UNIT 4-A SPECIFICITIES Lesson -1 New political, economic, and
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UNIT 4-A SPECIFICITIES Lesson -1
New political, economic, and social structures emerge upon the collapse of existing political systems to provide protection and services to people in a society.
— What were the causes and effects of the spread of Christianity, the decline of Rome and the formation of medieval Europe from 600 to 1450? —
What was the impact of the fall of Rome on Western Europe?
— How did the development of Christianity act as a unifying social and political factor in medieval Europe and the Byzantine Empire? —
What are the characteristics of Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy?
— What were the major characteristics of and the factors contributing to the development of the political/social system of feudalism and the economic system of manorialism? —
How did Islam impact Europe politically, economically, and socially?
How did Muslim, Christian, and Jewish societies in Europe interact?
— How did the Crusades, the Black Death, the Hundred Years' War, and the Great Schism contribute to the end of medieval Europe? — What has been the impact of political and legal ideas contained in historic documents including Justinian’s Code of Laws and the Magna Carta? —
What are the political philosophies of significant individuals including Thomas Aquinas?
— What have been the historical origins, central ideas, and spread of major religious and philosophical traditions including Christianity and the development of monotheism?
Feudalism – the system of political organization prevailing in Europe from the 9th to about the 15th centuries having as its basis the relation of lords granting parcels of land known as fiefs to lesser knights who are known as vassals, who in turn, provide military service to the lord. Manorialism – smallest economic social unit revolving around an estate, controlled by a lord, who gives land and protection to his serfs, who in turn give him their services. Schism – a formal division in or separation from a church or religious body Hundred Years’ War– a series of wars between England and France from 1337 through 1453 nationalism schism kingdom nation
Explain -- IMPACT OF FALL OF ROME ON WESTERN EUROPE
Disruption of trade that leads to collapse of businesses, destruction of economic centers, and scarcity of money as a result of invasions Downfall of cities as centers of administration Shift to a rural population as Roman citizens abandoned destroyed cities Decline of learning since Germanic invaders could not read or write Loss of a common language as Latin changes and different dialects develop Change in the concept of government from one of loyalty to public government and written law shifts to governance through unwritten laws and traditions
Explain -- DEVELOPMENT OF CHRISTIANITY AS UNIFYING SOCIAL AND POLITICAL FACTOR IN MEDIEVAL EUROPE AND BYZANTINE EMPIRE
Byzantine Empire o Constantine relocates the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire to Byzantium and renames it Constantinople o Justinian constructs the Hagia Sophia along with numerous other grand churches throughout his empire to show the close connection between church and state o Missionary Saints Cyril and Methodius Christianize Slavs to the north of the empire and develop the Cyrillic language to promote religion to the Slavs Medieval Europe o Missionaries spread Christianity o Authority in medieval Europe based on the Church o Charlemagne crowned emperor by Pope Leo III, which shows the close connection between church and state o Shared beliefs in Christianity bond the people of medieval Europe o Church provided stability and security in times of frequent wars o Middle Ages seen as the “Age of Faith” o Church creates a system of justice (canon law) to regulate people’s conduct
Explain -- CHARACTERISTICS OF ROMAN CATHOLICISM AND EASTERN ORTHODOXY
Great Schism of 1054 divides the Eastern and Western Churches into Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church Roman Catholicism o Pope has authority over all other bishops, kings, and emperors o Services conducted in Latin o Priests cannot marry o Divorce is not permitted Eastern Orthodoxy o Patriarch and other bishops lead the church as a collective group o Services conducted in Greek or local languages o Priests may marry o Divorce is allowed under certain circumstances
Describe -- MAJOR CHARACTERISTICS AND FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO FEUDALISM (POLITICAL AND SOCIAL) AND MANORIALISM (ECONOMIC)
Feudalism – Reciprocal military obligations between members of the warrior nobility in Medieval Europe o Characteristics – Lords grant parcels of land known as fiefs to lesser knights who are known as vassals, who in turn, provide military service to the lord. Chivalry and fealty between a lord and the vassal relationship
