem Language

124

CHAPTER THREE: VERB PHRASE IN KOENOEM 2.0

Introduction 127

3.1

Verb Phrase and Head Parameter 127

3.2

Structure of Verb Phrase 132

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3.3

The Structure of the Koeneom Verb Phrase 133

3.3.1

Verb Phrase with Noun Phrase as Satellites 133

3.3.2

Verb Phrase with Prepositional Phrase as Satellites 135

3.3.3

Verb Phrase with Noun Phrase and Prepositional Phrase as Satellites 137

3.3.4

Verb Phrase with Adverbial Phrase as Satellites 139

3.4

The verb Phrases and X-bar Theory 141

3.5

Verb Serialization 144

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3.6

Serial Verb in Koenoem Language 145

3.7

Phrase Structure Rules in Koenoem Language 147

3.7.1

Phrase-Types in Koenoem Language 152

3.7.1.1 Noun Phrases 154 3.7.1.2 Verb Phrase 158 3.7.1.3 Prepositional Phrase 163 3.7.1.4 Adjective Phrase 166

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CHAPTER FOUR 3.0

Transformational Process 169

4.1

Movement 170

4.2

Deletion 173

4.3

Focus Construction in Koenoem Language 174

4.4

Relativization 184

4.5

Reflexivization 190

4.6

Passivization 194

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4.7

Question Formation 199

4.7.1

Wit Question

199

4.7.2

Yes/No Question

203

4.8

Adjunction

206

4.9

Substitution

207

CHAPTER FIVE 5.0

Introduction

208

5.1

Summary

210

5.2

Observation/conclusion

211

5.3

Recommendation

213

References

214 CHAPTER ONE

THE KOENOEM LANGUAGE & ITS SPEAKERS 1.0

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

xxi

This study focuses verb phrase in the Koenoem language and its speaker spoken in Shendam local government area of Plateau state. As an introductory chapter, attempts shall be made to trace the origin, socio-cultural profile, administrative system, religion, geographical location, topography, (life zone) economy, marriage rites, map, genetic classification and the burial rites of the Koenoem people. In this same chapterr, we shall present the organization of the study, theoretical framework together with a review of the chosen theory, data collection and data analysis.

1.1 HISTORICAL

BACKGROUND

SPEAKERS

xxii

OF

THE

KOENEOM

There are contradictory versions about the origins of the Koenoem. Some primary and secondary oral sources assumed monolithic origin for the Koenoem people. However, all these contradictory versions reflect migrations and interrelations. A popular legend of the Koenoem claimed that they were evidently influenced by the attempt to link their origin to the universal perspective and centres of old civilization. This legend claimed that they migrated from France to their present location for economic reasons. According to the present village head, the Koenoem speakers travelled from far Sudan and settled on in their present abode because of the unlimited economic potentials possessed by the area. Linguistic consideration strongly points to the fact that all couldn’t have one origin nor came together into central Nigeria, as they do not speak same language. In fact, the different in dialect

xxiii

from one Koenoem group to another further points to the fact that they have distinct origin. Literally, the word “Koe” means “to” while “noem” means “refuse”. This name emanated from a dispute that ensued between them and their neighbours over a river dividing them. The Koenoem people were the rightful owners of the river but their neighbours were claiming ownership. This is because the river has immense economic benefits. The Koenoem couldn’t stand akimbo and see themselves being deprived of their inalienable rights, they beseeched terrestrial powers from their ancestors with which most of the neighbouring competitors were struck to death. The neighbouring town later compromise their stand and left the land for its rightful owner. Till today, the Koenoem people are respected for their traditional prowess. 1.2 SOCIO-CULTURAL PROFILE xxiv

The Koenoem people are known for unshakeable peace and unflinching tolerance even with other distinct neighbours. They believed these elements (peace and tolerance) are indispensable for survival and productivity. The puzzle of Koeneom social psychology attracts scholarly interest to examine the binding forces. Other groups are most comfortable with them for their humour, human relations, accessibility, peace and docility. They are identical through joking relations, common facial marks, sharing of foods, traditional and cult consultations, moving together in the market or social occasion and sometimes forging common origin. 1.2.1 Religion The Koenoem people are dominantly traditional worshippers with every families having its own ancestral shrine, town shrines and clan shrines. The intrusion of the colonial masters had propagated Christian religion to the point that, it has more preference today

than traditional religion. However, Islamic religion is practiced by only those who are also sons of the soil. The language of worship xxv

is Hausa. For the traditional worshippers more allegiance is paid to their kins and cultural cum religious heads. 1.2.2 Festivals Festivals are organized to unite their kins from far and near. The chief priest is regarded as the ruler of the tribe only, but without defined territory, ceremonies are some of the arenas for hosting neighbouring groups. Some of the ceremonies are burials, marriages and annual festivals. There is a particular festival celebrated to commemorate the death of their heroes who had fought tirelessly to emancipate them from the shackles of invaders and other forms of oppressions. Others are celebrated after the drop of the first rain. There is also an annual festival celebrated on the 12th December. For this festival, an antelope must be casted to appease the gods. 1.2.3 Economy/Occupation

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Agriculture is the mainstay of Koenoem’s economy. The people here are gainfully employed in farming. Commercial and subsistence farming are dominant. Yam, maize, and guinea corn are the major articles of trade. The land has varying proportion of silica, salt, nitrogen and phosphorus. It is alluvial and sticky in the paddy areas and sandy on the uplands. They ensure proper growth of crops. In other words, the boom in agriculture is related to the fertility of the soils. It is pertinent to note here that, farming in this region is of great antiquity. Agricultural produce are sold to buyers from the urban centres. However,

agriculture

here

doesn’t

possess

the

rich

potentialities that belong to it in the other regions. Crops are sold at a give-away prices.

1.2.4 Marriage Divorce/Rites xxvii

Marriage is one of the basic necessity in every human society. It is the only formal universal approach to procreation. The Koenoem people like any other tribe have an approach to marriage system. After a marriage proposal has been consented by a girl and her family, the man is expected to pay a bride price. The price is usually bearable because of the stagnant economy of the area. The money is combined with material things like; rapper, traditionally called “shinggida” millet, and local beer for the elders of bride’s family. The second step is that the groom’s farmland is visited to ascertain his financial status. This is executed without his (Groom) knowledge. Having certified that the groom is financially capable, the next step is introduction of both family and subsequently marriage ceremony.

xxviii

After the marriage ceremony, the bride is also exposed to different physical fitness exercise to keep her warm for the routine duties ahead of her. 1.2.5 Administrative System The unit of authority starts from the household under its house-head. The household heads are answerable to the clan head or ward head. They are also answerable to the village head while all the village heads are answerable to the chief who might even be the village head. Titleholders have overlapping roles in the palace, but the most significant ones are the secretary, and the chief security officer. The committed leadership attracted the admiration of Arab and European writers and remarked that:

“they were world famous in governance, better than European, Asian or American systems”. (Filaba, e’tal (2007) Koeneom and Gbagyi sub-groups. Bwari: technoscape publications). Ibn Batuta, a renowned historian also observed that; xxix

“The

negroes

posses

some

admirable

qualities. They are seldomly unjust and have a greater abhorrence of injustice than any other people. Their kings shows no mercy to anyone who is guilty of the least act. There is complete security in their country. Neither travelers nor inhabitant in it have anything to fear from robbers or men of violence. They do not confiscate the property of any man…” (Okoye, 1964: 72). The traditional institution was not corrupt; it protected the weak, dealt with criminals particularly armed robbers and could stop any violent clash. In attempt to account for the semiautonomous nature of the village groups, some informants simply submitted that they were kingdoms, independent of external control. The traditional name of the king is Long Koeneom. xxx

1.2.6 Geographical Location Shendam local government is located in Shendam, which is almost 254 kilometres to the South East, uniquely recognized as the lowland because of its geographical low attitude. It’s humid weather can be compared to that of the Federal Capital Territory. The council has a total area of 2,437 square kilometers. The local government area is divided into four administrative districts of Shendam, Dorok, Doka and Piapun. The major occupation of the people is farming, trading, craftwork like pottery and fishing. The area can boast of a reasonable presence of several tourism sites such as Npoll Lake, Jalbang Rocks. 1.2.7 Topography People here derive their livelihood from the environment in similar ways from the environmental wealth and thus have a strong traditional affinities. The most obvious physical features of the area

xxxi

are the topography and drainage with ranges of hills of base granite outcroppings with kurape hill. The hills protrude through Jos but cut off with plains making it becoming dotted down to the confluence of Kogi state. These hills serve as water heads for river Gurara Uke in Kaduna and Nassarawa states respectively. There are also many patches of densely thick forest of several square kilometers, some of them running along the banks of rivers. The natural environment and the weather opportunities have greatly influenced human habitation in the southern Plateau. The plains are between 500-600 metres above sea level with some hills as high as 900 metres above the sea-level made of older granite and black rocks (Gojeh, Jatau and Mamman, 1998: 24-26). 1.2.8 Educational Background The Koenoems are fairly educated. Though, the belief that farming is profitable has imprisoned their psyche to nothing but xxxii

agriculture but, we can say to a considerable degree that a few number of the people are educationally motivated. A survey of some of the primary school around the area reveals that, more children are enrolling in school than ever before. This is a pointer to an educationally potential community. 1.3 GENETIC CLASSIFICATION OF KOENOEM LANGUAGE Genetic classification is an offshot of genesis while genesis is derived from the word gene (cell). Languages could be genetically related. Language of the world can be divided into certain compartments based on striking similarities. They are genetically classified based on the similarities in their linguistic items. However, language might be similar because they belong to the universal sets, this doesn’t mean that such resemblance can be traced to common origin.

xxxiii

Genetic classification is a sub-grouping of all related languages into genetic nodes (groups of languages in each of which one language is more closely related to the other in that group, than to any language outside the group). Mumil Rublen (1987: 1) states that “the idea that groups of languages that share certain systematic resemblances have inherited those similarities from a common origin is the basis of genetic classification”. Genetic classification thus makes two statements. First, it affirms that certain languages are in fact related to each other (i.e. maintains similar ancestral relations). Second, it typifies how the languages are interrelated in the form of a branching diagram. Koenoem language falls under the category of Niger-Congo family.

xxxiv

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1.4 SCOPES AND ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY The ultimate goal of this project is to study the aspect of verb phrase in Koenoem language. Extensive investigation shall be made on verb phrase, the minimum verb phrase, its maximum projection, and functions of verb phrase in Koenoem language and verb phrase in respect to transformational process, which involve modification of constituents. This long essay is conveniently divided into five chapters. The first is an introductory chapter which will encompass the general introduction of this research work, the historical background, sociocultural profile of the speakers, administrative system, economy, geographical location, topography, educational system, marriage rites and burial system. Chapter one also has in its fold; scope and organization of the study, data collection and analysis, theoretical framework and finally a review of the chosen framework.

xxxvi

Chapter two presents a phonological overview of Koeneom language and basic syntactic concepts like phrase structure rules/components, basic word order, lexical categories and sentence types. Chapter three which is the core or central of this project shall mark out what ‘Verb phrase’ is about in Koenoem language. Chapter three will also delineate the relevant notion of verb phrase and its major sub-categories. Chapter five summaries and make linguistically significant generalizations about Koenoem language. 1.5 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Theories are bundles of abstract representation existing in the linguistic repertoire of a linguist. The relevance of these theories lies in its practical sense. All the levels of language analysis has one or more theories that are capable of exposing the rudiments or fundamentals of such level. “The varieties of approaches to syntax and the grammars on which they depend xxxvii

make this particular level of language probably the most complex and the most contentious in terms of linguistic criticism”… (Geoffrey, Finch 2000: 82). Allied to the above, theories are propounded in order to present a systematic account (or descriptive) of the linguistic knowledge or competence a native speaker possess. Theories in syntax include traditional, classical, structural or taxonomic, systemic and transformational generative grammar. The theoretical framework to be employed in this research is “government and binding theory”: a sub-theory of transformational generative grammar. Government and binding theory is a model of grammar propounded and developed by Noam Chomsky. This theory has been chosen because it makes universal claims about natural languages i.e. it explains the systems, principles, conditions and rules that are elements or properties of all human languages. Government and binding theory captures the similarities in natural xxxviii

languages by assigning to them the same structure rather than the case of transformational generative grammar. In essence, verb phrase as an aspect of syntax will be analysed under the GB theoretical framework. 1.6 DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Samarin (1967: 43) says “the kind of corpus a field researcher obtains is determined by the purpose and the techniques he adopts in his data collection”. The focus of this research is largely for language description and primarily for showing antonymity or, oppositeness of some utterances with a view to explaining the semantic implication of such in Koenoemlanguage. The data is collected through contact or informant method. We obtain linguistic data for this study by making use of a proficient informants from the native community. The Koenoem four hundred wordlist together with a framework techniques are xxxix

the

basic

instruments

of

data-collection.

The

framework

techniques” forms a crucial part of this research work since it is the domain of syntax. It helps an informant to adequately account for both underlying and surface syntactic processes that can’t be captured using the Koenoem four hundred basic lexical items. Three informants tirelessly supply this research work with sophisticated or rich data. Below are pieces of information about them. 1.

Name:

Muhammad Kabir

Sex: Male Age: 56 years Occupation: Farmer No of years spent in Koeneom: 56 years Other languages spoken: English, Hausa, Nupe and Igala. Aspect of the data supplied: Historical background of the Koeneoms xl

2.

Name:

Musa Taofeek

Sex: Male Age: 68 Occupation: Traditional ruler No of years spent in Koeneom: 48 Other languages spoken: Hausa, English, Gwarri and Nupe Aspect of the data supplied: Part of the wordlist and some sentences. 1.7 DATA ANALYSIS To ensure clarity and brevity of this research, all data supplied by the informants are accurately transcribed. The component words or constituent of the sentences of the language (Koeneom-language) are carefully glossed and subsequently translated. The data collected are strictly worked upon according to native speakers rendition without any permutation, mutilation, modification or imposition of correctness. xli

1.8 BRIEF REVIEW OF THE CHOSEN FRAMEWORK Cook (1988: 86) views GB theory “as an interlocking arrangement of principles and sub-theories which interact in many different ways. Horrocks, G (1987, 95) shared a similar opinion”. GB theory is best described as a set of interacting “components”. GB theory carries over certain aspects of the deep structure into the surface structure through the process of transformations or movement technically termed as move-alpha (move – a) according to Andrew Radford, (1988: 419) transformation is the rule that deals with the act of changing the structure of one sentence to another. Transformations are supplementary rules to the phrase structure rules. The output of the phrase structure rules in the input of transformational rules. This theory was developed to correct the lapses of transformational generative grammar. GB theory captures the similarities which exist between different categories of lexical phrases by assigning the same xlii

structure to them rather than having different phrase structure rules for VOS, Adjps, NPs as postulated by transformational generative grammar. Unlike in TGG, GB theory is a modular deductive theory of grammar. The modules of grammar otherwise known as sub-theories, operate in a modular form, i.e. they are interconnected. Below is the modular theory of grammar that confirms the interlocking nature of the GB theory.

xliii

MODULAR THEORY OF GRAMMAR X-BAR Theory D-STRUCTURE

PROJECTION PRINCIPLE

LEXICON

Move-a (Bounding)

Ө-THEORY (Ө-CRITERION)

CASE-THEORY (CASE FILTER) S. STRUCTURE

PHONETIC FORM

LOGICAL FORM

xliv

Modules of Grammar

(Adapted from Sells (1985) and Cook (1988). The above diagram shows that, no part of the GB theory can be considered in isolation from the rest. It posits seven sub-theories viz; i.

X – BAR theory

ii.

Theta Ө theory

iii.

Case theory

iv.

Binding theory

v.

Bounding theory

vi.

Government theory

vii.

