January 6, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, US History, World Wars And The Great Depression (1910-1945), World War I
Share Embed Donate

Short Description

Download ...


World War I 1914-1918 Chapter 14

Peace in Europe • By 1914, Europe had enjoyed nearly 100 years of relative peace – Olympic Games – Nobel Peace Prize – First Universal Peace Conference – Hague Tribunal

• BUT…

M.A.I.N. causes of WWI • Militarism – Glorification of the military and war

• Alliances – Pacts of mutual defense between countries

• Imperialism – When a stronger nation takes over a weaker nation

• Nationalism – Extreme pride in your nation/ethnic group

Nationalism • Germany v. France – Germany proud of its new power and leadership – France wants to regain its power – Revenge for loss in Franco-Prussian War

• Russia as leader of Slavic people – Leader and protector of Slavic people – Supports break away states in the Balkans (E. Europe)

Imperialism • France v. Germany – Competing/fighting for colonies in Africa – Pushes Britain and France closer together

Militarism • Imperialism caused the great powers to expand their armies and navies—making war more likely • Resulted in an ARMS RACE – Great Britain v. Germany--competing navies

Alliances • Distrust  treaties pledging to defend on another • 2 main alliances emerged: – Triple Alliance • Germany • Austria-Hungary • Ottoman Empire

– Entente aka Allies • France • Great Britain • Russia

The Great War Begins

Chapter 14.2

Assassination in Sarajevo • Archduke Francis Ferdinand of AustriaHungary decided to visit Sarajevo on June 18, 1914

The Problem: • Sarajevo = the capital of Bosnia • Bosnia under the rule of A-H, but had many Serbs (Slavs) that wanted their independence – Saw A-H as oppressors

The Black Hand • A Serbian nationalist group decided to take action = assassinating the heir to the A-H throne – 3 men sent on the mission

The Assassination • Ferdinand and his wife escorted through the city in an open car • 1st attempt failed (bomb wounds an officer) • 2nd attempt successful (Ferd./wife on their way to the hospital and shot by Gavrilo Princip)

The Ultimatum: • A-H sends Serbia an 2-day ultimatum – Punish any Serbians involved – Must be judged by Austrian judges

• Serbia rejects the Austrian judges • A-H declares war on Serbia (Slavic country), with Germany’s support

Alliances at Work • Read page 381 and create a flow chart of the countries that were pulled into WWI. • Be sure to identify WHY each country got involved.


Ottoman Enpire

Supported A-H against Serbia



Russia France


Great Britain

Germany’s Plan • Schlieffen Plan: plan to avoid a 2 front war – Defeat France quickly – Then fight Russia to the east

• Invaded Belgium to swing behind French troops

Political Cartoon • Choose one of the European powers involved in the outbreak of WWI. Then, from that countries’ point of view, draw a cartoon assigning blame for the war.

A New Kind of Conflict Chapter 14.3

“The Great War” • Largest and most deadliest conflict up until that time. • “One out of every 4 men who went out to the World War did not come back again.” (56%) – 65+ million men mobilized – 8.5 million killed • http://www.pbs.org/greatwar/resources/casdeath_pop .html

The Western Front

• Schlieffen Plan took German forces through Belgium, BUT… Russia mobilized much quicker than anticipated  had to send troops east • Battle of Marne – British/French forces vs. German forces – Allies push German forces back; no quick victory for Germany

• Ended in a stalemate because of trench warfare

Trench Warfare

An underground network linking bunkers, communications trenches, and gun emplacements

Trench Foot

“No man’s land”

New Technologies: • • • • • • • •

Rapid-fire machine guns Artillery Poisonous gas Armored tank Aircrafts Zeppelins U-boats Convoy systems

The War Outside of Europe • Japan joins the Allies – Take German colonies in Asia

• Ottomans join Central Powers – Arab Revolt (Arabs supported by Allies revolt against the Turkish Ottoman rulers)

• Allies overrun German colonies in Africa/Asia • Allies turn to own colonies for troops, laborers, and supplies – Colonies had mixed feelings about helping

Winning the War Chapter 14.4

Ending the Stalemate • 3 years into the war, moral was down • BUT… Russian withdrawal and US entry into WWI changed everything and ended the stalemate

US Neutrality: • President Woodrow Wilson won the 1916 presidential election by promised to stay neutral = staying out of the war • BUT…3 things prevented this from happening:

1. German Unrestricted Submarine Warfare

• The new German U-boats (submarine) changed the nature of naval war. – BEFORE: U-boats rose to the surface and allowed the crew to leave the ship before attacking it. – AFTER: U-boats remained hidden and fired on merchant ships that were suspected of carrying weapons.

• (German Warning)

The Lusitania • British ship that the Germans bombed in 1915- killed 1,200 people (128 Americans). • Turned Americans a/g Germany • Sussex Pledge: German promises to stop unrestricted submarine warfare = they would give a warning… • Film: – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YMUTdq1VSt w

2. Zimmerman Note: • (Handout)

3. Russian Revolution • 1917: Czar Nicholas II of Russian was overthrown by a republican government. • People were concerned about being allied with an autocrat = a ruler who has unlimited power. • With Nicholas II gone, there was no reason left reason for not entering the war

Declaration of War: • March 16-18, 1917: German sank 3 American ships. • April 6, 1917: Wilson declared war!! – “The world must be made safe for democracy”

Total War • Total war = channeling all of a nation’s resources into a war effort – Conscription = the draft – Raise taxes/borrow money – Ration food/other products – Economic controls; i.e. price setting – Propaganda = spreading ideas to promote a cause or damage an opposing cause – Women step up (take jobs, volunteer, etc.)

View more...


Copyright � 2017 NANOPDF Inc.