Contributing factors – Fall of the Roman Empire leaves a gap in protection and services to people, invaders overrun communities, people turn to lords for their protection Manorialism – Smallest economic, social unit revolving around an estate, controlled by a lord, who gives land and protection to his serfs, who in turn give him their services. Land = wealth o Characteristics – Manors were self-sufficient where serfs raised and produced nearly everything needed for that community. The open field system allowed several families of serfs to farm strips of the same parcel of land. Living conditions for serfs were generally harsh on manors. o Contributing factors – Model of villas in the Roman Empire used to manage rural economies; decline in overland and sea trade after the fall of the Roman empire as well as threats from invaders also promoted the self-sufficiency of a manor o
Explain -- POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, AND SOCIAL IMPACT OF ISLAM ON EUROPE, ASIA, AND AFRICA Europe
Moors occupy Spain for over 700 years and promote a golden age in art, literature, science, and mathematics Defeat by the Franks at Tours in 732 stops the Muslim invasion of Europe
Describe -- INTERACTIONS BETWEEN MUSLIM, CHRISTIAN, AND JEWISH SOCIETIES IN EUROPE, ASIA, AND NORTH AFRICA
Europe o o o o o o
Muslim invasion of Spain in the 700s leads to a golden age in scientific and artistic achievements Creation of the Muslim state of al-Andalus Córdoba had eclectic mix of Muslim, Jewish and Christian populations that by 1100 resulted in a population of 500,000 Reconquista drives out the Muslims in the late 1400s Muslim invasions of Eastern Europe between 600s and 900s lead disorder and suffering that forces people to look to local rulers for security. Leads to the rise of feudalism. Inquisition in Spain leads to torture and expulsion of Muslims and Jews
Explain -- HOW THE CRUSADES, THE BLACK DEATH, THE HUNDRED YEARS WAR, AND THE GREAT SCHISM CONTRIBUTED TO END OF MEDIEVAL EUROPE
Crusades o Failure lessened the power of the Pope o Casualties weakened the feudal nobility o Trade in spices and other goods from Southwest Asia lead to European desire for new trade routes that begins the Era of Exploration Black Death o Collapse of manorial system as productivity ends and serfs leave in search of work; peasant rebellions grow in response to nobles’ refusal to increase wages o Church loses prestige as it is unable to stop the plague through prayer and intervention Hundred Years War o Emergence of nationalism and monarchs as national leaders in England and France o Instability in England after the Hundred Years War leads to the War of the Roses, which strengthens Parliament since it is called frequently by King Edward III to increase taxes to finance this new war; democracy advanced as Parliament gains greater “power of the purse” Great Schism o Split in the Catholic Church as two popes claim authority – one in Avignon and the other in Rome; both excommunicate each other from the Church o Authority of the pope as head of the Church challenged by John Wycliffe, who believes that God is sole authority, and Jan Huss, who believes the authority of the Bible is higher than the pope’s authority. Beginning of challenges to the authority of the Catholic Church that leads to the Reformation.
Locate -- PLACES, REGIONS OF HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE RELATED TO MAJOR ERAS AND TURNING POINT
Byzantine Civilization – Byzantium/Constantinople, Black Sea Middle Ages – France, Normandy, Charlemagne’s Empire, England, Hastings, Jerusalem, Holy Land, Paris, London, Holy Roman Empire
Identify -- IMPACT OF POLITICAL AND LEGAL IDEAS FROM HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS
Justinian's Code of Laws o Byzantine Law code (529 AD) influenced European laws o The eastern Byzantine Empire carries on the Roman law while the western part of the empire goes through a rather lawless time. Magna Carta o 1215 o Political ideas – Limited power of the nobility o Legal ideas – No one is above the law
Explain -- POLITICAL PHILOSOPHIES OF SPECIFIC INDIVIDUALS
Thomas Aquinas: (1225-1274) Truth is known through reason and faith
Describe -- ORIGINS/IDEAS/SPREAD OF RELIGIOUS AND PHILOSOPHICAL TRADITIONS
Christianity – Through the Middle Ages, the Church becomes the centralizing force of the Western culture.
Identify -- RELIGIOUS INFLUENCE
The Medieval Church as a unifying force: Shared beliefs in the teachings of the church Provided Christians with a sense of security and a religious community to which they belonged At the local level, the church was the religious and social center. People met there for service, social gatherings and festive celebrations. Provided a unifying set of spiritual beliefs and rituals Performed social services such as caring for the sick and the poor. The church operated most hospitals in medieval Europe.
Analyze -- INFORMATION BY
Sequencing, Categorizing, Identifying cause-and-effect relationships, Comparing, Contrasting Finding the main idea, Summarizing, Making generalizations and predictions Drawing inferences and conclusions, Developing connections between historical events over time