this Powerpoint - Fifth Grade News

January 6, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, US History, The Civil War And Reconstruction (1850-1880), Civil War
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Reconstruction of the South

The Civil War 1861-1865 

War between the North (Union) and South (Confederacy)

The South wanted:

To preserve their way of life including slavery

Leave the Union (United States) and form their own country

The North wanted: 

Higher tariffs or taxes

To end slavery

To preserve the Union (keep the country whole)

The Civil War 1861-1865 

The Southern states won early battles

Later the tide of the war turned to favor the North: 

The Battle of Gettysburg (Pennsylvania) 

The Union stopped General Lee’s advancement to the North

He and his troops went back to Virginia

The Battle of Vicksburg (Virginia) 

General Grant won the Battle of Vicksburg, cutting the South in two.

General Lee surrendered to General Grant at Appomattox Court House in Virginia on April9, 1865.

Reconstruction 

Reconstruction means to build something again.

After the war, the South needed to be rebuilt.

There were two plans for Reconstruction: 

President Lincoln’s plan

Congress’ plan

Lincoln’s Plan 

President Lincoln’s plan: 

Ended slavery throughout the country by passing the 13th amendment to the Constitution

Allowed Southern states to reenter the Union if 

They formed new state governments

They promised to treat former slaves fairly

President Lincoln was assassinated before Reconstruction began so President Johnson had to enact his plan.

Reconstruction under Congress 

Congress passed the first Reconstruction Acts in 1867.

They divided the South into military zones.

They required that Southern states rewrite their state constitutions to allow African American men the right to vote.

They prevented former Confederate leaders and military officers from

holding public office.

Problems with Johnson’s plan 

Under this plan, Southern states were free to pass laws called Black Codes.

Black codes

Denied African American men the right to vote

Limited jobs

Denied the right to own land or guns

The result was that life for African Americans was much the same as it was under slavery.

Black codes angered Congress and they came up with their own plan for Reconstruction.

Reconstruction Under Congress 

The Freedmen’s Bureau was formed 

Helped the 4 million slaves freed by the war

Built hospitals and schools for blacks

Resistance to Reconstruction 

Southern whites resented the new state governments

They had a hard time paying new taxes as they tried to rebuild their businesses and farms

They resented new rights given to African Americans 

Some formed the Ku Klux Klan that burned African American schools and homes and attacked blacks for trying to vote.

Freedmen’s Bureau

Reconstruction Under Congress 

Carpetbaggers: 

Northerners who went down South to start businesses

Scalawags: 

Southerners who supported Reconstruction

Reconstruction Under Congress 

In order to be readmitted to the Union, Southern states had to accept two new amendments.

The 14th Amendment:

Gave citizenship to African Americans

Stated that they could not be denied equal rights under the law.

The 15th Amendment: 

Granted the right to vote to all male citizens

Reconstruction Ends 

By 1870, all former Confederate states met the requirements of Reconstruction.

After Reconstruction, white Southern Democrats quickly regained power in state governments.

New laws were passed that again restricted the rights of former slaves. 

Tried to prevent African Americans from voting 

Moved voting booths without notice

Imposed poll taxes many blacks could not pay

Grandfather clause that said they could only vote if their father or grandfather had voted before 1867.

Reconstruction Ends 

Jim Crow Laws were also passed. 

Enforces segregation or separation of blacks and whites

Blacks could not sit with whites on trains or stay in certain hotels.

They could not eat in certain restaurants or attend certain theaters, schools or parks.

Jim Crow Laws

Jim Crow Laws, cont.

Reconstruction Ends 

Many former slaves were forced to return to plantations because they could not find jobs.

Sharecropping became a way of life for blacks and poor whites. 

They rented land from landowners

Paid their rent with crops

Used the money from the rest of their crops to pay for clothes and food

Usually didn’t make enough money

After War and Reconstruction 

Slavery was over.

The federal government had established its power over the states.

The 14th and 15th amendments provided for equal rights although it would be a very long time before these rights were recognized.

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