The War of 1812

January 6, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, US History, Revolution And Post-Independence (1775-1820), War Of 1812
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The New Republic 1789-1816 How did the United States build a government, expand its territory, and conduct foreign policy in its early years?

Government and Party Politics Chapter 6, Section 1 How did debate over the role of government lead to the formation of political parties?

Government and Party Politics Building the Federal Government

Main Idea: The new government started out with enormous problems, including a large national debt, a small military, Spain’s efforts to keep trade closed along the Mississippi River, and British forts still maintained along the Great Lakes. Important tasks for the new republic included electing a president, and setting up the judiciary and Cabinet. Hamilton’s Plans Stir Debate Main Idea: As a Federalist, Hamilton believed that a strong centralized government was necessary to preserve the Union. However, as he developed plans for paying off the new nation’s great debts, his plans received fierce and vocation opposition from Antifederalists. Opposing Hamilton Main Idea: Opposition to Hamilton’s plans grew steadily in the South, where the states’ income from agriculture enabled them to pay their share of the country’s debts. A Two-Party System Emerges

Government and Party Politics (continued…)

Witness History: The First Inaugural Note Taking: Reading Skill: Summarize Chart: Hamilton’s Plan for Restructuring Debt Color Transparencies: The First President Political Cartoons: The Whiskey Rebellion Infographic: Political Parties Grow History Interactive: Political Parties Grow Progress Monitoring Transparency


Reading Skill: Summarize

Problems Faced by the New Government • Huge war debt from the Revolutionary War • No permanent capital • No federal officers beyond Washington, John Adams, and the newly elected Congress

First Inauguration • The oath of office was administered in New York City • George Washington repeated the oath of office of President • Inauguration: official swearing-in ceremony • Cabinet: leaders of the executive departments of the federal government

President Washington • Administration: staff in the executive branch • Precedent: something done or said that becomes an example, rule, or tradition • Established a tone of dignity; Washington believed that parties and pomp were necessary to command the respect of the world • Elected to second term in 1792 • Tradition of being elected for only two terms

Leaders • President: George Washington

• Vice President: John Adams


The First President

Setting Up the Judiciary • Constitution called for Supreme Court and smaller ones • Left details of organization to Congress • Judiciary Act of 1789 – system of courts • Thirteen federal district courts • John Jay was first Chief Justice of the U.S.

Government Affairs • Foreign affairs: relations with foreign countries; the Secretary of State heads the State Department and coordinated U.S. involvement with foreign countries • Domestic affairs: Issues relating to a country’s internal affairs

Cabinet • Cabinet: officials selected by the President to head the major departments of the executive branch and to advise the President • Attorney General: Edmund Randolph • Secretary of War: Henry Knox • Secretary of State: Thomas Jefferson • Secretary of the Treasury: Alexander Hamilton

Thomas Jefferson • Planter, lawyer, and diplomat; had served several years as ambassador to France • Writer, inventor, and violinist • Founded the University of Virginia

Alexander Hamilton • Brilliant man • Private secretary to General Washington • Believed that governmental power could accomplish great things

Hamilton and Jefferson Debate Hamilton and Jefferson in Conflict • Hamilton: strong central government led by wealthy, educated • Jefferson: strong state, local government; people’s participation • Hamilton has Northern support; Jefferson has Southern, Western

Hamilton’s Economic Plan • U.S. owes millions to foreign countries, private citizens • Plan—pay foreign debt, issue new bonds, assume states’ debt • Some Southern states have paid debts, against taxes to pay for North

Hamilton’s Program • Supported strong national power • Little faith in the people • Felt that government needed to direct the development of the American economy • Hamilton’s Plan: take on Revolutionary War debts of states • Wanted to charter a Bank of the U.S.

Deal • Southern states would support the debt plan, if northern states would support the plan to locate the capital in the South • Hamilton’s strategy: - Creditors owed money by the government did not want government to collapse - Creditors were concerned with the future of the U.S. so they would get paid • Set up a budget payment plan: sell government bonds


Hamilton’s Plan for Restructuring Debt

Hamilton’s Opponents • Washington sided with Hamilton • Thomas Jefferson resigned from the Cabinet in 1793. • Believed that Hamilton was betraying the spirit of the Revolution • Had more faith in the people

Interpretation of Constitution • Strict construction – government should not do anything unless specified in the Constitution • Loose construction – government could do anything that was not forbidden in the Constitution

Payment Plan • Tariff enacted in 1789 to tax imported goods to raise money • 1791, congress placed a tax on whiskey • Fund set up to pay creditors slowly, with interest

Whiskey Rebellion • Corn made into whiskey • Used as a kind of currency • Rebels closed courts and attacked tax collectors • 1794, army of 12,000 men put down the rebellion in Pennsylvania to demonstrate the power of the government


Analyzing Political Cartoons: The Whiskey Rebellion


Political Parties Grow

Democratic Republicans • Stood for a more democratic republic • Along with Federalists, they became the first political parties: a group of people who seek to win elections and hold public office in order to control government policy and programs


Progress Monitoring Transparency

The Struggle Over Foreign Policy Chapter 6 Section 2 How did foreign policy challenges affect political debate and shape American government?

