The Rise of Dictators and WWII

January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, European History, World War II (1939-1945)
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Chapter 26 World War II Section 1: The War Begins

Results of WWII Why study it?

 Largest armed conflict in the history of the     

world 62-78 million worldwide deaths (military & civilian) Mass genocide committed towards individual groups (The Holocaust, Great Purges, etc.) Atomic Age begins (and other new technologies) De-Colonization & Nationalism The beginnings of the Cold War (American & Soviet dominance of the world)

TOTALITARIANISM (a govt. that has total control over its people)

Communism  government owns the businesses and land  Soviet Union

Shared Characteristics • extreme nationalism • one strong leader • one political party • strong military • secret police • censorship • propaganda • indoctrination (teaching young people accepted ideas of the govt.)

Fascism • individual people own the businesses and land • Germany, Italy

Absolute Dictators – Methods of Control  Dictators often used propaganda tools to maintain power (books, radio, the press, films)  People were forbidden from criticizing their government

Nazi Propaganda

The Rise of Dictators 

Dictators (absolute rulers) seized power in Italy, Germany, Japan, Soviet Union after World War I Germany was treated severely after WWI (stripped of territory, forced to disarm, pay reparations) Worldwide Depression also hit – many people looked to new leaders to solve problems The MAJOR Dictators: Benito Mussolini in Italy; Adolf Hitler in Germany; Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union

Benito Mussolini (Italy)  Preached a government

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called Fascism – movement emphasizing loyalty to the state and its leader Deeply anti-Communist; strong support for Italian corporations Deep desire to make Italy a great world power Active Secret Police would jail political opponents Linked to racism and cultural superiority

Mussolini called himself “IL DUCE” (The Chief)

Adolf Hitler (Germany)  Joined politics after WWI   

– wanted to avenge Germany’s loss Organized Nazi Party; tried to seize power in 1923 – but was arrested While in prison – wrote Mein Kampf Spoke about Germany racial superiority (German Aryans were superior; all others – like Jews, Slavs, Gypsies – were inferior) Stated German need for Lebensraum – living space

Hitler’s Policies  Banned all political parties  Created a blackuniformed, secret police unit called the SS (Schutzstaffel)  Massive building program put millions to work – ending the Depression in Germany

Joseph Stalin (Soviet Union) 

Communist leader (Russia became Communist after WWI) Controlled every aspect of people’s lives Attempted to create the “ideal” Communist state • Elimination of all private industry • Collectivized all farms into state-run agriculture • Transformed Soviet Union into industrial giant (Five Year Plans)

**Eliminated all competition to achieve his goals (millions killed or sent to forced labor camps) **The Great Purge (8-13 million “enemies of the people” killed)

New Government for Japan  Japan seemed peaceful and had a democratic government in the 1920s  However, few in government could control the military (who reported directly to the emperor)  When hard economic times hit Japan (caused by the Depression), the military installed a new government that was centered around the Emperor – for whom the military would rule in the name of

Goals for Japan’s Militarists  Expand empire overseas  Improve economy through imperialism  Form a Pacific Empire that included China  BENEFITS OF THE EMPIRE ARE… Could access much needed raw materials Could have an empire that included billions of people to trade with New empire would give “living space” for rising population

Where Japan could find a solution for what they desired…

Japan Invades Manchuria, 1931

Japan’s invasions  1931 – Japan invaded Manchuria (Northeastern China - rich in natural resources)  League of Nations protested action, but did nothing to stop Japan  Japan simply left League of Nations in 1933

 1937 – Japan invaded the rest of China (captured Beijing and Nanjing – where thousands of civilians were killed) – “Rape of Nanjing”

Italy invades Ethiopia  Mussolini saw the League of Nations do nothing to stop Japan  Envious of Britain & France’s holdings in Africa  Invasion of Ethiopia in 1935 – the spears and swords of Ethiopia no match for tanks, guns, and planes of Italy  League of Nations – take no action to stop Italy