Control theory

1.8.1 X – Bar Theory According to Horrocks, G. (1987: 101), X’ theory provides principles for the projection of phrasal categories from lexical categories and imposes conditions of the hierarchical organization xlv

of categories in the form of general schemata. Crucially, it makes explicit the notion “head” of a phrase. Similarly, the x-bar (x’) theory is based on the theory of phrase structure. In X’ theory, word order (i.e. the syntagmatic arrangement of words) and constituent structure (the relatedness of structures) are paramount. The theory takes into consideration the strict-subcategorization frame that occurs between verbs and nouns, and generalizes this over other phrasal categories including sentences. The internal structure of each phrasal category e.g. an NP, is similar to others such that the same set of rules can apply to each of them. Thus, we say that the X’ theory uses cross-categorical generalizations. Lamidi, M.T. (2008: 153). What makes the above possible (according to Lamidi) is the fact that, the phrases have certain features in common. One of these is the concept of head. In PSG, the head is the keyword in a phrase and the word can be pre-or post modified. This concept has xlvi

been taken over by the X’ theory. The primacy of the head started from the deep structure each head is projected from the Dstructure in what is called the projection principle. The principle states that each head must be represented at all levels. There are three categorical levels of X-bar theory viz: lexical, intermediate and phrasal category. The schema below explains better. X” (= XP) Spec

X’ X’

X0

Adjunct

Complement

In this schema, we take to be a variable representing Noun, Verb Adjective or Preposition, each of which functions as the head of its own phrase. The head is the primary and therefore is X: As

xlvii

an X’, it is a lexical category and it can be pre-modified by a specifier (Spec). It can also be post-modified by a complement or an adjunct. The X-bar theory projects from the core projection level to the maximal projection level. This is called

projection

principle. 1.8.2 Projection Principle Chomsky (1981: 29) states that representation at each syntactic level is projected from the lexicon, in that they observe sub-categorisation properties of lexical items: projection principle requires lexical properties to be projected to all levels of syntactic representation i.e. lexical item projects from its zero bar level to one (single) bar level, which is optioned, then to double level the zero bar level is referred to as the core projection level, the single bar level is referred to as the intermediate projection level and the double bar is technically called maximal projection level. The illustration is shown below. xlviii

X”

Maximal projection level

X’

Intermediate projection level

X0

Core projection level

Another feature that makes generalization possible under the X-bar theory is the concept of head. The notion of head of a phrase is called the principle of head parameter. 1.8.3 The Principle of Head Parameter The principle of head parameter explains the order of elements in a language the notion of head parameter assumes that the constituent of a phrase may be arranged in different ways. Stowel, (1981: 70) says that the parametric variation between languages according to whether the positions of the head is first or last with respect its complement is to tagged “head parameter” In other words, the “head” in a phrase carries the highest load of xlix

semantic information. It is the obligatory part of a phrase. The category to which a phrase falls is strongly determined by the head. E.g.

X



X0

complement

X’ Head first (as in Yorba example) X0

Comp

omo naa  NP N Det.

OR X’



complement

X.

X’

Comp

X’

As in the English example: The boyNPDet N Another type of phrase that is permissible within the X-bar is the functional phrase. In X’ theory, a phrase can be headed by non-lexical items (functional word) like determiners, inflections and agreement functional phrases invariably have heads that are linked l

to functional elements. The functional phrases include inflectional phrases (IP). IP



Spec I’

I’



I Comp (VP)

e.g. The house was burgled (A case of passivation) IP Spec

I’

NP Det

VP N’

TNS ASP

N

past better

V’

V The

house

NP

was burgled

Øt1

Other functional phrases include complementizer phrase (CP) CP



Spec C’

C’



C

IP

li

C Spec

C’ C

IP

e.g what is your name CP Spec

C’

Wh- C Ø

IP Spec Ø

I’ I

VP

TNS

V’

PRST V

What

is

NP Det

N

Your

name

1.8.4 Theta Theory (Ө Theory) Ө-theory is concerned with the assignment of what Chomsky calls “thematic’ roles to sentential constituents. The Greek letter lii

theta is a form of shorthand for thematic, thematic roles is similar to semantic roles e.g. roles such as agent, patient, (or theme), beneficiary etc. it is assumed that these are assigned to the complements of lexical items as a lexical property. Kirsten (1991: 493) states that Ө-theory deals with the functional relationship between a predicate and its argument. A predicate is said to assign theta-role to each of its arguments e.g. the NP complement (Direct object) is assigned the role of patient and the PP complement the role of location while the subject NP or the sentence is assigned the agent role. The main principle of Ө-theory is the Ө-criterion which requires each thematic role to be uniquely assigned; i.e. each constituent denoting an argument is assigned just one Ө-role and each Ө-role is assigned just one argument denoting constituent e.g.

liii

Sola cooks in the kitchen IP Spec

I’

NP

I

VP

N’

TNS

V’

AGENT0

PRST V

PP P’ P’

NP Det

LOCATION P Sola

cooks

in

N’ N’ PATIENT

the

kitchen

In the above, the verb phrase assigns the role of an agent to “Sola” (subject NP), the role of agent was also assigned to the object NP by the verb phrase.

liv

1.8.5 Case Theory Ore, Yusuff (1988: 26), case has to do primarily with the forms that NPs take in different syntactic environments. For English, Yoruba and many Kwa languages, the concept is not readily demonstrable because these languages do not vary the NPs or N-head forms, according to Horrocks (1987: 102) case theory deals with the principle of case assignment to sentential constituents. Chomsky assumes that all NPs with lexical content are assigned (abstract) case. Kristen (1991: 496) states that “case theory regulates the distribution of phonetically realized NPs by assigning abstract case to them. Case is assigned by a set of case assigners to the governed. Horrock (1987: 103) further noted that, the basic idea is that case is assigned under government, the choice of case being determined by the governor in any given example. Government is a traditional notion involving the delimitation of the sphere of influence of a particular category with lv

respect to adjacent categories for instance, NP subject is assigned nominative by INFL, verb assigns accusative case to the object of the verb while preposition assigns oblique case to it object. The following exemplifies the case-system in English Nominative 

subject

NP

Vocative



calling

NP

Accusative 

object

NP

Genitive



NP object OF

Dative



NP object of TO

Ablative



NP object of in/on

Subject

He

she

it

Object of V him her

it

Obj of prep him her

it

Genitive

its

his

her

Adapted from one, Yussuf (1998: 27)

lvi

Case assignment to the NP complements of a lexical head is straightforward, and entirely traditional. Accusative or objective case will be assigned in English to any NP governed by V or P but no NPs governed by N or Adj. Prepositions assign oblique case. 1.8.6 Binding Theory The binding theory is one of the most important constructs in the system. It is primarily concerned with the conditions under which NPs are interpreted as co-referential with other NPs in the same sentence. For the purpose of the binding theory NPs that are arguments are assumed to fall into one of the three categories listed below: i. Anaphors ii. Pronominals iii. Referential expressions

lvii

1.8.7 The Anaphors These are NPs whose reference is necessarily determined sentence-internally and which cannot have independent reference. In English reflexive and reciprocal pronouns fall into this class e.g. ‘Herself’ must be taken as referring back the individual denoted (female) in a sentence. e.g. The girl projected herself well 1.8.8 Prenominals These are NPs that specific lexical content and have only the features person, number, gender and case; unlike anaphors, they may either refer to individuals independently or co-refer to individuals already named in a given sentence. E.g. the pronominal “He” may refer to an individual mentioned. In a sentence or some other individuals not mentioned at all: example I and II illustrate this: (i) Noam Chomsky says he is a genius. ((He refers to individual lviii

denoted in the sentence) (ii) Noam Chomsky believes him to be genius (Him referring to individual not denoted in the sentence). 1.8.9 Referential Expressions (R. expressors) as the name implies are noun phrases with lexical hands which potentially refer to something. Co-reference is excluded here. e.g. Tunde says Tunde must be promoted The

same

name

is

used

twice,

the

most

natural

interpretation is one where two different people are involved as above. However, referentiality is also possible in a limited case. The locations of antecedents that count for binding theory are defined in three binding principles. Viz: A.

Anaphors must be bound in their local domains

B.

Prenominals must be free in their domain

lix

C.

Referential expressions must also be free. The term bound is based on the principle. A simply refers to the

conjunction of C. command and co-indexing. Thus a binds b: if and only if 1. a

c-

commands B

2. a and B are co-referential In principle B, the terms free simply means not bound. Principle C refers to elements such as names and other referential noun phrases, Horrocks (1978: 111, 112, 113). 1.8.10 Bounding Theory Horrocks (1978: 128), states that, bounding theory is concerned with the limitation to be placed on the displacement of constituents by the transformational rule schema move a and its chief principle is subjacency may best be thought of as a criteria

lx

property of move a. movement rule within GB theory is assumed to involve three things viz: A

an

extraction site

B

A

landing site

C

an

intervening gap

Landing site

Intervening gap

Extraction Site

Figure 2: The diagram of bounding theory Here, move-a is defined as move any constituent from anywhere to land somewhere. The original position of

lxi

alpha before movement is called an in-situ position. The diagram below exmplifies this. X

a WHP

Y

XP

In-situ position The diagram says move any element, which is represented with (a), from its in-situ position regardless of variable x and y to the left right, beginning or end of a phrase or sentence. The basic idea advanced by bounding theory is that no movement can move an element too far. 1.8.11 Control Theory This

theory

posits

that,

transformational

analysis

of

sentences with verbs taking infinitival complements that have null subjects understood as being co-referential with an NP in the man

lxii

clause will be abandoned in favour of an analysis employing interpretative rules. Similarly, it is concerned with the way in which subjectless infinite structures are construed. It focuses on an element called PRO, sometimes called “big PRO” to contrast it with PRO. PRO is restricted to the subject position in non-finite clauses. I wanted to go In the example above, there are reasons to believe that there is really a subject to the clause ‘to go’ but the subject is invisible. PRO can only appear in the subject position of non-finite clauses; it is banned from all object position and from the subject position of finite clause as there is no governor for its position. 1.8.12 Government Theory Government theory has a role to play in several other subtheories of universal grammar. According to Chris, U. (2000: 140) the theory is concerned with the relationship between a head and its complements. It also defines the relationship in other sublxiii

theories. It establishes the set of items that may govern other items, and the second is to delimit the sphere of influence of those items. Let us assume that, the set of governors comprises lexical heads of phrases, IFNL [+ tense] and poss [the abstract element in NPs that governs and assigns possessive or genitive case to their subjects. Following Chomsky (1986b) and Sells, (1985), we define government theory thus: “

governs

β

if



m-commands

(=

maximally commands) β (i.e. if  and β share the same maximal projection) and there is no

, a barrier for β, such that

excludes .  is a governor if  is an X’ in the X-bar system (e.g. N, V, A, P, INFL)” The X’ governors (i.e. Noun, verb, adjective, preposition) are lexical items which can function as the head of a construction. The INFL, though not a lexical item is a governor because it assigns lxiv

nominative case to the subject NP. There is a close relationship between theta role assignment, case marking and principle of government as the configuration in the following figure shows: IP

NP

I’

I

VP

+ Tense

V

V

V

Governs

governors

PP

NP

NP

P

P

governs lxv

NP

From the foregoing, the verb sub categorizes for its object as well as assigns Ө-role to both the subject and the object NPs. For case assignment [+ Tense] INFL assign nominative case to [NP, VP] and the preposition assigns oblique case to [NP, PP]. In the same way, INFL governs the subject NP, the verb governs the object NP etc.

lxvi

CHAPTER TWO 2.0 INTRODUCTION This chapter focuses on the basic phonology 0f sound inventories and sound patterns in Koenoem language. It captures some phonological phenomena like; the sound inventory, tonal system, syllable structure, lexical categories, basic word order and sentence types all within the frame of our target language (Koenoem language). To avoid being myopic, we shall attempt a brief definition of phonology. According to George, Yule (1996: 54), phonology is essentially the description of the system and patterns of speech sounds in a language. It is in effect, based on a theory of what every speaker of a language unconsciously knows about the sound patterns of that language. Because of this theoretical statistics, phonology is concerned with the abstract or mental aspect of the

lxvii

sounds in a language rather than with the actual physical articulation of speech sounds. Phonological is about the underlying design, the blueprint of the sound type, that serves as the constant basis of all the variations in different physical articulations of that sound. The core or central of phonological is the phoneme. Phoneme is a meaningdistinguishing sounds in a language. A sound which brings about a change in the meaning of the affected words. A phoneme is both significant and prominent. 2.1 SOUND INVENTORY Every natural language has its sound inventory. Phonology has to do with nature of sound system in terms of segments. Oyebade(1998:2 ) defines phonology as the “scientific study of the arbitrary vocal symbol Used in human speech and the patterns into which these symbols enter lxviii

To produce intelligent meaningful utterance”. Fromkin and Rodman (1978:101) says that “phonology is the study of sound patterns found in human language. It is also the kind of knowledge speeakers of a language have about the sound and pattern of a particular language”. 2.1.1 Consonants of koenoem language Consonants are sounds produced with obstruction in the airtream during speech production. Behind this obstruction is usually a build of air pressure,which may oor may not producrd with any vibration.They are also known as sounds that are produced by the obstructing the airflow totally or partially at some point in the vocal tract (Yusuf,1992:8). All together,koenoem has twenty-four consonants,these are;p,b,t,d,k,g,kp,gb,

f,v,s,z,∫,h,m,n,l,r,j,w, Kw , , , ,

Using the international phonetic association (IPA) chart, the consonants sound can be illustrated as shown on the chart below: PLACE OF ARTICULATION

lxix

Fricative

f, v

Nasal

m

s, z

Labialized Velar

K, g

Kp, gb

Kw,gw



Glottal

LabioVelar

Palatal

PalatoAlveolar

t, d

Velar

P, b

Alveolar

LabioDental

Bilabial Plosive

h

n

Lateral

l

Flap

r

r

Trill Approximants

j

CHART 1: KOENOEM CONSONANT CHART

2.1.2 Distribution of koenoem-consonant sound

lxx

w

The distribution of koenoem consonant with respect to their occurrence at the initial, medial and final position. /p/ VOICELESS BILABIAL STOP Word initially [pεp]

‘bread’

[pũvai]

‘seven’

[piεεrεm]

‘pierce’

Word midially [tip-ka]

‘air’

[tεphar]

‘cotton’

[típ-k m]

‘chin’

Word finally [∫εrεp]

‘fish’

[pεp]

‘bread’

/b/ VOICED BILABIAL STOP lxxi

Word initially [bãbai]

‘basket’

[bìgbìpú]

‘new’

[baali]

‘hard’

Word midially

/t/

[tá:ba]

‘tobacco’

[bãbaí]

‘basket’

[nbiziŋ]

‘horse’

VOICELESS ALVEOLAR STOP Word Initially [tεpkar]

‘cotton’

[tip-ká] Word midially [∫ìtá] ‘paper’ [ntet] ‘bat’ Word finally lxxii

[gbis t]

‘felish’

[gbit]

‘bely’ (external)

/d/ VOICE ALVELAR STOP Word Initially [dul]

‘vagina’

[dah]

‘stand’

[dak :ng] ‘back’ Word midially [m diká]

‘forget’

[ndєtnò]

‘soon’

Word finally [mhad]

‘wind’

/K/ VOICELESS VELAR PLOSIVE Word Initially [khapu] [kumgbĩ]

‘mouth’ ‘corpse’ lxxiii

[k nhám]

‘river’

Word midially [típ-k m]

‘chin’

[tєpkar]

‘cotton’

[dak :ng]

‘back’

Word finally [f l k]

‘heat’

[rє∫ik]

‘fight’

/g/ VOICED VELAR PLOSIVE Word Initially [g kbi]

‘cloth’

Word middially [sãgoesee] [εni gwεgwulε]