The Struggle Over Foreign Policy Conflict in the Ohio Valley Main Idea: From the forts they maintained along the Great Lakes, the British supplied the Miami Indians and their allies with arms and ammunition. The British hoped to limit American settlement in the Northwest Territory. This led to violent conflict. American Relations With Europe Main Idea: While the British were helping Native Americans take a stand against the United States, Americans became embroiled in the first major foreign policy event of its short history: the French Revolution.

The Parties Debate Foreign Policy Main Idea: The Federalists and Antifederalists conflicted over many issues concerning government power. A crisis in France briefly united the nation, but the Alien and Sedition Acts and the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions soon revealed the party divisions once again. The Election of 1800

The Struggle Over Foreign Policy (continued…)

Witness History: A Great Orator Speaks Note Taking: Reading Skill: Identify Supporting Details Color Transparencies: The XYZ Affair Political Cartoons: Fighting Over the Sedition Act Map: Presidential Election of 1800 Progress Monitoring Transparency


Reading Skill: Identify Supporting Details


Analyzing Political Cartoons: Fighting Over the Sedition Act

French Revolution • 1789 French people overthrew King Louis XVI • During the Reign of Terror, thousands of people were executed, including King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette

War • Federalists opposed the French Revolution, while Jefferson and his supporters thought of it as an extension of the American Revolution • War broke out between Great Britain and France • America neutral

Jay’s Treaty • Washington sided with Britain in war because of British navy • Britain agreed to leave the forts in Northwest Territory • Expanded trade, but did not solve ship problem of stopping American ships to search for British subjects • Lost support of many Americans

Washington’s Legacy • Washington was famous for his honesty, dignity, an self-control • He was very popular in his first four years • Problems clouded his second term

• Many distrusted the government • Many disliked Hamilton’s economic plans • Jefferson resigned in 1793 • Divisions in the government developed

Capital City • First government was in New York City • Capital moved to Philadelphia in 1790 • Residence Act of 1790: 10-square-mile stretch of land on Virginia-Maryland border • District of Columbia • Benjamin Banneker: surveyor • Pierre-Charles L’Enfant developed the city plan with broad streets, the White House for the President’s residence, and the Capitol building for Congress; moved in 1800

U.S. Response to Events in Europe Reactions to the French Revolution • Federalists pro-British; Democratic-Republicans pro-French • Washington declares neutrality, will not support either side • Edmond Genêt, French diplomat, violates diplomatic protocol

Treaty with Spain • Spain negotiates with Thomas Pinckney, U.S. minister to Britain • Pinckney’s Treaty of 1795, or Treaty of San Lorenzo, signed: - Spain gives up claims to western U.S. - Florida-U.S. boundary set at 31st parallel - Mississippi River open to U.S. traffic

Washington’s Farewell Address • “[A system of political parties] agitates the Community with illfounded jealousies and false alarms, kindles the animosity of one part against another, [and] foments [stirs up] occasional riot and insurrection.” 1796

Election of 1796 • Washington set a precedent of serving two terms • John Adams ran against Thomas Jefferson. • Adams elected with Jefferson his Vice President (from different political parties)


Progress Monitoring Transparency

John Adams  Second President  Lacked the prestige of Washington  Rise of political parties  Threat of war from abroad with the French over Jay’s Treaty  French began seizing American ships in French harbors

XYZ Affair  French were seizing American ships  X, Y, and Z were French agents sent by Tallyrand to demand a bribe from America to see him  Americans returned home  Undeclared war with France


The XYZ Affair

Adams Provokes Criticism First Party-Based Elections • 1796, Federalist John Adams elected president - Jefferson, a Democratic-Republican, is vice-president • Result of sectionalism, placing regional interests above nation

Adams Tries to Avoid War • French see Jay’s Treaty as violation of alliance; seize U.S. ships • XYZ Affair—French officials demand bribe to see foreign minister • Congress creates navy department; Washington called to lead army • Undeclared naval war rages between France, U.S. for two years

Alien Act  President gained the right to imprison or deport citizens of other countries residing in the U.S.

Sedition Act • Persons who wrote, published, or said anything “of a false, scandalous, and malicious” nature against the American government or its officials could be jailed or fined

Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions  Jefferson, Madison, and others felt the Sedition Act violated free speech  Legislatures of two states came up with “null and void” idea  Stated that states had the right to judge whether federal laws agreed with the Constitution

Nullification  Principle that a state could declare a federal law “null and void” in a state  Principle unresolved

Prosser’s Rebellion  Gabriel Prosser, a blacksmith, in Richmond, Virginia, led a rebellion. It failed and twenty of them were executed.