Germany Begins Conquests 

1936 – Hitler moves troops into the Rhineland (German region near the French border) WWI treaty said no German troops here French Gov’t and League of Nations – TAKE NO ACTION

German-Italian Alliance 

Germany and Italy formed the Axis Powers Now – two dictators with stated goals of expansion are good friends Axis Powers help Spain’s Fascist military overthrow its elected government (Spanish Civil War) Mussolini and Hitler

Hitler begins his own Conquests 

1938 – Hitler and the Germans invade Austria (most Austrians spoke German and welcomed becoming a part of Germany) But…Hitler and the Germans were expanding – and the WWI treaty told them not to…

The Sudetenland  After taking Austria – Hitler wanted more  His next desire is the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia  Small area of Western Czech where many Germanspeakers lived  The Czechs didn’t want to give this area to Germany – nor did France and Russia

Germany’s Expansion

“Appeasement” at Munich 

The British step in to offer a peace and avoid war British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain meets with Hitler in Munich, Germany • They agree to give Hitler the Sudetenland • Hitler has to promise he is done seeking territory

Reactions to Munich 

Neville Chamberlain, the British Prime Minister who came up with the agreement, said that he had achieved “peace in our time”

Winston Churchill, the future Prime Minister, said: “Britain and France had to choose between war and shame. They chose shame. They will get war, too.”

Hitler breaks his promise: Germany Starts the War  After being given

The Non-Aggression Pact was publicly a peace treaty, but in reality just a ploy by Hitler and Stalin to divide up Eastern Europe

Sudetenland – Hitler takes the rest of Czechoslovakia  Hitler then signs a NonAggression Pact with Stalin and the Soviet Union (they agree to not make war on each other) – now France and Britain have lost an ally in Stalin  Immediately after – Germany invades Poland in Sept. 1939 (France & Britain declare war on Germany) WWII officially begins

The “Conquered” World - 1942

Hitler’s Lightning War • Hitler introduced the “Blitzkrieg” – or ‘Lightning War’ – as his principle strategy • Took the enemy by surprise using fast moving tanks and airplanes – followed by infantry soldiers

Hitler Attacks Western Europe • April 1940 – Hitler invaded Denmark and Norway (he wanted coastline areas to launch future attacks on Britain) • May 1940 – Hitler attacks Holland, Belgium, Luxembourg, and eventually France • France fell in June 1940 • French Gen. Charles de Gaulle fled to London and set up a government-in-exile

Hitler Attacks Britain • P.M. Winston Churchill declared that England would “never surrender” • Germany’s effort began with bombing campaigns – first airfields & factories, then civilian sections of cities • Britain had radar and a code-making machine called the Enigma • The Battle of Britain continued to June 1941 – until Hitler decided to put resources elsewhere

Hitler invades the Soviet Union • June 22, 1941 – Germany invades the Soviet Union • Desire “lebensraum” (living space) • 5 million-man Russian Army not equipped nor prepared for Hitler • Germans moved 500 miles into Russia – who simply retreated and burned

The Lend-Lease Act • Before U.S. is in war, FDR wanted to help the Allies in Europe (especially England) • Wanted the U.S. to be “the great arsenal of democracy” • U.S. lends weapons & equipment worth $50 billion

Great Britain

United States



Problems in the Pacific • Japan dreamed of a vast AsiaPacific Empire • 1941 – European powers “distracted”

• Japan was in need of raw materials – took Manchuria in ’31 – French Indochina in Aug ‘41 – The U.S. cut off oil shipments to Japan to punish their aggression • Only obstacle for Japan dominating region: U.S. Navy in Pacific. • War seemed imminent. But Where? When?

The Attack on Pearl Harbor • December 7, 1941 • Massive air assault / Pacific Fleet badly damaged • 2,400 Americans killed / 18 ships • FDR: “A date which will live in infamy” • America officially enters war

U.S.S. Arizona

America’s Response • President Roosevelt asks Congress to Declare War on Japan • Famous speech: FDR declares that “December 7, 1941 is a day which will live in infamy” • Watch clip

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