‘right’ ‘sister’

[lãga lãga] ‘matchet’ Word finally lxxiv

[dak :ng]

‘back’

[ribusũg]

‘he goat’

[kpalãg]

‘lick’

/kp/ VOICELESS LABIO-VELAR STOP Word Initially [kpalãg]

‘lick’

[kpi∫i ]

‘ashes’

Word midially [miєrkpã]

‘oil palm

/gb/ VOICED LABIO-VELAR STOP Word Initially [gbis t]

‘felish

[gbit]

‘bely’

Word midially [kumgbin] [bìgbilã]

‘corpse’ ‘hot’ lxxv

/f/ VOICELESS LABIO-DENTAL FRICATIVE Word Initially [f l k]

‘heart’

[fiafú]

‘maize’

[f

‘blow’

t]

Word midially [fiafú]

‘maize’

[púfram]

‘arm’

/v/ VOICED LABIO-DENTAL FRICATIVE Word initially [púvàli]

‘seven’

/s/ VOICELESS ALVEOLAR FRICATIVE Word Initially [sa: ]

‘close’

[sawn]

‘horn’ lxxvi

[sãgoesee] Word midially [ribusũg]

‘he goat’

[gbis t]

‘felish’

Word finally [h s]

‘teeth’

[mies]

‘wine’

/z/ VOICED ALVEOLAR FRICATIVE Word Initially [zà:í]

‘star’

[z m]

‘dwell’

[zãm]

‘descend’

Word midially [nbiziŋ] [diŋk eziŋ]

‘horse’ ‘urinate’

/∫/ VOICELESS PALATO-ALVEOLAR FRICATIVE lxxvii

Word Initially [∫ám]

‘name’

[∫ìtá]

‘paper’

[∫єrєp]

‘fish’

Word midially [re∫ik]

‘fight’

[kpi∫i]

‘ashes’

Word finally [li∫]

‘tongue’

/h/ VOICELESS GLOTTAL FRICATIVE Word Initially [h s ]

‘teeth’

[hãsí ]

‘egg’

Word midially [khápu] [k nhàm]

‘mouth’ ‘river’ lxxviii

[shen]

‘hoe’

Word finally [dah

]

‘stand’

/m/ VOICED BILABIAL NASAL Word Initially [mies]

‘wine’

[miєrkpã]

‘oil palm’

Word midially [k mkwã]

‘groundnut’

[gwimgwifεi]

‘old person’

[gwimgma:t]

‘female’

Word finally [j m]

‘jaw’

[nεm]

‘hunger’

[pùfram]

‘arm’

/n/ VOICED ALVEOLAR NASAL lxxix

Word Initially [nεm]

‘hunger’

[njεp]

‘children’

[nbiziŋ]

‘horse’

Word midially [k nhàm]

‘river’

[dak :ng]

‘back’

Word finally [sawn]

‘horn’

/l / VOICED ALVEOLAR LATERAL Word Initially [la:rεp]

‘woman’

[li∫]

‘tongue’

[loe]

‘house’

Word midially [yielŋbal]

‘sound’ lxxx

[f l k]

‘heart’

[yeli]

‘ground’

Word finally [wel]

‘weep’

[dul]

‘vagina’

/r/ VOICED ALVEOLAR TRILL/FLAP Word Initially [rε∫ik]

‘fight’

Word midially [piεεrεm]

“pierce”

[∫εrεp]

“fish”

[la:rεp]

“woman”

Word finally [tεpkar]

‘cotton’

/j/ VOICED PALATAL APPROXIMANT Word initially lxxxi

[j m]

‘jaw’

[ji:]

‘rain’

Word middially [njεp]

‘children’

[njàki: ]

‘donkey’

/w/ VOICED LABIO-VELAR APPROXIMANT Word Initially [wel ]

‘weep’

[wєєt]

‘steal’

Word middinally [sawn]

‘horn’

[gwimhuma:t]

‘female’

/r/ VOICED ALVEOLAR TRILL Word Initially [ribusũg] [ri]

‘he goat’

‘goat lxxxii

Word midially

/η/

[pùfram]

‘arm’

[rìs :ru]

‘duck’

VOICED VELAR NASAL Word middially [Єniηgwєwulє]

‘sister’

[hєmnù ηgber]

‘brother’

Word finally [maη]

‘carry’

[ribiziη]

‘horse’

/kw/ VOICELESS LABIALIZED VELAR PLOSIVE Word initially [kwarius]

‘charcoal’

[kwam]

‘grass’

Word middially lxxxiii

[yaigurfєrikũkwasari]

‘ninety’

[k mkwã] ‘groundnut’

/gw/

VOICED LABIALIZED VELAR PLOSSIVE

Word initially [gwimguma:t]

‘female’

[gwimgbєє]

‘senior’

Word middially [tákgwepin]

‘room’

[takgwel ]

‘compound’

2.1.3 Vowels of koenoem language According to Fromklin and Rodman (1978:80) vowel are produced with no oral obstruction whatsoever.They usually constitute the of the nucleus of syllables. Yusuf(1992:29) says that vowel are produced with very obstructions of airflow in the vocal lxxxiv

tracts.None of the articulators come close enough to impede airflow. Koenoem has both oral and nasal oral vowels. Theoral vowel are seven in number.While the nasals are fiv. All together they are twelve vowels in koenoem language .They are ; a,i,e, ,o, ,u, ã, u:, :, Front

High

Central

Back

i:

u: I

Mid-high

u

e

o :

Mid-low Low



ε a: a

Figure 3: Oral vowel chart of koenoem

lxxxv

Front High

Central

Back

ĩ

Ũ

Mid-high

Mid-low



ε

ã Figure 4: Nasalized vowel chart of koenoem 2.1.4 The Distribution of Koeneom-Vowel Sounds The vowel sounds attested in Koeneom language are: /i/

High front unrounded vowel

/i:/

High front long unrounded vowel

/u/

High back rounded vowel

lxxxvi

/e/

Mid-high unrounded vowel

/o/

Mid-back rounded vowel

/ε/

Mid-low unrounded vowel

//

Mid-low back rounded vowel

/c:/ Mid-low long back rounded vowel /a/

Low back unrounded vowel

/a:/ Low-back long unrounded vowel examples include, occurs at initial, midial, final position. /i/

HIGH FRONT UNROUNDED VOWEL Word initially [ir]

‘thorn’

Word middially [jit]

‘eye’

[kikap]

‘wing’

Word finally [mài]

‘millet’ lxxxvii

[hà:sí]

‘egg’

/u/ HIGH BACK ROUNDED VOWEL Word initially [u∫u]

‘fire’

Word middially [zual]

‘needle’

[∫uw ]

‘drink’

Word finally

/e/

[khápu]

‘month’

[u∫u]

‘fire’

MID-HIGH UNROUNDED VOWEL Word initially [eniηgwagwégbe]

‘sister’

[esi]

‘grind’

Word midially [miєs]

‘wine’ lxxxviii

[sép]

‘axe’

[ietúk]

‘town’

Word finally [hemnηule] [ti∫e]

‘brother’ ‘crab’

/o/ MID-BACK ROUND VOWEL Word initially [o:k]

‘dig’

Word middially [dop]

‘penis’

[goro]

‘kolanut’

Word finally [r go]

‘cassava’

[loo]

‘house’

/ε/ MID-LOW UNROUNDED VOWEL Word initially lxxxix

[εsi]

‘grin’

Word middially [sε:rεm]

‘seed’

[gwimgoεmisi] [zεm]

‘man’

‘snake’

Word finally [εsε]

‘grind

[iε: ]

‘small’

/ / MID-LOW BACK ROUNDED VOWEL Word initially [

k]

‘dig’

Word middially [z m]

‘dwell’

[l :mài]

‘village’

Word finally xc

[∫ùw ]

‘drink’

[takgwεl ]

‘room’

/a:/ LOW-BACK LONG UNROUNDED VOWEL Word middially [ka:] [ta:m]

‘head’ ‘song’

Word finally [nla: ] ‘son’ [ma: ] ‘child’ / :/ MID-LOW LONG BACK ROUNDED VOWEL Word initially [ :k] ‘dig’ Word middially [l :mài] ‘village’ [dãk :g] ‘back’ Word finally [takgwèl :] ‘compound’ [r :] ‘put on’

/i:/ HIGH FRONT LONG UNROUNDED VOWEL xci

Word middially [dì:k]

‘build’

[di:k]

‘mould

Word finally’ [ji:]

‘rain’

[bi: ]

‘thing’

/a/ LOW-BACK UNROUNDED VOWEL Word initially [am]

‘water’

[ansa:]

‘reply’

Word middially [sai]

‘hand’

[mai]

‘millet’

Word finally [ayaba]

‘plantain’

[ká]

‘head’ xcii

2.2 TONE SYSTEM IN KOENOEM LANGUAGE According to Pike (1948: 24), tonal languages are languages that have significant and contrastive pitch on each syllable. Tone is described as a phonemic or contrastive pitch. A tone language is also considered as a language in which pitch phonemes and segmental phonemes enter into the composition of morphemes (Welmers, 1957: 2). There are basically tone types of tone viz; Register and contour tone. Both (Register and contour) can be sub-divided into three types. Register tone houses the high tone, mid and low tones. The high tone is orthographically represented as [/], low tone is represented as [\] and mid tone is usually unmarked. Contour tone sub categorises into: Falling tone[^] Rising tone [v] (Awolaye, 1974: 8)

xciii

Koenoem is a tone language. It has three basic register tones. In Koenoem, tone is contrastive in that words that have the same orthographical representation are differentiated by the tone i.e. tonal differences bring about a change in the meaning of the affected words. Examples of such words include the following: (i)

(ii)

(iii)

[mεmε]

‘quickly’

[meme]

‘fastly’

[k p]

‘spear’

[k p]

‘bow’

[dà2g]

‘tail’

[da2g]

‘crocodile’

The examples below illustrate the distribution of tones in Koeneom Language L+L [kàà]

‘climb’

[nbìziŋ]

‘horse’ xciv

[làà∫i]

‘dog’

H+H [tágbó]

‘lizard’

[punfárí]

‘nine’

[tonkúlú]

‘left’

M+M [fuat]

‘vomit’

[paat]

‘five’

[Naan]

‘God’

L+H [∫ìtà]

‘paper’

[bìsá]

‘food’

[lεmú]

‘orange’

L+H+L [làbárì]

‘story’

L+H+L+H xcv

[kùεlεùεlε] ‘boat’ L+L+H [nòmét]

‘toad’

H+H+H [téŋzúál]

‘thread’

2.3 THE SYLLABLE STRUCTURE IN KOENOEM LANGUAGE A syllable is the smallest part of a word that can be pronounced at a breath. Ladefoged (1976: 26) defines a syllable in terms of the inherent sonority of each sound. The sonority of a sound is relative to that of other sounds with the same length, stress and pitch. A syllable is the peak of prominence which is usually associated with the occurrence of one vowel or syllabic consonant (Hyman, 1975: 189). A syllable has three components; the onset (the first consonant of a syllable), the nucleus or peak (the vowel and most

xcvi

important constituent of a syllable) and the coda (the last consonant of a syllable). The nucleus is either a vowel or vowellike segments. Vowels like segments are also known as syllabic consonant. The nucleus forms the core or peak of a syllable; it is not optional in any syllabic structure. The onset has prevalence over the coda because the coda s frowned at in most Nigerian languages. There are two types of syllable. The open and closed syllable. An open syllable is one without a consonant ending while the close syllable accepts consonant ending. English language is an example of language that attests both open and closed syllable. Most NigerCongo languages like Koenoem language frowns at consonant ending a word. Our language of interest (Koenoem-language) exhibits open syllable structure. However, case of alveolar nasal ending a word is also observed. This cannot be considered as a case of close xcvii

syllable because, its occurrence at that position (final position) makes reference to nasality (The preceding vowels becomes nasalized). The syllabic structure in Koenoem are: CV (consonant vowel) i.

[ri]

‘goat’

 CV ii.

[lò]

‘house’

 CV

iii.

[tu] ‘kill’  CV

iv.

[dá] ‘calabash’  xcviii

CV CVC (Consonant Vowel Consonant) i.

[típ]

‘bag’

 CVC ii.

[dàm]

‘firewood’

 CVC iii.

[sép]

‘axe’

 CVC iv.

[táŋ]

‘tree’

 CVC VCV (Vowel Consonant Vowel) i.

[nshì]

‘bee’ xcix

 VCV ii.

[usi]

‘roast’

 VCV

iii.

[ámè]

‘what’

 VCV CVVC i.

[deem]

‘swell’

 CVVC ii.

[f t] ‘blow’  CVVC

iii.

[b t] ‘tie rope’  CVVC c

iv.

[jeèl]

‘rare’

[jε:t]

 CVVC CVCVC i.

[fólók]

‘heart’

[flk]

 CVCVC ii.

[pεtεr]

‘mat’

 CVCVC iii.

[túl-am]

‘water pot’

 CVCVC 2.4

LEXICAL CATEGORIES IN KOENOEM LANGUAGE

According to Alabi, T. (2005: 22), language is a system. It is made up of different segments or chunks. One major category of these chunks on the grammatical rankscale is the word. Words are ci

classified according to their functions as used in the sentence. Usually every sentence has words as its constituents. In essence, words are put into their respective classes according to the functions they perform in syntactic contexts. More so, lexical categories are what were referred to as the parts of speech in classical grammar. The grouping of words in a language is based on function. Technically speaking, a word does not belong to any class until it is used in a particular context. Words are traditionally grouped into eight parts of speech in Koeneom language. i. Nouns ii. Pronouns iii. Verbs iv. Adverbs v. Adjectives vi. Prepositions

vii.

Conjunctions

viii.