Election of 1800  Personal attacks  Jefferson versus Adams  Jefferson did not gain a majority so decided in the House of Representatives

Transfer of Power  Peaceful  Americans must be willing to disagree peacefully


Presidential Election of 1800

The Age of Jefferson Chapter 6 Section 3 What were the successes and failures of the Jefferson administrations?

The Age of Jefferson Pursuing Republican Principles Main Idea: Jefferson and his administration set out to do things quite differently from their Federalist predecessors. Jefferson cut taxes but succeeded at cutting the national debt by streamlining government bureaucracy. Federal revenue also surged due to growth in foreign trade and sale of federal lands. John Marshall’s Supreme Court Main Idea: John Marshall, a Federalist, became the Chief Justice of the United States in 1801. His four-part legacy and his participation in over 1,000 court decisions made a tremendous impact on the nation’s history. The Nation Expands Main Idea: Jefferson insisted that farm ownership was essential to the freedom of white Americans. Yet, without expansion there would not be enough farms for the rapidly growing population. As a result, Jefferson set his sights on expanding the U.S. to the Pacific. Jefferson’s Foreign Troubles

The Age of Jefferson (continued…)

Witness History: A Jefferson Calls for Free Speech

Note Taking: Reading Skill: Identify Main Ideas Note Taking: Reading Skill: Recognize Sequence Color Transparencies: The Marshall Court

Geography Interactive: U.S. Territory, 1803 Chart: U.S. Population, 1790-1810 Map: The Reexport Trade in Action Progress Monitoring Transparency

Reducing Government • Jefferson reversed much of what the Federalists had done, such as presidential style; addressed as “Mr. President” • Reduced taxes • Cut the bureaucracy – the departments and workers that make up the federal government • Slashed the size of the army to 3,000 men • Let stand the Bank of the United States since charter would expire in 1811

Rivals to Jefferson • Aaron Burr: Vice President • Alexander Hamilton, now a lawyer in New York • Burr killed Hamilton in a duel in 1804, ending his political future

Judiciary Acts • Judiciary Act of 1789: created a national court system with three circuit courts and thirteen district courts, headed by the Supreme Court • Stated that the Supreme Court would settle differences between state and federal laws

Judiciary Acts • Judiciary Act of 1801: decreased the number of Supreme Court justices and increased the number of federal judges. Adams filled the new posts to have more Federalists judges; • Known as midnight judges • Angered Jefferson who felt that he should appoint new judges from his political party

John Marshall • Federalist leader • Became Chief Justice in 1801 and held post for 34 years • Established principle of constitutional law – judicial review • Insisted federal laws were superior to state laws

Marbury v. Madison • Adams appointed Marbury as justice of the peace for the District of Columbia • Secretary of State Madison never delivered the papers • Marbury sued Madison • Chief Justice Marshall ruled against Marbury; declared part of the Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional • Established the power of judicial review

Judicial Review • Enables federal courts to review state laws and court decisions • Can decide if laws passed by Congress are constitutional


Reading Skill: Recognize Sequence


The Marshall Court


U.S. Population, 1790-1810

Louisiana Purchase • Northwest Ordinance of 1787: established a process by which territories could become states • Land Act of 1800: Americans able to buy land in small parcels and on credit • Napoleon, the French ruler, took over much of the Spanish land in the West and charged large sums of money from American traders to use the Mississippi River and New Orleans

Louisiana Purchase • France controlled New Orleans • Napoleon failed to stop a rebellion in Haiti • Jefferson sent James Monroe to Paris to buy New Orleans for $10 million, but he bought all French land for $15 million • Jefferson overcame doubts about constitutionality of buying land and signed purchase • Doubled the size of the U.S.

Lewis and Clark Expedition • Meriwether Lewis and William Clark explored the Louisiana Purchase in 1804 to make contact with Native Americans and to gather information about the region’s natural resources • Sacajawea and husband were interpreters

Zebulon Pike • Traveled as far west as the Rockies and then south into Spanish-held territory between 1806 and 1807 • Pike’s Peak

Foreign Policy • Jay’s Treaty expired in 1805 • Great Britain and France at war again • Harassing American ships; British kidnapping American sailors • Leopard incident – British ship, the Leopard, attacked the U.S.S. Chesapeake, inflicting 21 casualties in search of deserters from the British navy

Barbary War • Barbary States of North Africa used piracy for profit • U.S. had paid prote4ction money to the Barbary States • Price increased, so Jefferson blockaded the port of Tripoli • Peace in 1805

