The Progressive Age 1901-1910

January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Social Science, Political Science
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The Progressive Age 1901-1917

Chapter 28-29

What was the Progressive Movement ? • To use the Government as an agency to improve human welfare by attacking: – Monopolies – Child Labor – Corruption – Social Injustices

The Muckrakers • Investigative Reporters & Journalists who wrote about the abuses happening in American society. • Roosevelt gave them their nickname

Jacob Riis’s – How the Other Half Lives

•Photographer that showed urban poverty

• Upton Sinclair • Wrote “The Jungle” 1906 • Exposed Chicago Meat Packing industries & Gruesome working conditions

Frank Norris – Wrote the Octopus 1901 •Exposed Corrupt politicians conspiring with SO Pacific railroad to exploit CA Farmers

• Ida Tarbell 1904 – History of the Standard Oil Company – Targeted its abuses

Lincoln Steffens - The Shame of the Cities 1904 - Exposed municipal corruption (political machines)

Social Gospel • Combining of Protestant Religion & Humanitarian work to • Urban areas • Help with poverty & immigrants (Jane Adams) – Settlement Houses – Salvation Army

Reforming Local & State Politics • Home rule Charters – Cities got more power from the states • National Municipal League – carried out investigations to help w/Urban problems • City Manager System – placed executive & legislative powers in the hands of a few non partisan basis • Cities pressed for ownership of Utilities (Water & Gas) • Minimum & Maximum Wage wk hours set some provided recreational & daycare facilities

State Level Reforms • • • •

Attempts to ban child labor Minimum & maximum hour wage laws for women Workers Comp. to protect them on the Job Pensions for women & children if dad or husband was killed on the job • Building Codes, State Inspection Acts why? All due to the Triangle Shirtwaist Fire • Business like Railroads, insurance companies, food Industries begin to be regulated

Triangle Shirtwaist Fire • New York 1911 • Killed around 150 workers mainly young women • Many jumped to their deaths • Weak Fire Escapes • Managers locked the doors

Best State Reformer: Senator Robert La Follette from Wisconsin • Model Progressive State • Corrupt Practices Act – political figures liable for wrongdoing • Limited Campaign funds • Focused on: – – – – –

Conservation Taxes Education Highway Construction Politics

Progressive Women • Charlotte Perkins – Wanted female financial independence • Margaret Sanger – wanted Legalized Birth Control set up 1st Clinic 1916 • Alice Paul – Civil disobedience wanted the vote • Jeannette Rankin – 1st women to congress 1917

Progressive Amendments • 16th Amendment 1913 – Instituted an Income Tax • 17th Amendment 1913 – Direct Elections of Senators • 18th Amendment 1919 – Banned the making, selling, and transportation of Alcohol • 19th Amendment 1920 – Granted Women the right to vote

TR’s Square / Fair Deal 1901-1908

• 3 C’s (Control of: –Corporations –Consumer Protection –Conservation

There are Good & Bad Trust • 1902 United Mine Workers went on Strike in PA their demands were – 20% higher wages, 9 hr workday, recognition as a union

Tr’s Reaction: -In fear of winter approaching invited both the UMW & Coal operators to the Whitehouse to negotiate but the operators refused to try & negotiate so TR threatened to send in the U.S. Army to work the mines -The Operators gave in quickly and met some demands -10% wage increase & 9 hr workday

Attacking Corporations & Helping Consumers Created the Dep. Of Commerce & Labor 1903 Elkins Act 1903 – Railroad Companies to charge only Published Rates Bureau of Corporations – investigate antitrust violators Example: Northern Securities v. U.S. 1904 = the court ordered the company to be dissolved (they controlled all long distance railroads west of Chicago)

The Hepburn Act 1906 – Empowered the Interstate Commerce Commission by setting railroads rates & regulations Pure Food & Drug Act 1906 – Federally inspected meat & Medicine

Conservationism • Newlands Reclamation Act Bill + 150 mill acres to national forest • Estab. The Conservation Congress • Appt. Gifford Pinchot to head the Dept. of Agriculture’s Division of Forestry • Boy Scouts • Sierra Club

Roosevelt Panic 1907 • 1904 TR decides not to run again • 1907 Panic on wall Street Broke Out • The Blame was put on TR – 1908 Congress passed Aldrich Vreeland Act – let banks issue emergency currency backed by various kinds of collateral

• Taft was groomed to take over after TR since he was he VP • But . . . Taft will turn out very differently and to a degree Taft and TR will become enemies

Taft’s Dollar Diplomacy • Urged Americans to invest money abroad • Improve U.S. Foreign Policy • Help Stabilize foreign countries • Wanted to inject in Manchuria, China & help, prevent Japan & Russia from monopolizing the railroads

• Pumped money into Honduras & Haiti • Also sent troops & money to: –Cuba –Dominican Republic –Nicaragua – U.S. sent 2500 marines & left them for 13 yrs –All part of the Monroe Doctrine

Taft the Trustbuster • Brought 90 suits a/g trusts in 4 yrs compared to TR’s 44 in 7 ½ yrs • 1911 Supreme Court dissolved the Standard Oil Company why? – It violated the Sherman Anti-trust Act 1890