Exclamation or Interjection cii

2.4.1 NOUN A noun is a word used to name or identify a person, animal, place or thing which may include objects, qualities, actions, ideas, or concepts. Broadly speaking nouns are naming words. Darby (1967: 124), a noun is a lexeme which functions typically as the head of a nominal segment. Traditionally speaking, a noun can be defined as a part of speech that identifies person, places, objects, actions, and qualities. General examples of noun include;

Word

Glossing

[Tákardá]

‘Book’ ciii

[gwimgoεmis]

‘Man’

[m ]

‘Food’

[típ]

‘Bag’

[kóézám]

‘Rat’

[kwak]

‘Leg’

[gòkbí]

‘Clothe’

[k mputer]

‘Computer’

[koεpoε]

‘Mouth’

[muss]

‘Cat’

2.4.1.1 Common Nouns: These are the general categories of nouns, that do not refer uniquely to a specific subject, place or things. They are the direct opposite of proper nouns. They do not start with capital letters except at the beginning of sentences. [am]

‘water’

civ

[kiop]

‘shoe’

[∫alk]

‘pot’

[kp]

‘chalk’

[usnasárá]

‘stone’

2.4.1.2 Concrete Nouns: are those nouns with physical manifestation. They can be seen, touched and measured. They denote tangible entities. examples in Koeneom language are listed below: [petol]

‘chair’

[pãg]

‘stone’

[komb]

‘comb’

[tákardá]

‘book’

[loe]

‘house’

[∫alk]

‘chalk’

[tébù]

‘table’

[viε]

‘shelve’ cv

2.4.1.3 Abstract Nouns: According to Ukamaka, (2010: 170), these are nouns that name idea, action, a thought or a quality with only emotional manifestation i.e. intangible things that lack physical qualities. They express general terms, attributes or feelings. (Alabi, 2005: 24). Examples include: [dεm]

‘love’

[εtá]

‘joy’

[lot]

‘anxiety’

[Nε]

‘hunger’

[t mε]

‘peace’

2.4.1.4 Proper Nouns: Ukamaka, (2010: 169) states that, proper nouns name particular person, things, places, countries, days of the week, months of the year etc. in a unique way. Nouns in this sub-class do not have the full range of determiners and they lack article distinction (Quirk

cvi

et’al., 1972b: 128). Also, proper nouns are written with upper case initials irrespective of where they are fund in a sentence. [Sadik]

‘name of a person’

[Akeem]

‘name’

[Bwari]

‘place’

[esadik]

‘name’

[akim]

‘name’

[bwarri]

‘place’

2.4.1.5 Countable Nouns: Alabi, (2005: 23), countable nouns are detectable in sentences where determiners like ‘a’ or ‘an’ precede them. Also common nouns which are countable exhibit number distinction i.e. in terms of singular and plural. Ukamaka, (2010: 171), common nouns whether abstract, concrete, or collective, can be classed as countable or uncountable. Simply put, they are nouns which can

cvii

be ascertained in number i.e. we can be sure of their quantity. Examples in Koeneom language include the following: [mótò]

‘car’

[gwĩnúe]

‘persons’

[poeloe]

‘door’

[tip]

‘bag’

[k p]

‘cup’

2.4.1.6 Uncountable Nouns: (Non-counts nouns) unlike countable nouns, we cannot determine their specific numbers. They cannot be counted. They cannot also be qualified by numerals or other qualifiers. Examples in Koeneom language are: [Ham]

‘water’

[kiεm]

‘blood’

[yel]

‘smoke’

[fuε]

‘rain’ cviii

2.4.1.7 Place Nouns: Place nouns denote places e.g. [diεlutuk]

‘town’

[loekwam]

‘village’

[lùbìkãg]

‘zoo’

[mai]

‘farm’

[loe]

‘house’

[letuk]

‘market’

2.4.1.8

Collective Nouns:

This is a sub-class of noun that embodies a group of similar objects, persons, or species that are tied together by the bund of common relationship borne out of togetherness or similarities. E.g. [t dóf]

‘audience’

[bŨbat]

‘police’

2.4.1.9

Compound Nouns:

cix

Alabi, (2005: 24) a compound noun is a combination of noun(s) [as base (s)] with a preposition. Ukamaka, (2010: 171) defines it as nouns made up of two or more words. [loe + lákarda]

‘bookshop’

shop+ book [yìlà + mákárãtá]

‘school bag’

bag + school 2.4.1.10 Animate Nouns: These are nouns that are restricted to the category of animals. [hie]

‘goat’

[tam]

‘sheep’

[koezam] ‘rat’ [t se]

‘elephant’

[piet]

‘monkey’

[ntet]

‘bat’

cx

2.4.1.11 Non Animate Nouns: These are nouns that define non-animate things i.e. lifeless things. Examples in Koeneom language include; [∫hiem]

‘wood’

[papà]

‘paper’

[‘gòkbí]

‘clothes’

[Dam]

‘stick’

[kik]

‘knife’

2.4.1 PRONOUN According to Darby (1967: 137) a pronoun is a word which can correlate with a noun or nominal segment. Ukamaka, (2010: 176) defines it as a word that substitutes for a noun, i.e. it is used in place of a noun. Pronouns are very necessary in sentences, to avoid tautology or repetition of nouns which make sentences appear akward. Similarly, a pronoun refers to a word

cxi

acting for a noun, or that can be used instead of a noun. The following types of pronoun are attested in Koeneom language. Personal pronoun Reflexive pronoun Interrogative pronoun Indefinite pronoun Demonstrative pronoun Possessive pronoun Reciprocal pronoun 2.4.2.1 Personal Pronoun: Personal pronoun take the grammatical slots of specific names of persons, places or things. They are used for definite persons or things. They refer to the person speaking (first person), (b) to the person speaking (second person), (c) to the person or

cxii

thing spoken about (third person). The table below shall illustrates our explanation better. 1st Person Singular

2nd Person

3rd Person

I

You

He/she/it

[ã]

[goe]

[larεp][larεp][la]

We

You

They

[mŨ]

[goe]

[muεp]

Plural

SUBJECT PRONOUN

OBJECT PRONOUN

[lárεp] ‘he’

[ni] ‘him’

[larεp] ‘she’

[mup] ‘her’

[la] ‘it’

[la] ‘it’

[muε] ‘they’

[muεp] ‘them’

[mŨ] ‘we’

[mŨ] ‘us’

2.4.2.2 Reflexive Pronoun: (Self Pronoun) This is a self pronoun. Here the object refers to the same person as the subject of the sentence, Ukamaka (2010: 179). Reflexive pronouns show that the action in the sentence affects the cxiii

person or thing that does the action. They are often used as objects of verbs. Examples in Koeneom languages include; [Hambuεi]

‘myself’

[ambinnu]

‘yourself’

[muεp]

‘themselves’

[ká:mú]

‘ourselves’

[anni]

‘himself’

2.4.2.3 Interrogative Pronouns: Interrogative pronouns are identical with WH-series in some languages like English, but they are functionally different. They possess the attributive or determiner function and at times, they perform a nominal function. They are also used for personal references and case distinctions. They are used for asking questions Ukamaka (2010: 178) e.g. [ámè] [anne]

‘what’ ‘where’ cxiv

[áwe]

‘who’

[wε]

‘which’ Sentential examples in Koeneom language include:

àmε ga

sim

what your name ‘what is your name?’ 2.4.2.4 Indefinite Pronoun: As the name suggests, these are pronouns that are not number specific, in that they refer to numbers, persons in a generalized manner. Examples include; [kowεdegwim]

‘everybody’

[dègwìm]

‘somebody’

[ba:degwìm]

‘none’

[k iwεdèbí]

‘everything ‘

[koowεdégwim] ‘anyone’

cxv

Sentential

Examples

from

our

target

language

(Koeneom

language) i.

koowεegwim

dεm ni

everybody

love him

‘everybody loves him’ ii.

badegwim mã none

koedara

know tomorrow

‘none knows tomorrow’ 2.4.2.5

Demonstrative Pronoun:

[soe] ‘this i.

soe

a



tip

this

is

my

bag

‘this is my bag’ [muεp]

‘those’

[sov2s]

‘that’

2.4.2.6 Possessive Pronouns: These are pronouns that are used to show possession or ownership of something. e.g.

cxvi

[mã]

‘my’

[a]

‘their’

[nmmak]

‘yours’

[nmã]

‘ours’

[kat]

‘hers’

Sentential examples in Koeneom language include (i) tip

a

bag

theirs

‘their

bag’

(ii) pencil mã pencil my ‘my pencil’ 2.4.3 VERBS A verb is defined as a word or group of words that expresses action, existence or occurrence, i.e. what the subject of a sentence does, is, and what action the subject receives. A verb combines with a subject to make a statement, give a command or ask a question. The verb is the most important of all parts of speech, for it is the heart of the sentence. It gives meaning to the sentence. cxvii

That is, the verb is just like a life-wire, running through the whole sentence structure to make a complete sense. The function of a verb is not determined in isolation but usually in multiple combination. Examples of main verb in Koeneom-language include; [tà:t]

‘kick’

[dap]

‘slap’

[∫εt]

‘cook’

[tam]

‘dance’

[rã]

‘write

[gia]

‘play

[∫wei]

‘laugh’

e.g. Akeem Akeem

ta:t

hie

kick goat

‘Akeem kicks the goat

cxviii

2.4.3.1

CLASSES OF VERB

It is pertinent to mention two traditional classes of verbs, the transitive and the intransitive verbs. According to Yusuf (1997:21), the transitive verbs are one that has no object NP. This simply implies that a verb will take an NP object when it is transitive but will not take one when it is intransitive. V

(Vt) (t = transitive) (Vi) (I = intransitive)

2.4.3.2

Transitive Verbs in Koeneom)

According to Brown and miller (1992:62), transitive verb are so-called as a result of the fact that “the action of the verb” is considered to “pass over” from the “agent” subject to the “patient” object. Transitive verb cannot typically occur without a following NP. Examples of transitive verb in Koeneom include the following: i.

[nuãg làrep] cxix

flog

girl

“flog the girl” VP

Spec

V’

V

NP

nuãg flog ii.

làrep girl

[d ì poeleo] close door “close the door” VP Spec

V’ V d ì close cxx

NP poeleo door

iii.

[shεt bìςie] cook food “cook the food VP

Spec

V’ V

2.4.3.3

NP

shεt bìςie close door Intransitive Verbs in Koenoem

The structure of the intransitive verb is represented as:- V1 + [-Ø] This implies that the intransitive verb does not subcategorize for an NP object. However, some intransitive verb requires to be followed by a PP. The PP typically indicates a location. Examples of intransitive verbs in Koeneom include the following.

cxxi

i.

/ sam / e.g.

[gwimgoemat sam]

sleep

He slept IP Spec

I’

NP

I

He

VP

Tns

Spec

V’

Pres ii.

/ met / e.g. jump

V Sleep

[Olu met] “Olu jump” IP Spec

I’

NP

I Tns

VP Spec

Pres

Olu

cxxii

V’ V

met

Jumps Here are some examples of verbs in Koeneom that take PP complements. i.

/ sam / e.g. sleep

[sam koedĭ pєtol] sleep on chair “sleep on the chair” VP

Spec

V’ V

NP

P’

P sam koedĭ sleep on

cxxiii

NP pєtol chair

ii.

/talnjoi/ e.g. [talnjoi m ask

ask

irim] for beans

“ask for the beans” VP

Spec

V’

V

NP P’ P

NP

talnjoi m irim ask for beans “ask for the village”

cxxiv

2.4.3.4 VERB WITH SENTENTIAL COMPLEMENT Yusuf (1977:26) says that among the possible complements of the verb is a full clause, which has sentential complements such as Appearance verbs: seem, appear

Epistemic verbs:

know, believe

Reporting verbs:

say, claim, report

Desiderative verbs

want, desire, expect

Demand/causative verbs:

cause, makes, force

2.4.3.5

VERB WITH SENTENTIAL COMPLEMENTS IN KOENEOM.

The

following

are

some

verbs

subcategorize for sentential compliments. A.

Epistemic Verbs Know / mã / i.

[ã mã nãã bigoezãg]

cxxv

in

Koeneom

which

I know God good “I know God is good”

IP Spec

I’

Pro

I

VP Tns

N ãmã

Pres nãã

I

B.

Say / kwєl / [goe kwєl ámè] You say what

cxxvi

NP V

Spec

bigoezãg know

Reporting Verbs

i.

V’

God

good

“What did you say”

C.

Causative Verbs Makes / jaàrá / [b t jaàrá goe bìςit k nàm] can make you work well “I can make you work well” VP Spec

V’ VP

VP

V’

N

V’

V

N’

V

Adv

pro b t can

jaàrá make

goe you

bìςit work

‘I can make you work well’

cxxvii

k nàm well

2.4.3.6 Auxiliary Verbs in Koeneom-Language Auxiliary verbs are also known as helping verbs in English language. They are sub-divided into primary and modal auxiliary verbs. These sub-divisions are also captured or attested in Koeneom-language. 2.4.3.7 Modal Auxiliaries [b st]

‘can’

[dam] gwim ‘person

‘will’ bt tam can dance’

‘the man can dance’ Gwin Person

dam ba: will come

‘The man will come’ 2.4.3.8 Primary Auxiliaries [amu]

‘is’

cxxviii

[muεp]

‘are’

[nd k]

‘was’

[hã]

‘am’

[bikn k]

‘being’

gwim amu mut man is

die

‘the man is dead’ hã ba:ba:

am coming ‘I am coming’ gwim k ba:ba: person was coming ‘The man was coming’ From the above;we noted that the functions of the modal auxilliary include:

To expression of simple futurity; Examples larεp dam baa cxxix

person will come ‘she will come’ To expression of containty; Examples lã

dam fuε

‘it

will

rain’

To expression of possibilities;Examples a

b t

sie

bread

I

can

eat

bread

‘I can eat the bread’ 2.4.4 TENSE Tense shows the relationship between action and time e.g. present tense, past tense and future tense etc. Tense in koenoem language shall be shown in tabular form.

cxxx

2.4.4.1 TENSE IN KOENEOM LANGUAGE PRESENT TENSE

PAST TENSE

CONTINUOUS TENSE

[rã]

[rã]

[ãrã]

Write

Wrote

Writing

[∫εt]

[∫εt]

[∫εt∫εt]

Cook

Cooked

Cooking

[ba:]

[ba:]

[ba:ba:]

Come

Came

Coming

[sie]

[sie]

[siesie]

Eat

Ate

Eating

[kum]

[kum]

[kumkum]

Sweep

Swept

sweeping

The tenses are illusrated with the follwing sentenses;

2.4.4.2

Present Tense:

cxxxi

dзk b Jacob

rã write a

la

takarda

book

‘Jacob writes a book’ 2.4.4.3 Past Tense: dзk b



la

Jacob

wrote a

takarda book

“Jacob is writing a book” 2.4.4.4 Continuous Tense: dзk b

koe rãbirãla

Jacob

writing book

tarada

‘Jacob is writing a book’ 2.4.5 ASPECT IN KOENOEM LANGUAGE Aspect is closely associated with a tense. Aspect of a verb indicates whether the expressed action is completed (perfective) or continuous (progressive). [diel]

‘has’ cxxxii

[kat]

‘have’

[kjεl]

‘had’

gwimgeomat she

has

diel

sam

sleep

‘she has slept’ 2.4.6 ADVERB Ukamaka, (2010: 188), an adverb modifies or qualifies a verb, adjective, or other adverbs and sometimes the entire sentence i.e. they tell us more about them. An adverb never modifies nouns or pronouns. The types of adverb that shall be studied under Koeneom-language include; Adverb of time Adverb of frequency Adverb of degree Adverb of manner Adverb of reason cxxxiii

2.4.6.1 Adverb of Time: Describes the time when an action occurs or takes place, e.g. [ndai]

‘tomorrow’

[ndiε] ‘yesterday’ [satiguedãba]

‘next week’

gwim dam ba:

ndai

man will

come tomorrow

2.4.6.2 Adverb of Frequency [kowεdelokoci] [t ga]

‘regularly’

‘usually’

[tatgoegãdama] ‘seldomly’ 2.4.6.3 Adverb of Degree [lεlε]

‘slowly’

[mεmε]

‘fastly’

[d td t]

‘silently’

[∫íraú]

‘quietly’ cxxxiv

2.4.6.4 Adverb of Reason [n]

‘if’

[saidei]

‘unless’

Examples; gwim diel

fara dagi 1970

he

start since 1970

has

‘he has started since 1970’ gwim pai

koedãg

gwim ma

serious

he

because

he

serious

fail

not

‘he failed because he is not serious’ 2.4.7 ADJECTIVES The word “adjective” is derived from a Latin word and it means “an attribute of”. It is defined as a word which modifies or describes a noun or pronoun or another adjective, by supplying descriptive or specific details. In short, the adjective is a word that

cxxxv

tells us more about what is modifying (Ukamaka, 2010: 185). Examples include; [ding]

‘big’

[∫ kl k]

‘small’

[koεp]

‘short’

[ruwãg]

‘thin’

[tiε]

‘heavy’

[dèe]

‘large’

[d g]

‘beautiful’

2.4.7.1

Adjective of Colour in Koenoem Language

[tip]

‘black’

[nat]

‘yellow’

[pía]

‘white’

[malap]

‘blue’

[saã]

‘green’

[bãg]

‘light’ cxxxvi

2.4.7.2

Comparison of Adjectives in Koenoem Language

ADJECTIVES

COMPARATIVE FORM

SUPERLATIVE FORM

[dĩg]

[dĩg]

[dĩgbuie]

‘big’

‘bigger’

‘biggest’

[koεp]

[koεpbuie]

[koεp]

‘short’

‘shorter’

‘shortest’

[d gd g]

[d gbuie]

[d gdat]

‘beautiful’

‘more beautiful’

‘most beautiful’

