Ukrainian National Revolution 1648
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Ukrainian National Revolution 1648 – 1676
In the middle of the XVII century lack of their own
state, progressive loss of the national elite, the church split, Polonization, stick a catholic faith, the growing enslavement of the peasantry led people on the Ukrainian lands to popular uprising. The weakness of royal power, the expand of the
influence of Zaporozhian Sich, loss of control on the part of Poland did this uprising possible.
A Cossack rebellion in 1648 on the Ukrainian lands under
the leadership of Bogdan Khmelnitsky, turned into the National War of Liberation from Poland, was later transformed into the Ukrainian National Revolution 1648 1676. In the process of national liberation movement into the
outlook of the Cossack elite was some evolution of the idea of Cossack autonomy to the creation of an independent state. The basis of state building was the military model of
territorial division and organization of public power of Zaporozhian Sich.
the command of Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky, the Zaporozhian Cossacks allied with the Crimean Tatars and local peasantry and fought several battles against the armies and paramilitary forces of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The result was an eradication of the control of the
Polish szlachta and their Jewish intermediaries, and the end of ecclesiastical jurisdiction for the Latin Rite Catholics over the country.
The Ukrainian National Revolution 1648-1676 resulted
in the incorporation of Ukraine (lands located eastward from the river Dnieper) into the Tsardom of Russia at the Pereiaslav Agreement, where the Cossacks swore an oath of allegiance to the tsar. This, according to poet Taras Shevchenko, brought
about his people's "enslavement" under Russia.
The Ukrainian National Revolution 1648 - 1676 started as the
rebellion of the Cossacks, but as other Orthodox Christian classes (peasants, burghers, petty nobility) of the Ukrainian lands joined them, the ultimate aim became a creation of the Ukrainian Cossack Autonomous State. The Ukrainian National Revolution succeeded in ending Polish
influence over those Cossack lands that were eventually taken by the Tsardom of Russia. These events, along with internal conflicts and hostilities
with Sweden and Russia, resulted in severely diminished Polish power during this period (referred to in Polish history as The Deluge).
The reasons of the Ukrainian National Revolution Religious oppression National oppression Social oppression
Purpose of the Ukrainian National Revolution Ending of Polish rule The creation of the Ukrainian state in its ethnic
boundaries Abolition of serfdom Abolition of feudal land
The nature of the Ukrainian National Revolution Antireligious National Liberation Antifeudal
The Ukrainian National Revolution participants Cossacks Villagers Townsfolk
Part of the Ukrainian
clergy Small and middle gentry
The main provisions of the Treaty of Zboriv Rzeczpospolita recognizes the existence of the Ukrainian
Cossack State, the head of which is the Hetman. Recognition of the Orthodox Church. It was granted privileges. Governmental offices in the Cossack Hetmanate could be held only by Cossack leaders. There are three province in Ukraine: Kiev Voivodeship, Bratslav Voivodeship, and Chernihiv Voivodeship. The number of Registered Cossacks increased up to 40 thousand.
The main provisions of the Treaty of Bila Tserkva The number of Registered Cossacks was reduced to
20,000 and their residence restricted to the area of the Kiev Voivodeship. Additionally, the Brastlav and Chernihiv palatinates were given back to Polish governmental administrators, and the noblemen were permitted to return to their properties.
Recent events of the Ukrainian National Revolution After approval of the Treaty of Bila Tserkva Khmelnytsky
increasingly aware that their own efforts to break out against Polish rule, with only an unreliable ally - Tatars fails. As a result, Khmelnytsky seek to conclude an alliance through dynastic marriage, but in 1653 his son Tymish tragically dies. And after a series of unfulfilled attempts Hetman goes Pereyaslav Treaty, which concluded in 1654.
The aftermath Within a few months almost all Polish nobles, officials
and priests had been wiped out or driven from the lands of present-day Ukraine. The Commonwealth population losses in the uprising
were over one million. In addition, Jews had substantial losses because they
were the most numerous and accessible representatives of the szlachta regime.
The uprising began a period in Polish history known
as The Deluge (which included the Swedish invasion of the Commonwealth during the Second Northern War), that temporarily freed the Ukrainians from Polish domination but in a short time subjected it to Russian domination. Weakened by wars, in 1654 Khmelnytsky persuaded the
Cossacks to ally with the Russian tsar in the Treaty of Pereyaslav, which led to the Russo-Polish War (16541667).
• When Poland-Lithuania and Russia agreed
on to truce and anti-Swedish alliance in 1657, Khmelnytski's Cossacks supported the invasion of the Commonwealth by Sweden's Transylvanian allies instead.
• Although the Commonwealth tried to
regain influence over Cossacks (of note is the Treaty of Hadiach of 1658), the new Cossack subjects became even more loyal to Russia.
• With the Commonwealth becoming increasingly weak,
Cossacks became more and more integrated into the Russian Empire, with their autonomy and privileges eroded.
• The remnants of these privileges were gradually
abolished in the aftermath of the Great Northern War in which hetman Ivan Mazepa sided with Sweden.
• By the time the partitions of Poland ended the existence
of the Commonwealth in 1795, many Cossacks had already left Ukraine to colonize the Kuban.
Historical significance The Ukrainian National Revolution 1648–1676 had considerable importance in the history of Ukraine: It led to the creation of the National Ukrainian State -
Hetmanate which existed on the territory of the Left Bank in the Russian Empire until the last quarter of the XVII century.
During its development formed National State Idea,
fluttering in the Ukrainian people a Sense of National Identity, which later played an important role in the struggle for independence.
Strengthened the tradition of struggle against the
national religious and social oppression, awakened the people's will to self-assertion and self-expression in the form of the nation-state. Led to the consolidation of the state lie within the
name "Ukraine" and started changing the name "Rus people" for "Ukrainian people".
Among the Cossack elite for the first time in the history
of Ukrainian political thought was clearly formulated the fundamentals of the National State Idea: - the right of the Ukrainian people to establish their own state in the ethnic boundaries of residence; - Independence and unity of the Ukrainian state; - genetic link of the Cossack State with the Kyivan Rus’, the continuity of borders, traditions and culture of the Middle Ages.