Issues that Divide the Republican Party • Payne Aldrich Tariff 1909 – 40% tax on imports (went a/g his parties beliefs) • The Ballinger-Pinchot Controversy 1910 – Sided with Conservative Ballinger (Sec. of the Interior) & opened up 1 mill acres of land that TR had set aside for conservation • Brought an Anti-Trust Suit a/g the U.S. Steel Corp. after TR promised the Govt. would not

So . . .TR Runs Again

Chapter 29: 1912-1916 Wilson as President

Wilsonian Progressivism: 1912 Candidates 1. Dr. Woodrow Wilson – Democrat Party –

New Freedom Program – called for; stronger antitrust legislation, banking reform, tariff reductions, favored small businesses

2. TR Roosevelt – Bull Moose Party –

New Nationalism – Gov. should control the bad trust leaving the good trust alone, female suffrage, social welfare,

3. William Taft – Republican Party

Wilson Tackles the Triple Wall of Privilege

• Tariffs' • Banks • Trusts

Tariff • Passed the Underwood Tariff – lowered tariffs on imported goods & created the 16th amendment Income Tax

Bankers •Wanted to fix our National Banking & Currency systems (due to the Panic of 1907) •Federals Reserve Act 1913 – oversaw a system of 12 regional reserve districts each with its on central bank. Each has the power to issue paper money •Helped us get through WW 1

Taming the Trusts • Federal Trade Commission Act – investigate trusts activities & stop unfair trade practices (unlawful competition, false advertising, adulteration, & bribery) • Clayton Anti-Trust Act – exempted labor unions from being called Trusts and legalized strikes & peaceful picketing for labor unions

Other Legislation • Federal Farm Loan Act 1916 & the Warehouse Act of 1916 both helped get farmers loans w/ low interest • Adamson Act – gave 8hr work day w/ overtime pay • Also worked on legislation to help improve the treatment of our sailors

Foreign Policy: A new Direction • Isolationist • Stopped Dollar Diplomacy • Made Congress repeal the Panama Canal Tolls act of 1912 (Which had previously kept Americans from having to pay a toll) • Jones Act1916 - gave Philippines territorial status & promised Indep. As soon as they could reach a stable govt.

• Diffused tension between Japan in 1913 when CA banned Japanese land ownership (Sec. of state W.J. Bryan smoothed things over. • Tension in Haiti 1915 & Dominican Republic1916 broke out – sent marines in • 1917 bought Virgin Islands from Denmark

Trouble in Mexico?

• 1913 Mexico Revolted sick of the poverty ‘ • New political group with the help of the U.S. ambassador murdered the president & put General Victoriano Huerta as President of Mexico • This led to massive immigration to U.S. • This bloodshed attacked Americans in Mexico • Wilson refused to get involved he did allow guns to flow to Huerta’s enemies


– Venustiano Carranza – Francisco “Pancho” Villa

• Violence Escalated in 1914 when American Sailors were arrested in Tampico, Mexico • Wilson used the Navy to seize port of Vera Cruz wanted to get rid of Huerta (stop a German ship from delivering guns and arms to his men) • Argentina, Brazil, & Chile stepped in to put down Huerta regime and in July 1914 eh falls from power

Villa the Freedom Fighter

Robin Hood or Murderer ? • Pancho Villa - Rival to President Carranza begin challenging his authority & U.S.’s – Killed 16 miners in N. Mexico – Columbus NM– murdered another 19 Americans – RESPONSE: Wilson sent General John J. Pershing to put down this bandit but failed to capture Villa

Causes of WW 1 • The Rise of Nationalism • The growth of Imperialism • The formation of sometimes-secret military alliances • Increased Militarism

World War 1 Starts 1914 • A Serbian patriot killed Archduke Franz Ferdinand (Austro-Hungarian heir) • Wilson did not want to get involved in this DRAMA remember (isolationists) issued a neutrality proclamation quickly

Central Powers •Germany •Austria-Hungary •Turkey •Bulgaria

Allied Powers •France •Britain •Russia •Japan •Italy •America

Can America Maintain Neutrality? Hmmm probably not!!!!! Why . . . .. ? From the start we don’t like Germany or their ruler Kaiser Wilhelm II because he resorted to violence in our factories & ports (Briefcase incident NY 1915 sabotage) The Blockade begins………………

Economics of War: • At the start U.S. was in a business recession but . . .as war progressed we started producing mass amounts of trade with the British & French which needed supplies etc. . . • Also J.P Morgan loaned 2.3 billion to the allied powers to help their cause • Germany hated this prosperity “trade” due to the British blockade Germany and its central powers were having a hard time getting around them to trade with America (what can you do?)

• In retaliation German U-Boats 1915 would start sinking ships around the British West Isles • Warned Wilson mistakes may happened so be aware • Wilson’s reply. . .Strict Accountability (were watching you Germany)

• Sadly a British passenger ship Lusitania was torpedoed May 7, 1915 • 1,198 (128 Americans) died • Americans were FURIOUS • 4, 200 cases of weapons •

Wilson’s Response:  Strong letters we mean business stop sinking unarmed ships = Germany agreed to the Sussex Pledge = would no longer attack merchant ships without warning (that’s better) if America agreed to make Britain stop their illegal blockade !!! Hmm ………… OK  Wilson still CLUNG to neutrality going in to his 2nd term but it was getting harder & harder he knew

The last straw . . . . . . . • The Zimmerman Telegraph - Arthur Zimmerman wrote a letter to Germany asking them to ally themselves with Germany, in return Germany would give Texas & other lost land back back to Mexico

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