[mεmε]

[mεmε]

[mεmεdát]

‘fast’

‘faster’

‘fastest’

[rúwàg]

[rawãgbuie]

[ruwãgdat]

‘thin’

‘thinner’

‘thinnest’

2.4.8 PREPOSITION According to the Oxford English Dictionary (second edition, 1989) preposition is an indeclinable word or particle serving to

cxxxvii

mark the relationship between two notional words, the latter of which is usually a noun or a pronoun; A preposition links a noun or its equivalent to another part of the sentence or to the sentence as a whole. It shows the relationship between a noun or pronoun and some other words in a sentence (Close, 1990). Essentially, prepositions are a closed class items connecting two units in a sentence and specifying a relationship between them. The following are examples in Koeneom-language language; [nmai]

‘outside’

[pe]

‘at’

[takdie]

‘in’

[koèdĩ]

‘on’

[koèdãg]

‘about’

[kákdíe]

‘into’

[ndã]

‘under’ cxxxviii

[nd m]

‘below’

[kòeyil]

‘down’

Sentential example include: Shuaib

buet b lu ndã tébù

Shuaib

keep ball

undertable

‘Shuaib kept the ball under the table’ 2.4.9 CONJUNCTION A conjunction is a word (or a group of words) that joins words or groups of words together it primarily performs linking function. The only conjunction attested in Koenoem language is [koe]

‘and’

2.4.10 INTERJECTION An interjection, according to Adegbija (1987: 108), is a word that expresses emotion.

cxxxix

2.5

BASIC WORD ORDER IN KOENEOM SENTENCESS Ayodele (1999: 51) describes basic word order as the

permissible sequence or arrangement of lexical items to form meaningful and grammatical sentences in a language. The idea of basic word order stemmed from the fact that the languages need to be classified on the basis of how syntactic constituents, such as subject, verb and object are structured in a simple, declarative active basic sentence. Yusuf (1998: 35) observes that, there are six universal syntactic types: Subject

-

Verb -

Object

(SVO)

Subject

-

Object -

Verb

(SOV)

Object

-

Verb -

Subject

(OVS)

Verb

-

Subject -

Object

(VSO)

Verb

-

Object -

Subject

(VOS)

Object

-

Subject -

Verb

(OSV)

cxl

Koeneom language is an SVO language, that is, in Koeneom language, a simple declarative sentence, the subject comes first, followed by the verb and then the object. This is illustrated in the sentences below; dзεkob



takarda

Jacob

write book

‘Jacob writes a book S

V

Lagoemis sie

O m

He

eats food

S

V

O

Lagimat

lap

tam

She

sings music

‘she sings music’ S

V

O

ade

∫et

∫imaa cxli

Ade

cook yam

‘Ade cooks yam’ S

V

O

Bisi

kum yiel

Bisi

sweep floor

‘Bisi swept the floor’ 2.5.1 TYPES OF SENTENCES IN KOENOEM LANGUAGE Ukamaka (2010: 219)says that a sentence is a group of words that contains a subject and its verb, and expresses a complete thought or sense. Sentences are organized according to the grammatical principles of the language in which they are written. According to Adegbija, (1987: 87), a sentence is a group of words which make a statement, a command and also expresses wish, ask a question, or make an exclamation (Yusuf, 1998: 107). Sentences can be classified based on complexity and function.This

cxlii

sections further illustrate the positions ofs VP in sentense in koenoem Using the parameter of (complexity), three types of sentence can be identified in Koenoem-language. 2.5.1.1SIMPLE SENTENCE The simple sentence is made up of one NP subject and a predicate (traditionally regarded as a single verb (Ore, 1997: 59). A simple sentence is a sentence that contains only one finite verb (Adegbija, 1987: 89). Below are examples of simple sentences in Koeneom language. gwim dεm bisi he

love bisi

‘he loves bisi’ sei

ntákdie

kwãútásá

eat

inside

plate

‘eat inside the plate’ cxliii

As pointed out by Yusuf (1997: 61), a compound sentence is formed when two or more simple sentences are conjoined by a coordinating conjunction. Any number of the simple sentence may be co-ordinated by the lexical category known as conjunction. It contains two main clauses, linked by co-ordinating conjunctions like ‘and’. Nkoyo

gw m gwim koe gwim yè

mŨiãgni

Nkoyo

deceive

was hate

people and he

‘Nkoyo deceived the people and he was hated’ a

dãg làp

I

can

koe tam

sing and dance

2.5.1.2 COMPOUND SENTENCE This is a combination of two sentences joined by more than one finite verb. It could also be joined by a comma. Examples in Koenoem are:

cxliv

(i)

A yong mup lagimat yong ham I call her, she

call me

“she call me (and) I call her” (ii)

a dem ami lagoemis dem ham I love him, he

love me

“He love me (and) I love him” 2.5.1.3 COMPLEX SENTENCE According to Yusuf, (1997: 63), a complex sentence has a sentence embedded in one of the phrasal categories: VP or NP. Traditionally the complex

is described as a main clause and a

number of subordinate clauses. n

fuã

ba:

a

if

ran

come I

ma: ba: not

come

‘if it rains, I wont come’ 2.5.1.4 FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF SENTENCES IN KOENEOM LANGUAGE cxlv

Sentences can be classified according to functions or use. So, we have sentences that make statements or deny them, sentences that ask questions and that command and sentences that express strong feelings. Koeneom sentences are functionally classified below: -

Declarative sentences

-

Interrogative sentence

-

Imperative sentence

Declarative Sentence: This makes a statement or denies it. It states a fact. Interrogative Sentence: An interrogative sentence is used to make an enquiry or ask question which demands some sort of response from the addressee. However, questions could be rhetorical (Adedimeji and Alabi, 2003: 55) Examples in Koeneom language include; cxlvi

Imperative Sentence: This gives a command or makes a request (Ukamaka, 2000: 223). tait

b lu ni

kick ball

the

‘kick the ball’ na:

bS lu ni

see

ball

the

‘see the ball’

cxlvii

CHAPTER THREE VERB PHASE IN KOENEOM LANGUAGE 3.0

INTRODUCTION In the previous chapter, the sound inventories, patterns and

linguistics concepts in koenoem were discussed.

This chapter

attempts to bring out how the verb phrases are formed, as well as their constituents in Koeneom language. This implies processes by which the phrasal category known as “verb phrase” is derived through the joining of verb with other lexical units.

All these

derivations are explained using the government and Binding frame work. 3.1 Verb phrase and head parameter An important way in which language vary is in the order of the elements within the phrase.

The concept known as “head

parameter “ specifies the order of elements in the language.

cxlviii

Chomsky (1981) suggests that the position of head could be specified once for all phrases in a given language. Rather than a long list of individual rules specifying the position of the head in each phrase type,a single generalization suffices:”heads are first or last in a phrase”. Koenoem falls under the category of language in which “head are first in the phrase”. This can be exemplified as follows; i.

[muã lutúk] Go market “go to the market” VP Spec

V V

PP P Ø

NP

N muã Lutúk go market “go to the market” cxlix

ii.

[shùwo hаm] drink water “drink water” VP

Spec

V’ V

NP N

shùwo hаm drink water “drink water” iii.

[∫ie bi∫ie] eat food “eat the food”

cl

VP

Spec

V’ V

NP N

∫ie bi∫ie eat food “eat the food” iv.

[kum yiel] sweep floor “sweep the floor”

VP

Spec

V’ V

NP N

kum yiel sweep floor “sweep the floor” cli

v.

[kwák poeloe] knock door “knocked the door

VP

Spec

V’ V

NP N

kwák poeloe knock door “knocked the door” vi.

[hap poeloe] open gate “open the gate’

VP

Spec

V’ V

NP N

clii

vii.

hap poeloe open gate “open the gate”

[dem ham] love water “love water”

VP

Spec

V’ V

NP N

dem ham love water “love water” 3.2

STRUCTURE OF VERB PHRASE According to Yusuf (1997:21), The verb phrase is traditionally

called the ‘predicate because it has the sentence predicates namely the verb. The verb is the head of the VP, it is obligatorily present

cliii

with or without its satellites. Verb satellites could be ‘complements or adjuncts’. The formal notation for the expansion of the verb phrase rewrites it as an obligatory V and its complements where the X variable stands as the complement. VP

VX

According to the Government and binding theory, the verb phrase can be represented diagrammatically as: VP

Spec

V’

V0 3.3

Complement

THE STRUCTURE OF THE KOENEOM VERB PHRASE Lexical items are inserted at the deep structure space level in

accordance with the sub-categorization frame of individual items. Therefore, in Koeneom language, the verb (which is the head of the VP) subcategorizes for the following complements. cliv

3.3.1 Verb Phrase with Noun Phrase as Satellite A. i.

VP

V (NP)

[sie bì∫íe] eat Food “eat the food” VP Spec

ii.

V’

[muã ιòé] go

house

“go home” VP Spec

V’

clv

V

NP

sie eat

bì∫íe food

V

NP

muã go iii.

ιòé house

[dem Hemnĩ] love

brother

“love your brother” VP Spec

V’

V

NP

dem Hemnĩ love brother “love brother” 3.3.2 Verb Phrase with Prepositional Phrase as Satelite B.

VP i.

V (PP) [bàá mákárãtá] come school “come to school”

clvi

VP Spec

V’ V

PP P’ V

NP

bàá Ø mákárãtá come school “come to school” iii.

[tãlnjoi m

l

màí]

ask for village “ask for the village”

VP

Spec

V’ V

PP P’ P

clvii

NP

tãlnjoi m màí ask for village “ask for the village” 3.3.3 Verb Phrase with Noun Phrase and Prepositional Phrase as Satellites C.

VP i.

V (NP) (PP) [gąp sherep koe sáí] cut fish

with hand

“cut the fish with hand” VP Spec

V’ V

NP N’ N

PP P’ P

gąp clviii

sherep koe

NP sáí

cut fish with hand “cut the fish with hand” ii.

[dieι ã táhardá m nhã] pass my book for me “pass my book for me” VP Spec

V’ V

NP N’ N Det

PP N

P

dieι ã táhardá m pass my book for “pass my book for me” iii.

[tąp dàm m nhã] break stick for me

clix

NP nhã me

“break the stick for me”

VP

Spec

V’

V

NP N’ N

PP P P’ P

NP N

tąp dàm m nhã break stick for me “break the stick for me” 3.3.4 Verb Phrase with Adverbial Phrase as Satelite D.

VP

V (ADVP) clx

i.

[báà meme] come quickly “come quickly” VP

Spec

V’ V

Advp

báà meme come quickly “come quickly” ii.

[báà ndai] come tomorrow “come tomorrow” VP Spec

V’ V

clxi

Advp

báà ndai come tomorrow “come tomorrow” 3.4

THE VERB PHRASES AND X-BAR THEORY The X-bar theory provides principles for the projection of

phrasal category from lexical category and imposes conditions of hierarchical categorization in form of general schemata. It makes explicit what is implicit about the notion of head. The theory takes the strict sub-categorization of Nps and Vps and generalises this over others. Here are some examples of verb phases and X-Bar theory i.

[sw ni b lu m nigeriąą] score the goal for nigeria “score the goal for nigeria”

clxii

VP

Spec

V’

V sw

NP Spec

N’ N

PP P’

NP

P

N

sw ni b lu m nigeriąą score the goal for Nigeria “score the goal for Nigeria” ii.

[sét la dĭa hie] Buy a fat goal Bought a fat goal

clxiii

VP V’ V

NP Adj Del

N’ Adj’

Sét la dĭa hie Buy a fat goal “Bought a fat goat” iii.

[sie komukwă] Eat groundnut “Eat groundnut” VP Spec

V’

clxiv

V sie eat

NP komukwă groundnut

“eat groundnut” 3.5 VERB SERIALIZATION Verb phrase serialization variantly called serial verbs refers to a situation whereby there is a single subject Np but a number of Vps ranging from two to possibly as may as our meaning will allow (Yusuf, 1997:32). PECULIARITY OF SERIAL VERB CONSTRUCTION (SVC) 

The sentence has two or more verb



There is a single subject for the whole sequence of verb.



Each verb may have its own complement.



The sequence as a whole has the behaviour of a single predicated and not that of a construction involving distinct predicate in some depending relation.

clxv

The instructure of serial verb can be given as: VP

VP(Vpn)

The superscripted [n] means we may have any number of Vps: two, three, four and so on. A tree structure is given below as:

VP

VP VP VP VP VPn 3.6 SERIAL VERB IN KOENEOM LANGUAGE Serial verbs are so called because of the way they occur in string. Examples of serial verb construction in Koeneom are: i.

/la wet ∫im nni ∫ue/ child steal yam and eat “(The) child stole yam and eat”

clxvi

IP Spec NP pro

I’ I

VP VP

VP

Spec V’ NP

la child

ii.

spec V’ spec

NP

det

V

wet ∫im nni ∫ue steal yam and eat “the child stole yam and eat”

[Tunde gap sherep nni ∫ue]

clxvii

Tunde cut fish and eat “Tunde cut the fish and eat”

IP Spec

I’

NP

I

pro

VP VP

VP

Spec V’ spec NP

V’

spec NP det

Tunde

V

gap sherep nni ∫ue

Tunde

cut

fish and eat

3.7 PHRASE STRUCTURE RULES IN KOENOEM LANGUAGE

clxviii

According to Yussuf (1998: 7), phrase structure rules are rewrite or expansion rules, very much like the expansion of an icon in the computer, which displays the content of a phrase or sentence. It is like opening a box to disclose its contents. Horrocks (1968: 31) defines phrase structure rules as formal devices for representing the distribution of phrases within sentences. Lamidi (2000: 66) refers to it as the rule of the base component which inserts words into their logical positions in a structure. It is used to map out simple or declarative structures. For instance, to describe the content of a Noun Phrase as containing possibly a determiner, a compulsory Noun head; and some optional satellites like the prepositional phrase and possibly a clause, the following formular is used. NP



(D) N (PP) (S’)

For a sentence; clxix

S



NP INFL VP

VP



V

NP



(D) N (PP) (S’)

S



Sentence

NP



Noun Phrase

Det



Determiner

Adj



Adjective

PP



Prepositional Phrase

(NP)

Informally, each rule is to be interpreted as saying that the element on the left hand side of the arrow consists of the elements on the right hand side in that other. In other words, the rules express part-whole relationships and impose an order on the parts. Items which are optional are enclosed in parentheses. It is customary to refer to the parts of some whole as its constituents and any given constituent that is itself analyzable into constituents is assumed to represent a coherent building block. clxx

Since our chosen theory is the government and binding theory, the basic syntactic structures of Koenoem language shall be analyzed using transformational rules. Transformational rules provide supplementary rules to the phrase structure rules. The output of PS rules is the input of transformational rules. In TF rules, a functional category can head a sentence. The phrasal categories of Koeneom language shall be exemplified using the schema below; CP



Spec C’

C’



C

IP



Spec I’

IP

i’ or I’

I

VP

I



TNS Agr

VP



Spec V’

V’



V

(NP) (PP)

NP



N’

Spec clxxi

N’



N

(Det)

Examples in Koeneom language Gwim ni

dap larep ni

Man the

slap girl

the

The sentence can be phrase marked as shown below: IP



Spec I’

Spec 

NP

I’



I

I



TNS

VP



V’

V’



V

NP

NP



N

Det

VP

clxxii

IP Spec

I’

NP N

Det

I

VP

TNS

V’

Present

V

NP N’ N

Gwim ni dap larep Man the slap girl ‘‘the man slapped the girl’’

Det ni the

3.7.1 Phrase-Types in Koeneom Language clxxiii

A phrase refers to any well-ordered, small group of words that are related to each other, occurring within a sentence or clause. This group usually doesn’t have a finite verb and cannot make complete sense on it own, except in conjunction with other elements of the sentence. It is necessary to note from the onset that the word phrase and group may be used interchangeably. Phrases are usually named after their main words, referred to as headwords. The headword is a component of a phrase which is not optional. It carries the highest load of semantic information. The headwords dominates other constituents of a phrase. In Koenoem language, we have Noun Phrase, Verb Phrase, Adjectival Phrase, and Prepositional Phrase. E.g. Nla

ni

gòekún

boy

the

tall

‘The tall boy’

clxxiv

‘boy’ in the above constitutes the headword because it is the only obligatory element in the group.