Reexport Trade • War between Britain and France with British capturing French merchant ships • Americans brought cargoes from French islands to American ports, and then shipped them to France • British began to confiscate American merchant ships for trading with the French • British began to impress American sailors


The Reexport Trade in Action

Embargo of 1807 • Outlawed almost all trade with foreign countries • Little effect on British or French trade • Americans smuggled goods to Europe in defiance of the embargo (a restriction of trade) • Jefferson used navy and federal agents to enforce the law • Ruined Jefferson’s second term


Reading Skill: Identify Main Ideas

Election of 1808 • James Madison was elected president • Jefferson retired to his home


Progress Monitoring Transparency

The War of 1812 Chapter 6 Section 4 Why did the United States go to war with Britain, and what was the outcome of that war?

The War of 1812 Gearing Up for War Main Idea: Democratic Republicans felt humiliated by the failure of the 1807 embargo against Britain. With persistent British abuses on the oceans, and stepped-up Native American resistance in the West, Americans increasingly blamed the British for their problems. War Breaks Out Main Idea: President Madison urged Congress to declare war on Britain in June of 1812. Disunited, unprepared, and with only a small army and navy, the United States went to war once again with the world’s greatest power. War’s Aftermath and Effects Main Idea: After the War of 1812 and Jackson’s victory in New Orleans, Americans experienced a surge of nationalism and a new confidence in the strength of their republic. By weathering a difficult war, the nation seemed certain to endure. Also, westward expansion contributed to a union that was bigger and stronger than ever.

The War of 1812 (continued…)

Geography Interactive: Major Battles of the War of 1812 Color Transparencies: The War of 1812 Analyze: Cause and Effect: The War of 1812 Progress Monitoring Transparency

Northwest Ordinance of 1787 • No state northwest of the Ohio River could be a slave state • Missouri not covered by this law • Northern congressmen worried that if Missouri was admitted as a slave state, the balance of power would tip toward the South

War in the Old Northwest • American Revolution weakened Iroquois and Cherokee • Miami, Delaware, Shawnee, and other Native American groups grouped to fight expansion • Miamitown 1790 – Little Turtle and Blue Jacket defeat army • Expedition led by Arthur St. Clair defeated

Battles-Army Victories • Legion of the U.S. led by General Wayne win at the Battle of Fallen Timbers in Ohio • Native American groups forced to accept Treaty of Greenville • Miami, Delaware, Shawnee, and other groups lost southern two thirds of Ohio • Ohio River no longer a permanent boundary between their land and settlers

Native American Reaction • • • •

1. Accept white culture 2. Blending Indian and American cultures 3. Returning to Indian religious traditions 4. Taking military actions

Accepting White Culture • Little Turtle-leader of the Miami people • Adopted some American customs • Tried to live peacefully with settlers

Blending Cultures • Handsome Lake - a Seneca called for a rebirth of Seneca culture that would blend customs of both Native Americans and Americans • Urged his people to abandon war and focus on rituals

Returning to Traditions • Tenskwatawa (the Prophet) called for a rejection of European ways and a return to tradition • Established Prophetstown in Indiana; had warlike attitude

Military Action • Tecumseh believed that Native Americans must unite the Native American groups to fight the Americans; brother of Tenskwatawa • Battle of Tippecanoe – William Henry Harrison was attacked by Tenskwatawa; Prophetstown burned

Result • Tecumseh dies in Canada during the War of 1812 at the Battle of the Thames • Tecumseh does not accomplish goal of uniting Native Americans • Tecumseh and Tenskwatawa showed defiance and earned respect for their people and culture


Reading Skill: Recognize Sequence


Should the United States Declare War on Britain?

Reasons for War • Americans believed the British were encouraging the Native Americans to attack • War Hawks (Clay and Calhoun) wanted Britain out of North America • British interference with shippingimpressment: the act of forcing people into military service

Land War • Tried to defeat British in Canada; defeated by the British in summer of 1812; Americans were poorly equipped and led • Battle of the Thames, 1813, Americans defeated British and Native Americans, including Tecumseh

Naval War • American vessels outnumbered 20 to 1 • Perry defeated British fleet on Lake Erie, protecting northern border • British blockaded coast

Baltimore • British bombarded Fort McHenry • Francis Scott Key watched and wrote the Star-spangled banner

Washington, D.C. • 1814, British ended war with Napoleon • British seized Washington and burned the White House and the Capital • President Madison fled

War Ends • The Hartford Convention 1814: New England considered leaving the Union; called for constitutional amendments to increase New England’s political power • Treaty of Ghent -Representatives met in Belgium -All old boundaries between the U.S. and Britain were restored


The War of 1812

Battle of New Orleans • Two weeks after treaty signed • General Andrew Jackson defeated the British • Battle unified country and made Jackson a hero


Cause and Effect: The War of 1812

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