NP

N

N

D

Adjp

Adj

Nla Boy

ni the

goekun tall

3.7.1.1 Noun Phrases

clxxv

According to Lamidi, (2000: 68), the NP is a group of words with a noun as the keyword. Some times, a pronoun or a noun stands for an NP. This means that the phrasal category which consists of a sequence of words is grammatically equivalent to a single word which serves as the headword. The noun in an NP can be pre-modified by a determiner, a nominal, a numeral, and an adjective. It can also be post modified by prepositional phrases ( a complement and/or a adjunct). In Koeneom language, the noun phrase is usually post-modified either by a determiner or prepositional phrase. We shall consider the minimum and maximum expansion of noun phrase in Koenoem language. [nla]

‘boy’

[tákardá]

‘book’

[típ]

‘black’

[kóézám] ‘rat’ [larεp]

‘female’ (child) clxxvi

NP Lexicon with a prepositional satellite Tákardá

ni

koedin

tébù ni

book

the

on

table the

‘the book on the table’

NP

N

Det

PP

P

NP

N

Det

tákardá

ni

koedin

tébù

ni

book

the

on

table

the

‘the book on the table’ clxxvii

larεp ni

ntak loe

girl

in

the

ni

room the

“the girl in the room”

NP

N

Det

PP

P

NP

N

Det

larεp

ni

takdie

loe

ni

girl

the

in

room

the

‘‘the girl in the room’’ clxxviii

Noun Phrase with Adjectival Satelites yei

goe típ

bird a

black

‘a black bird’ NP N’

N

Det

Adjp

Adj’

Adj yei

goe

típ

bird

a

black

‘‘a back bird’’ 3.7.1.2 Verb Phrase

clxxix

According to Yusuf (1997: 21) verb phrase is traditionally called the “predicate” because it has the sentence predicator namely, the verb. Lamidi (2000: 166), the verb is the head of a VP. Whenever it occurs, the verb maintains the same syntactic feature. Like other categories, the VP contains optional specifier while the other phrasal categories like NP, PP,A etc serve as its complement. The formal notation for verb phrases is: VP



V

(NP) (PP) (S’)

In Koeneom language, the VP can be opened up into the following: VP



V

VP



V

NP

VP



V

NP

PP

VP



V

NP

Advp

VP



V

NP

PP

Adjp Advp

VP Lexicon with NP Satelites clxxx

Sie

bì∫íe

eat

food

‘eat the food

VP

V’

V

NP

N

eat

food

Basic VP ran write

clxxxi

dap slap tam dance VP with PP Satellites ram koedin

tébù

write on

table

‘write on the table’ VP

V’

V

PP

P

NP N’ clxxxii

N ram Write

koedin on

tèbu table

VP with Adverbial Satellites nuãg làrεp mεmε flog girl

quickly

‘flog the girl quickly’ VP

V

V

nuãg Flog

NP

Advp

N

Adv

làrεp girl

mεmε quickly clxxxiii

Other examples of verb phrase in Koeneom language include: siεt

gòkbí

buy clothe ‘buy the clothe’ shet bì∫íε ntàkdiε cook food in

loe

room

‘cook the food in the room’ tát

bolù

kick ball

kwák nmmak with leg

your

‘kick the ball with your leg’ 3.7.1.3 Prepositional Phrase Jowit and Nnamonu (1985: 228) observe that preposition are frequently used to form idiomatic phrases, which function as adverbial of time, place or manner. Lamidi (2000: 73) observes that the PP is closely related to the NP because it contains a preposition and an NP complement. In this case, the preposition is clxxxiv

the head and it precedes the NP in the PP. The prepositional phrase has been characterized as below in Koeneom-language.

PP

P

NP

Prepositional

N

PP

Prepositional



e.g. koεdĩ tébù dĩg on

table big

‘on the big table’ PP P P

NP N

Adjp Adj’

clxxxv

Adj Koεdĩ

tébù

Ndaml g

loe

dĩg.

ni

Outside room the

‘‘outside the room’’ PP

P’

P

NP

Ndaml g Outside

N

Det

loe room

ni the

Other examples include: iii.

pe

letúk

at

market

clxxxvi

‘at the market’ iv.

Takdíe

koεdiεn

kàràtú

in

middle

class

‘in the middle of the class’ 3.7.1.4 Adjective Phrase Awolaja, (2002: 27), pointed out that an adjectival phrase does the work of an adjective. It usually qualifies or modifies a particular noun. Olujide, (2005: 47), an adjectival phrase functions as an adjective and its headword is always an adjective, which modifies a noun or pronoun. Similarly, it usually occur before nouns (as attributes) and after verbs as predicative adjectives. It can also be premodified by adverbials. The phrases given below are examples of adjectival phrases in Koeneom language:

clxxxvii

i.

d sgd g

bigoe

beautiful

very

‘very beautiful’ Adjp

Adj’

Adj

Advp

Adv D gd g

Bigeo

beautiful

very

Adjectival Phrase with Adverbial and NP Satellites Diε

kee

zeemε

Gentle like snail ‘gentle like a snail’ clxxxviii

Adjp

Adj’

Adj

Advp

NP

Adv’

N’

Adv

N

Diε

kee

zeemε

Gentle

like

snail

clxxxix

CHAPTER FOUR 4.0

TRANSFORMATIONAL PROCESS This is defined as a process by which the structure of one

sentence is changed to another structure. It is a kind of device used by a speaker of a language to express his meaning in a different way either for stylistic purpose of emphasis. Transformation performs a lot of operations. According to Yusuf (1997) “a transformational process is a process whereby some types of sentences are formed or derived from the basis sentence” Transformation will work on the basis sentence as generated by the base phrase marker (i.e. deep structure) to map such phrase markers to a surface phrase maker producing such sentence

as

MOVEMENT,

DELETION,

FOCUSING,

RELATIVIZATION, PASSIVIZATION, REFLEXIVIZATION, QUESTION

cxc

FORMATION, INSERTION OF BY PHRASE AND INSERTION OF NEGATIVE MAKER. The results of transformation is evidenced at the S.S (Surface Structure) while that of PSR (Phrase Structure Rule) is encoded in the D.S. (Deep Structure) Deep Structure (D.S) Transformation Surface Structure (S. S) 4.1 MOVEMENT Movement is a syntactic process whereby an element is moved from its logical position to land in another position. Movement can either adjunction.

be

effected through substitution or

The third form of movement which is abnormal is

called crash landing movement. Movement knows as the major transformational process is now know in move recent research as (more alpha) which means cxci

“move any variable category” i.e. an element can’t be moved more than one bounding node. Yusuf (1992:49) The diagrams below illustrate the examples of movement and move alpha

Extraction site S1

Landing site

S2 landing site S3

Intervening gap

cxcii

Extraction site

Koeneom

language

shows

movement

in

it

focusing

sentences, when noun phrase object are removed from their original location to another. 1.

2.

Bisi

síe

єém

Bisi

eat

beans

àn

muàn ιoe

I

go

yinką

house

Yinka

These two sentence can be changed to what we have below: Example 1: Єém sae

Bisi

Beans that

síe Bisi

ate

It is beans that Bisi ate “Beans” which was the subject of the verb “ate” has been moved to sentence final position for emphasy called focusing Example 2: ιoe

Yinka an

muan

House Yinka I went It is Yinka’s shop that I went cxciii

4.2

DELETION Deletion is another common process in language. It involves

the loss of a segment under some language specifically imposed condition.

Deletion could involve vowels or consonant.

Francis

Oyebade (1998:69). This kind of syntactic processes take place in Koeneom compound word, where repeated noun phrase objects are deleted. 1.

Ola deem єém Ola like

2.

kae Ola síe shimaa

beans and Ola eat yam

Kehinde dem Bisi kae Kehinde dєm Saidat Kehinde love Bisi and Kehinde lay

Example 1: Ola dєєm єém Ola like

kae

Saidat

sie shimaa

beans and ate yam

“Ola” in the second instant has been removed from the sentence Example 2: Kehinde dem Bisi

Kae dem

cxciv

Saidat

Kehinde love Bisi

and

love

Saidat

Kehinde love Bisi

and

married Saidat

4.3 FOCUS CONSTRUCTION IN KOENEOM LANGUAGE The focus construction otherwise known as predicate cleft in Koeneom language. What makes focusing a universal syntactic process among human language is the fact that it is normal for a speaker of any language to want to emphasize a specific aspect of his message while communicating with hi/her interlocutor.

The speaker thus

pragmatically assigns PROMINENCE to that part of his/her message that he/she wishes to emphasize without necessarily changing the substances of his message. In order to show that focused sentences are derived from a basic sentence, it is necessary to have a normal construction in mind as the unmarked sentence from which the marked or focused

cxcv

sentences are derived. Below are examples of nominalized verb focus in Koeneom language. Subject - Noun Phrase Focus i.e. SUB – NP Focus i(a)

[Orelope sєt pencil m Saidat] name buy pencil for name “Orelope bought a pencil for Saidat

cxcvi

IP

Spec

I’

NP

I

VP

Tns V

NP

N’ N

PP P

Orelope

NP

sєt pencil m Saidat buy pencil for Saidat

i(b). [Sét a la Orelope sét pencil m Saidat] buy foe pst names buy pencil for name. “it was buying that Orelope bought pencil for Saidat” cxcvii

IP Spec

F’ F

Spec

IP Foc Spec

I’

NP

I

VP

Tns spec

V’

Pst V

NP N’ N

PP P

Sét

ii(a) [Bisi síe εém]

a

Orelope

Bisi eat beans

“Bisi ate beans” IP

cxcviii

NP

la sét pencil m Saidat

Spec NP

I’ I

VP

Tns Spec Pst

V

V’ NP

Bisi

síe

εém

Bisi

eat

beans

ii(b). [∫íe a Bisi ∫ie la εém] eat foc Bisi eat pst beans “it was eating that Bisi ate beans”

IP

cxcix

Spec

F’ F

Spec

IP Foc

Spec NP

I’ I

VP

Tns

V’

Pst

V

NP N’

∫íe

a

Bisi

eat iii(a) [Nirã sw

Bisi ham]

Niran drink water “Niran drank some water”

cc

la

∫ie

εém

eat

beans

iii(b) [sw a Nirã sw la ham] drink foc Niran drink pst water “it was drinking that Niran drink water” Direct Object Noun Phrase Focus

Obj Np Focus

1(a). [Tunde taat ni bolu] Tunde kick the ball “Tunde kicked the ball” IP

Spec

NP

I’

I Tns Pst

VP Spec

V’ V

NP Spec

Tunde Tunde

taat kick

cci

ni the

N bolu ball

“Tunde kicked the ball”

i(b)

[ni bolu a tunde la taat] The ball foc Tunde pst kick

“It was the ball that Tunde kicked” IP Spec

F’ F

Spec

Foc

IP

Spec

NP

P Spec

Ni

I’

VP

Tns Spec

N

b lu

I

Pst V a

Tunde

la taat

V’ NP N Ø

ccii

ii(a) [gwìmsεg tu Hunter

t

s]

kill elephant

“Hunter killed an elephant”

IP Spec

I’ I

NP

Tns past

gwìmsεg Hunter ii(b) [t

s

a gwìmsεg

la

VP Spec Ø

V

tu kill tu]

cciii

V’ NP N t s elephant

Elephant foc hunter pst killed ‘it was elephant that the hunter killed”

IP Spec

F’ F

Spec

IP Foc

Spec NP

I’ I

VP

Tns Spec V’

t s elephant

a

gwìmsεg hunter

iii(a) [ la dem victor] Ola love Victor “Ola loves Victor” cciv

pst

V

la

tu kill

NP

iii(b) [Victor a

la

dem]

Victor foc Ola love

“It was Victor that Ola love”

4.4 RELATIVIZATION According to Yusuf (1992), relative construction as involving the insertion of a relative clause in front of its Np antecedent in a matrix clause.

A clause is relativized when an Np within it is

identical (and therefore changed to a relative pronoun) with the antecedent Np of the matrix clause such relative pronouns are moved from their original position to ‘comp’ position of the relative clause. According to Stockwell (1977:421). “A relative clause could be a sentence embedded in the suitable structure as modifier of an Np,

embedded

sentences

have

ccv

within

it

WH

pronominal

replacement for a deep structure.

And added (Adjunct)

information. Relativization

is

a

syntactic

process

which

prevents

unnecessary repetition which can bring about confusion, though the introduction of relative makers (who, which, that etc) these relative markers have antecedents that are related to Np head. In Koeneom relativization can occur in these position in the sentence. Subject – Np, Object – Np and indirect – Np relativization. SUBJECT – NP RELATIVIZATION 1a.

Basic sentence David Del ba David has come

1b.

Derined sentence David awe muan ko makrãta David who go to school, come “David who went to school has come” ccvi

Basic Sentence David ba David come

IP Spec

I’ I

NP Tns

N

I’ Agr

(pres)

VP

V’ V

David

Diel

Derived Sentence David áwe muąn ko mąkrãtą bą

David who go to school come “David who went to school has come”

ccvii

REL Spec

Rel Rel

David

I

NP

Spec

N

[ei]

Tns

Agr

V

I’ I

VP

PP

(past)

muan PP ko

NP N

makrãta

VP V ba

OBJECT-NP RELATIVIZATION

ccviii

Basic Sentence 1a.

Sola muąn ko tuluk Sola go to market “Sola went to the market” DERIVED SENTENCE

1b.

In

tuluk

Sola

muąn

rel-market market Sola go It was market that Sola went CP Spec

C’ C

NP

I Spec

N

NP N

I’ I

Tns Agr (past)

ccix

VP V’ V

tuluk

Sola

INDIREC OBJECT-NP RELATILIZATION 1a.

Basic Sentence Bidemi muąn ko tuluk lagos Bidemi go to market lagos Bidemi go to market in lagos

1b. Derived Sentence lagos Bidemi muan ko tuluk lagos rel bidemi go to market it is lagos where Bidemi

ccx

muan

BASIC SENTENCE IP Spec

I’ I

NP Tns

N’

VP Agr

V’

(pres) V

N

PP

muan

P’

P ko

ccxi

NP N

N

Bidemi

lutuk Lagos

4.5 REFLEXIVIZATION According to Yusuf (1990), “reflexivization is a process of substituting another type of pronoun for plan pronouns.

The

substitutes are reflexive pronoun. As their names indicate, they refer (to reflect) and earlier Np (Noun phrase) in the same sentence, e.g. (1) Mariam loves Mariam loves herself (2)

He laugh at him He laugh at himself

(3) The thief killed the thief The thief killed himself These reflexives are neic subject of sentence. If they were, they would not have an antecedent in the same sentence as

ccxii

required for their appropriateness and ungrammatically would result i.e. herself killed the lion. Quirk (1972) “reflexization as pronoun that ends with self (singular) and selves (plural).

These suffixes are added to the

determiner possessive (myself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves). In this type of transformation process two identical nominee co-referential. Relative pronouns show numerous properties with noun phrase; their distribution is some what limited. In Koeneom, reflexivization is used in basic form and derived form. 1a.

Kunle tu Kunle Kunle kill Kunle “Kunle killed Kunle”

b.

Kunle tu kàlςĩ Kunle kill himself ccxiii

“Kunle killed himself” 2a

Sade dem Sade Sade love Sade “Sade loves Sade”

b.

Sade dem kàsaát Sade love herself Sade loves herself

1a.

Basic Sentence REL Spec

I’ I NP

N’

VP

Tns Agr (+past)

V’ V

N

tu

ccxiv

NP NP

N’ N Kunle

kill

Kunle

“Kunle killed Kunle”

1b. Derived Sentence IP Spec

I’ I

NP N’

VP

Tns Agr (+past)

V’ V

N

NP Pro

Kunle Kunle

tu kill “Kunle killed himself”

ccxv

kàt∫ĩ himself

4.6

PASSIVIZATION

According to Yusuf (1997:105) passive sentences are sentence types where the logical object functions like the subject in the surface structure. In a manner of speaking, the passive construction is a demotion of the logical subject to allow the speaker to focus attention on the object. This suggests that if the underlying subject was mentioned at all, it would be in the by-phrase as a peripheral argument. The examples of passivization in Koeneom language are below: BASIC SENTENCE 1a.

Saheed sie kápá Saheed eat rice “Saheed ate rice”

DERIVED SENTENCE 1b.

kápá yen

sie koe Saheed ccxvi

rice was eat by Saheed “rice was eaten by Saheed” 2a.

gwim siee k p man win cup “The man won a cup”

2b.

k p

yen siee koe gwim

cup

was win by

man

“A cup was won by the man IP Spec

I’ I

NP N’ N

VP

Tns Agr (+past)

V’ V

NP N’

ccxvii

N Saheed Saheed

sie eat

kappa rice

“Saheed ate rice”

1a.

Basic Sentence IP Spec

NP

I’

I Tns

N’

VP Agr Spec

N

V’ V

PP P’ P

ccxviii

NP

N’ N k p cup

siee win

koe gwim by man

“A cup was won by the man”

1b. Derived Sentence IP Spec NP

I’ I Tns

VP Agr Spec

N’

V’ V

N

PP P P

NP N’

ccxix

N Kappa rice

sie eat

koe by

Saheed Saheed

“rice was eaten by Saheed”

4.7 QUESTION FOMATION Accoding to Radfod (1981:46) ‘question in any natural language can be classified into a numbe of types. There are two types of question in natural language: (1) yes/No question and (ii) WH questions. These questions as asserted by Yusuf (1997:25) correspond to their typical answers. Examples of question formation in Koeneom language like, WH question, Yes/No question and Echo question are explain below:

ccxx

4.7.1 WH QUESTION WH question are question that have asked using WH element. They requires, it is used when information is required, we use interrogative word like; what, who, would, whose, where, how, and why. Who > ask for information about an entity. What > ask for information about somebody Why > ask for reason How > ask question about manner Where > ask for information about place Using your WH element or marker all position in the sentence has question because they are all common to human language. For examples in Koeneom, 1a.

sium singa weh your name is what

1b.

weh singa sium? ccxxi

What is your name? 2a.



a

weh

you are who 2b.

weh

a

ga?

who are you? 3a.

weh

a

ga

baa

nee

where are you coming from 3b.

ga

a

baa

you are

nee weh

coming from where

Basic Sentence Weh

ga

“Where are

a

baa

nee

you coming from?” CP

Spec WH-

C’ C

IP

ccxxii

Spec

I’

NP

I

N’ Tns Asp Agr

VP V’

PP

pro

P’ V

weh Where

a are

ga you

beting

“where are you coming from?” b.

P

come nee baa from coming

Derived Sentence ga

a

you are

baa

nee weh

coming from where? CP C’

C

Spec IP

Spec NP

I’ I

WHVP

ccxxiii

N’

Tns Agr Asp spec

Pro ga

V’

V’

PP

V

P’ P

beting a come nee weh coming baa from where

“you are coming from where”

4.7.2 YES/NO QUESTION It is a question that require yes/No answer e.g. as this is called following the Yes/No. In English they will remove the first member

of

the

INFL

to

the

sentence

initial

position/complementizer position e.g. I am going, we are sleeping, are you going, are we sleeping, I will come, will I come.

ccxxiv

In a situation whereby we don’t have any member of INFL apart from them i.e. the subject and the auxiliary changes position e.g. Did she traveled? Yes/No question in Koeneom Basic Sentence 1a.

a ashin shine I

1b.

ready

ashin am

2a.

am

a shiree I

ready

lagimat ίni she

2b.

ίni can

3a. 3b.

Die

kpótam

can

dance

lagimat kpótam she

dance

mun muan

They are

going

mun Die

muan

are

they going ccxxv

Basic Sentence She can dance IP Spec

I’ I

NP

Tns

VP

Agr Spec

N’

V’ V

Pro lagimat She

ini can

kp tám dance

Derived Sentence ini can

lagimat

kp tám

she

dance IP C’

C

Spec

IP

ccxxvi

Spec

I’

NP

I

VP

N’ Tns

Agr V’

Pro ini can 4.8

V

lagimat she

kp tám Ø dance

ADJUNCTION

Adjunction takes place when an item is adjoined included to be sister to another node. This occur mostly in Yes/No question in some language but is attested in Koeneom language. For example: 1.

Tunde

sie

Tunde eat

biśie food

koe

Yemi

together

Yemi

“Tunde and yemi ate the food together’ 2.

laide dąm bąą

nzo nshini koe nike

laide will come here today with nike “Laide and nike will come here today” 3.

Bisi muàn tàmtàm kąe ayo tàkdie party Bisi go danced with ayo in party

ccxxvii

Bisi and ayo danced in the party

4.9

SUBSTITUTION

Substitution take place when some pro-form are substituted for a redundant category instead of outright deletion. Examples: 1.

enijgwegwúle sέέt

mótò sąąt a sέέt kumeé

sister my buy motor green I buy one “my sister bought a green car and I bought one too”. 2.

gumistu muss sέέt a tu kumeé man kill cat but I kill one too “The man killed cat and I killed one too”.

ccxxviii

CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY, OBSERVATION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 5.0 Introduction This chapter presents a summary of chapter one to four. So far, we have been able to explore, to an appreciable level, the aspects of verb phrase in Koenoem language.

In all, the work

encompasses five chapters with verb phrase being the core of the study. 5.1 Summary Chapter one traced the historical background of Koenoem people, their socio-cultural profile like religion, marriage, burial rites and festival etc. It also identified the genetic classification of ccxxix

the Koenoem in the world language. The chapter also had in its fold, the scope and organization framework, method of data collection and data analaysis etc. It also extended its frontiers to the brief survey of the chosen framework which is chomsky’s Government and Binding theory. Chapter two presented the basic phonological and syntactic concepts in Koenoem language. This chapter took care of areas like; the sound inventories, syllable structure, lexical categories, phrase types and sentence types. The systematic word order was not excluded in this chapter. Chapter three of this research critically examined the Koenoem verb phrase.

Various definitions of verb phrase were

given according to different authors. The chapter being the nucleus of the study, employed a systematic approach in the analysis of verb phrase. First, it considered the basic or minimum verb phrase in the language, later to its maximum expansion. ccxxx

Chapter four centered on transformational processes. These include; reflexivization, question formation, passivization, focus construction, deletion among others were briefly discussed. 5.2 Observation/Conclusion The language operates an open syllable system i.e. the phonotactics of the language does not allow a consonant ending. The linearity or word order in the language is SVO i.e. subject, verb and object order. The language operates both isolating and inflectional language typology. Inflectional is highly grammatical in language i.e. inflections do not change words meaning but provides grammatical information like tense, plural and number etc.

ccxxxi

The configuration of the verb phrase is verb first just like English verb phrase.

5.3 Recommendation Through this research, useful insight has been drawn from the structure of Koenoem Verb Phrase. As a matter of fact, the language has not been exposed to linguistic scrutiny. There is the need for linguist to focus attention on the language. This project has only studied an integral part of the various fields of linguistics. Only the Verb Phrase has been explored in this research. However, some of my colleagues have already being working on the phonology, morphology, question formation and negation. This is not exhaustive, we hereby recommend that linguist will do

ccxxxii

well by focusing research light on the other aspects of the language. Researchers who would like to further research into the study of Koenoem language will find this research as a platform into the language.

ccxxxiii

REFERENCES

Cook (1988:86): Chomsky’s Universal Grammar: An Introduction praeer: Blackwell Publishers. Horrock, G. (1987) Generative Grammar. London: Longman Group. Welmers, P. (1959) Structure of Africa Languages London: Longman Press. Yule, G. (1996): The Study of Language new York: Cambridge University Press. Lamidi M. T. (2008): Aspect of Chomskyan Grammar. Oyo Nigeria: Emman Publication. Chomsky, N. (1981) Lectures on Government and Binding, Dordrecht: Foris. Sanusi, I. O. (1996): Introducting the Linguist and Linguistics, Ilorin: Jimbsons Publishers.

ccxxxiv

Sockwell, R. P. (1977), Foundations of Syntactic Theory, New Gersy: Prentice Hall. Yusuf, O. (1992): Introduction to Linguistics. University Press, Ilorin. Yusuf, O. (1997): Transformational Generative Grammar. An Introduction, Ijebu-Ode.

AFRO-ASIATIC

Ancient Egyptian

Semantic

Berber

Chadic

Cushitic

North Chadic

Easth Chadic

West Chadic

South Chadic A2 A3(Angas gerka) ccxxxv

Angas proper

1

2

geomai pyapun

Koenoem

montol

tai

FIGURE 1: GENETIC CLASSIFICATION OF KOENOEM LANGUAGE Source www.ethnologue. com(Accessed (November 2010) 14

IBANDAN WORD LIST OF 400 BASIC ITEMS Trial (English) Version Give the following information: 1.

Investigator’s Name: Oparemi Saidat Olabisi 07/15CB085 ccxxxvi

2.

Investigator’s Address: Department of Linguistic, Faculty of

Art,

University of Ilorin (400 Level), Ilorin

3. Informant’s Name:

Mr.

Gwatil Titus 4. Informant’s age (A) Official Name:

28 years

old 5. Informant’s Language: Koenoem (B) Name use by speakers: Koenoem 6. What other languages does the informant speak:

English,

Pipaun, Hausa, Tal 7. Informant’s home town or village: Lifidi 8. How long has informant lived in home town or village: years

ccxxxvii

20

9. Where is this town

(a)

List the nearest larger towns and state, there distance and direction: Doka 15km,

Zomo 10kam,

Piapun

20km (b) Name

the

Local

government

Authority:

Shendam (c) Name the District of Country: Koenoem (d) Name the Division:

North

Central (e) Name of Province:

North

(f)

Plateau

Name the Region/State:

state (g) Name the Country: 10.

Name by which speakers of languages are known: (a)

Officially:

(b)

Among themselves:

Koenoem

Koenoem

ccxxxviii

Nigeria

11.

Does the languages have written forms:

No

12.

If it doesn’t, name the language whose spelling is taken as basis for the spelling of the words in the list, (e.g English, Hausa)

13.

Hausa

what other town (or district) etc) speak the same language as the information’s town?

Zamkwo

piapun

1.

Head:

ka

[ ká]

2.

Hair (Head)

tip-Ka

[tip-ká]

3.

Eye:

yit

[jit]

4.

Ear

kom

[k‫כֿ‬m]

5.

Nose

kánzán

[kãzã)

6.

Mouth

khápu

[xápu]

7.

Teeth

hos

[h‫] כֿכֿ‬

8.

Tongue

lis

[Li ]

9.

Jaw

jom

[ ‫כֿכֿ‬m]

10.

Chin

tip-Kom

[tip-k‫כֿ‬m]

11.

Bebard

pep

[pέέp]

12.

Neck

tok

[t ‫כֿכֿ‬k)

ccxxxix

13.

Breast (female)

yoi

[ j ‫ כֿ כֿ‬i)

14.

Heart

folok

[f ‫ כֿ‬l‫ כֿ‬k]

15.

Belly (external)

gbit

[gbit]

16.

Stomach (internal)

takdiegbit

[tákdiegbit]

17.

Navel

fiank um

[fiákum]

18.

Back

dánkoong

[dák‫כּכֿ‬ή]

19.

Arm

pufram

[pufrám]

20.

Hand

sai

[sái]

21.

Nail (finger or toe)

shuen

[ uέ]

22.

Buttocks

pumuukan

[pumvukã]

23.

Penis

dop

[dòp]

24.

Vagina

dul

[dul]

25.

Thigh

shi

[ i]

26.

leg

kwák

[kwák]

27.

Knee

pufram

[pufrám]

28.

body

sopshil

[S‫כּכּ‬p ik]

29.

Skin

shimsopshik

[Sims‫כּ‬p ik]

ccxl

30.

Bone

ghas

[rás]

31.

Blood

tiem

[tiem]

32.

Salva

kialale or tili

[tili]

33.

Wine

kazin

[kázĩ]

34.

Feaces

fubukun

[fubuku]

35.

Food

bisa

[bisá]

36.

Water

am

[am]

37.

Soup/sauce

tok

[t‫כֿ‬k]

38.

Meat

luo

[lu‫]כּ‬

39.

Fat

miei

[miei]

40.

Fish

sherep

[ έrέp]

41.

Oil

miei

[miei]

42.

Salt

khán

[xã]

43.

Wine/beer

mies

[mies]

44.

Palm wine

pami

[pami]

45.

Yam

shim

[ im]

46.

Cassava

rogo

[r‫כּ‬go]

ccxli

47.

Guinea corn

swo

[sw‫]כּ‬

48.

Millet

mái

[mái]

49.

Maize

fiaful

[fiáful]

50.

Beans

Irim

[Irim]

51.

Papper

shita

[ itá]

52.

Okra

tokla

[t‫כּ‬klá]

53.

Plantain

ayaba

[ájaba]

54.

Banana

ayaba

[ájaba]

55.

Orange

lemu

[lέmu]

56.

Groundnut

komkwan

[k‫כּ‬mkwá]

57.

Kola nut

goro

[goro]

58.

Tobacco

táába

[táábá]

59.

Cotton

tepkár

[tepkár]

60.

Oil Palm

mierkpán

[mierkpá]

61.

Seed

seerem

[seerem]

62.

Grass

k’wám

[kwám]

63.

Tree

táng

[táή]

ccxlii

64.

Leaf

komtang

[k‫כּ‬mtή]

65.

Bark (of tree)

dánkomtaή

[dák‫כּ‬mtáή]

66.

That

yáήlọ

[jãήl‫]כּ‬

67.

Thorn

ir

[ir]

68.

Stick

dám

[dám]

69.

Firewood

shièp

[ ièp]

70.

Charcoal

kwarius

[kwárius]

71.

Fire

ushu

[u u]

72.

Smoke

yel

[jel]

73.

Ashes

kpisi

[kpisiusu]

74.

Water Pot

tul-am

[tul-ám]

75.

Cooking

shet

[ έt]

76.

Calabash



[dá]

77.

Grinding stone

pán esfin

[páέsfĩ]

78.

Mortar

chin

[t i]

79.

Knife

chik

[t ik]

80.

Hoe

shen

[se]

ccxliii

81.

Axe

sep

[sep]

82.

Matchet

langa langa

[lãgálãgá]

83.

Spear (War)

kop

[k‫כּ‬p]

84.

Bow (Weapon)

kop

[k‫כּ‬p]

85.

Snow

tinkop

[tik‫כּ‬p]

86.

Iron (Metal)

87.

Mat

peter

[pεtεr]

88.

Basket

bándái

[bádái]

89.

Bag

tip

[tip]

90.

Rope

ten

[te]

91.

Needle

zual

[zuál]

92.

Thread

teήzual

[teήzuál]

93.

Cloth (Material)

gokbi

[g‫כּ‬kbi]

94.

Rope/gown/smock/(man’s)gokbi

[g‫כּ‬kbi]

95.

Hat/Cap

bomka

[bomká]

96.

Shoe

shop

[ op]

97.

Money

shol

[ ‫כּ‬l]

ccxliv

98.

Door (way)

pupun

[pupu]

99.

Wall (of house)

koήlo

[k‫כּ‬ήl]

100. Room

takgwepin

[tákgwepi]

101. House

loo

[l‫]כּכּ‬

102 Compound

takgweloo

[takgwel‫]כּכּ‬

103 Town

letuk

[letuk]

104 Village

loomai

[l‫כּכּ‬mái]

105 Well

konam

[k‫כּ‬nám]

106 Rubbish Heap

pinfok

[pĩf‫כּ‬k]

107 Road

yeei

[jeeĩ]

108 Market

letuk

[letuk]

109 Farm

mai

[mái]

110 Bush

kwam

[kwám]

111. River

konhám

[kohám]

113. Boat (Canoe)

kuelekuele

[kuέlέkuέlέ]

114. Stone

paή

[páή]

112. Sea

ccxlv

115. Mountain

paήupa/paήugbei [pãήugbei]

116. Ground

yeli

[jeli]

117 Earth (soil)

dil or yiel

[jiel]

118. Sand

yielήbal

[jielήbál]

119. Dust

pinnfok

[piήfok]

120. Mud

bok

[b‫כּכּ‬k]

121. Wind

mhad/kom

[k‫כּ‬m]

122. Rain

fueni

[fueni]

123. Sunshine

phsiilá

[phsiilá]

124. Sun

phisi

[phisi]

125. Soon

ndetno

[ndέtn‫]כּ‬

126. Star

záái

[záál]

127. Day

bit

[bit]

128. Night

payii/gong

[g‫כּ‬ή]

129. Dawn

bitpaή

[bit páή]

130. Darkness

pakwo

[pákw‫]כּ‬

131. Sleep

sáám

[sáám]

ccxlvi

132. Work

bishit

[bi it]

133. War

lek

[lέk]

134. Fear

loot

[l‫כּכּ‬t]

135. Hunger

nem

[nem]

136. Thirts

tok-fia

[t‫כּ‬k-fiá]

137. Rain

yii

[jii]

138. Rainy Season

pashi

[pa i]

139. Dry Season

loon

[l‫]כּכּ‬

140. Song

taam

[táám]

141. Story

lábári

[lábári]

142. Word

shik/yoii

[ ik]

143. Lie(s)

dan

[dá]

144. Thing

bii

[bii]

145. Animal

bikan

[biká]

146. Goat

ri

[ri]

147. He goat

ribusung

[ribusuή]

148. Sheep

tomu

[t‫כּ‬mu]

ccxlvii

149. Cow (Zebu)

nuή

[nuή]

150 Horse

nbiziή

[nbiziή]

151. Donkey

njakii

[nd ákii]

152. Dog

ashii/laashi

[láá i]

153. Cat

moosii

[m‫כֿכֿ‬sii]

154. Rat

khazam

[kházám]

155. Chicken (domestic fowl) koo

[k‫]כּכּ‬

156. Cock

kooήnisu

[k‫כּכּ‬ήnisu]

157. Duck

nsooru

[ns‫כּכּ‬ru]

158. Egg

háási

[háási]

159. Wing

kikáp

[kikáp]

160. Feather

komkikap

or

ripki

[k‫כּ‬mkikáp/ripkikap] 161. Horn

sawm

[sáwm]

162. Tail

dang

[dáή]

163. Leopard

lith

[lith]

164. Crocodile

dang

[dááή ]

ccxlviii

káp

165. Elephant

tose

[t‫כּ‬se]

166. Buffalo (bush cow)

kung

[kũή]

167. Monkey

pit

[phit]

168. Tortoise

kwũi

[kwũi]

169. Snake

zem

[zέm]

170. Lizard (common variety) tágbo

[tágbò]

171. Crab

tise

[ti e]

172. Toad (frog)

nòmet

[n‫כּ‬met]

173. Snail

zemán

[zέmá]

174. House



[l‫]כּ‬

175. Bee

ňshi

[n i]

176. Mosquito

fũd

[fũd]

178. Bird

yeri

[jeri]

179. Vulture

nfiak

[nfiák]

180. Kite

gyara

[gjárá]

181. Hawk

gyara

[gjárá]

177. Louse

ccxlix

182. Guinea fork

shom

[ ‫כּ‬m]

183. Bat

ntet

[ntet]

184. Person

gwũim

[gwũim]

185. Name

sham

[ ám]

186. Man

gwingoemisi

[gwĩgoemisi]

187. Male

mishikom

[mi ik m]

188. Husband

mishi/gwũlò

[mi i]

189. Woman

láárep

[láárέp]

190. Female

gwimgũmáát

[gwimgũmáát]

191. Wife

maat

[maat]

192 Old person

gwimgwinfel

[gwĩgwĩfέl]

193. Senior/older

gwimgbee

[gwimgbee]

194. Father

baba

[bábá]

195. Mother

mámá

[mámá]

196. Child

maa

[máá]

197. Children

njep

[n

ccl

p]

198. Son

nlaa

[nláá]

199 Daughter

láarep

[láárεp]

200. Brother (sinner) for man hemnũήgber

[hεmnήũgber]

201 Brother (younger) for man hemnήule

[hεmnuήule]

202 Sister (older) for man eniήgwegwegbe [eniήgwágwegbe] 203 Sister (younger) for man eniήgwegwũle [enĩήgwέgwũlε] 204 Mother’s brother

kinn

[kĩn]

205. In

láháyá

[láhájá]

206. Guest (stranger)

mazep/ήmoshi

[mázεp]

207. Friend

gwĩshaĩ

[gwĩ ai]

208. King

long

[lή‫]כּ‬

209. Hunter

gwingwinsin

[gwĩgwĩsĩ]

210. thief

wet

[wet]

211. Bocklor (native)

gwimgwineen

[gwimgwĩeε]

212. Witch

gbisot

[gbis‫כּ‬t]

213. Chief

long

[l‫ כּ‬ή]

214. Medicine

ren

[rên]

ccli

215. Fetish (juju)

gbisot

[gbsi‫כּ‬t]

216. Corpse

kwumgbin

[kwumgbĩ]

217. God

naan

[náá]

218. One

kunmee

[kũmee]

219. Two

vueli

[vueli]

220 Three

kun

[kũ]

221. Four

feri

[fεri]

222. Five

paat

[páát]

223. Six

punmo

[pũm‫]כּ‬

224. Seven

punvali

[pũváli]

225. Eight

pũnkũn

[pũkũ]

226. Nine

punfári

[pũfári]

227. Ten

saari

[sáári]

228. Eleven

sáárishikákunme [sáári ikákũme]

229. Twelve

saarishika voeli [sáár ikikávoeli]

230. Thirteen

sarishikakun

[sáári ikákun]

231. Fourteen

sarishikaferi

[sáári ikaferi]

cclii

232. Fifteen

sarishikapaat

[sari ikápaat]

233. Sixteen

sarishikapunmo [sari kápunmo]

234. Seventeen

sarishikapunvali [sari ikápũnvali]

235. Eighteen

sarishikapunkun [sari ikápũkũ]

236. Nineteen

sarishikapunfari [sari ikápũfári]

237 twenty

yaagwim

[jaagwim]

238 Twenty-one yaagwinkunήkwakunma [jaagwikunkwakunma] 239 Twenty-two Yaagwinkunήkwavueli

[jaagwikunkw

akavueli] 240 Thirty

yaagwimkunήkwasari

[jaaagwimkumkunkwasari] 241 Forty

yaagwinmvueli

242 Fifty

yaagwinvuelikakwasari

[jaagwivueli]

[jaagwivuelikakwasan] 243 Sixty

yaagukun

ccliii

[jaaguku]

244 Seventy

yaagwinkunkinkwasari

[jaagukukikwari] 245 Eighty

yaaguferi

[jaaguferi]

246 Ninety

yaaguferikunkwasari

[jaaguferikukwasari]

247 Hundred

yaagwinpaat

[jaagwipaat]

248 Two Hundred hundred

yaagwinsaari

[jaagwisaari] 249 Four hundred

yaagwin saarikavueli

[jaagwisaarikavuelo]

250 Black

tiep

[tiep]

251 White

pia

[pia]

252 Red

gbang

[gbãή]

253 Big (great, large) pak 254 Small

[pak]

lẹẹ

[lεε]

255 Long (of stick) kunn

[ku]

256 Short (of stick) koep

[koép]

257 Old 9opp. New0 feli

[feli]

258 New

[bìgbìpu]

bìgbìpu ccliv

259 Wet

bìgbìgberek

[bìgbìgberek]

260 Dry

bìgbìefia

[bìgbìefia]

261 Hot (as fire)

bìgbìlaa

[bìgbìlaa]

262 Cold

bìgbìsom

[bigbisom]

263 Right (side)

tomgoshei

[tomgo re]

264 Left

tonkulu

[t kulu]

265 Good

bigoezang/dong

[

266 bad

bìgbièbìsì

[bìgbièbìsı]

267 Sweet (tasty)

bıgbieshang

(bigbıesāgή]

268 heavy

tìen

[tìe]

269 full

gam

[gaam]

270 strong

gyang

[g ăo]

271 hard

kin

[kĪ]

272 eat

shon

[ o]

273 drink

shuwo/ bishūwo

[ uwo/bìjūwo

274 swallow

dál

[dal]

275 bite

hath

[hat ] cclv

]

276 lick

kpalang

[kpáLáή]

277 taste

shang

[sāĵή]

278 spit

salak

[salak]

279 vomit

fuat

[fuat]

280 urinate

dingkoezing

[dĺg ‫כ‬eziή]

281 delecate

bukọm

[buk‫כ‬m]

282 give birth

laa

[laa]

283 die

mut

[mut]

284 stand (up)

da‫ו‬

[dā‫]ו‬

285 sit (down)

tọn

[t‫כ‬n]

286 kneel

kwurm

[kwurm]

287 lie (down)

tẹl

[tєl]

288 sleep

saam

[sāām]

289 dream

suọm

[su‫כ‬m]

290 go

muán

[muá]

291 come

bàá

[bàá]

292 return (intr)

bankọn

[bāk‫]כ‬ cclvi

293 arrive

yộu

[јộu]

294 enter

zanm

[zàňm]

295 climb

kàà/ han

[kàà]/ hà

296 descend

zanm

[zāam]

297 fall

pal

[pal]

298 walk

muan

[muă]

299 run

sủύ

[sủύ]

300 jump

Mẹẹt/ marap

[mєєt]

301 fly

yol

[ј‫כ‬l]

302 pass (by)

diel

[diel] [dЗiel]

303 turn round (intr) jiel 304 follow

pimmuọp

[pimmu‫כ‬p]

305 see

naá

[náà]

306 here

kiel

[kiЄL]

307 tiuch (with hand)duk

[duk]

308 know

man

[má]

309 remember

kakdiká

[kàkdikā] cclvii

310 forget

mondiká

[mόndika]

311 thing

mèèí/bí

[mèèbí]

312 learn

kám

[kám]

313 laugh

swuei

[swei]

314 weep (cry)

wel

[wel

315 sing

làp

[láp]

316 dance

tàm

[tàm]

317 play (games)

shilák

[ hilák]

318 fear

lọọt

[l‫ככ‬t]

319 greet (salute)

tái

[tál]

320 abuse

ful/fıl

[ful//fıl]

321 fight

rẹnchik

[rЄt ık]

322. Call (Summon)

yòng

[j‫כּכּ‬ή]

323. Send (Someone)

pall

[páii]

324. Say (direct speech)

kwel

[kwεl]

325. Ask (Question)

talnyoi

[tálnj‫כּ‬i]

326. Reply

ánsá

[ãnsá]

cclviii

327. Ask (request)

talbi

[tálbi]

328. Refuse

nyan

[nja]

329. Like

deem

[dεεm]

330. wait (desire)

deem

[dεεm]

331. Look for

liep

[liep]

332. Lose (something)

pali

[páli]

333. Get (obtain)

kath

[káth]

334. Gather (things)

hádá

[hádáá]

335. Steal

weeti

[wέέti]

336. Take (one thing)

laap

[laap]

337. Carry (Load)

maή

[maaή]

338. Show (something)

nuná/kám

[nũná/Kám]

339. Give

pòen

[pòê]

340. Sell

sêêt

[sέέt]

sêêt

[sέέt]

341. Chose 342. Buy

343. Pay (for something) ‘’kwet cclix

[kwεt]

344 Dount

tank

[táήk]

345. Divide (share out)

kap

[káp]

346. Finish (intr)

laat

[laat]

347. Work 348. Shoot

taat

[taat]

349. Kill

tu

[tuu]

350 Skin (flay)

sũpshik

[sũp ik]

351. Cool

sheet

[ έέt]

352. Fry

tung

[tũή]

353. Roast

usi

[uusi]

354. Pound (in mortar) tũbi

[tũbi]

355. Grind

esi

[ε i]

356. Pour

kwán

[kwã]

357. Throw

kom

[k‫כּ‬m]

358. Weep

kũm

[kũm]

359. Burn (tr)

piak

[piak]

360. Extinguish(tr)

nyet

[njεt] cclx

361. Plait (hair)

piat

[paat]

362. Weave (cloth)

piat

[piaat]

363 Spin (thread)

nedee (nεdέε)/miep

[miεp]

364 Sew

tan

[ta]

365 Put on (clothes) leep (lεεp] /

ron [r‫]כ‬

366. Take off (clothes) mang

[mãή]

367. Wash (things)

viang

[viảή]

368. Was (beey)

ndook

[nd‫ככ‬k]

369. Wring (clothes) pioi

[pioi]

370. Pull

diel

[diel]

371. Push

tushi

[tu i]

372. Beat (person)

bgep

[bwεp]

373. Beat (drum)

bgep

[bwεp]

374. Break (pot calabash) pien

[pĩε]

375. Break (a stick) tap

[tap]

376. Tea (tre) 377. Split (tr)

gaap

[gaap] cclxi

378. Pierce

pieerem

[piεεrεm]

379. Hoe

“sheen

[ εέ]

380. Dig

ook

[ k]

381. Soak (seeds in holed) ‘’koop

[k p]

382. Plant (tubers)

màĩi

[màĩĩ]

383. Bud

pĩàk

[pĩàk]

384. Build(house)

dĩĩk

[dĩĩk]

385. Mould (pot)

diik

[diik]

386. Carve (wood)

jeel

[dзεεi]

387. Make

jààrà ( έààrà)/miep

[miεp] [jаа]

388. Hold (in hand) yaa 389. Tie Rope

bọọt

[b‫ככ‬t]

390. Untie

leng

[lέή]

391. Cover (in hand) doii

[d‫כ‬ii]

392 Open (door)

hap (hаp)/leeng

[lεέή]

393 Close

saa (sаа)/doi

[d‫כ‬i]

394. (be) rotten

deem/duu

[dεεm]/duu

cclxii

395. Stink

duu

[duu] [dааm]

396. Swell (intr(of boil) deem 397. Blow (with mouth) fọọt

[f‫ככ‬t]

398. Blow (of wind) nọọk

[n‫ככ‬k]

399. Surpass

del

[del]

400. Dwell

zọm

[z‫כ‬m]

cclxiii

PRONOUNS INDEPENDENT SUBJECT OBJECT

POSSESSIVE

han

nman

2nd

gie

Nmaak

3rd

moen

Nnun

Singular 1st

Plural 1st ni

Nman

2nd

gie

Nmaak

3rd

moen

nnun

Where there are several different forms for one pronoun, include that all, adding notes where necessary e.g different forms for masculine and feminine, inclusive and exclusive, personal and impersonal or pro-vocalic and pre-consonantal forms. interrogative pronouns. What?

amee

What?

aginie

cclxiv

What?

awee

cclxv

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