Urinary

January 16, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Science, Health Science, Urology
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Urinary System What are the functions of the urinary system?

**__________ – water and salts ____________ metabolic wastes (N)

If water is plentiful then NH3 If water is limited then Urea If water is scarce then Uric acid _______________ – blood cell formation as a result of erythropoeitin secretion.

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Urinary System What are the “rules of thumb” regarding water and salts for different classes of vertebrates? ____________________– excrete water and conserve salt _____________________– excrete salt and conserve water _____________________– modify salt and water loss appropriately

Urinary System What is the basic pattern and what is an archinephros? ___________ – functional unit of kidneys

Renal corpuscle: 1) ____________ 2) ____________ 3) ____________

Urinary System What is the basic pattern and what is an archinephros? Nephron – functional unit of kidneys

Renal corpuscle –

Urinary System What are the 3 basic processes involved with urine formation? 1) ____________ – glomerulus 2) ____________ – renal tubules

3) ____________ – renal tubules

Other processes include: 4) ______________ – renal tubules and collecting ducts

5) _____________ – bladder 6) ____________ – bladder, sphincters & urethra

Urinary System Where does filtration take place?

Renal corpuscle =

Bowman’s capsule =

Urinary System What is involved with producing filtrate?

Filtration Pressure… Flow depends on … Fluids and solutes move from …

Why is there a difference in pressure?

GCP = Glomerular capillary pressure CP = Capsule pressure

COP = Colloidal osmotic pressure

Urinary System What is the route of blood flow through the kidney and how does this fit with REABSORPTION?

Afferent arteriole to glomerulus to Efferent arteriole to peritubular capillaries to vasa recta, then back out

Urinary System What is the role of secretion in urine production?

Moving wastes into nephron both passive and active Passive …

Active ….

Urinary System How is urine concentrated?

Urinary System How do kidneys form embryologically? _______________________– lateral to mesodermal somites

Where are the kidneys in Necturus? Tubules appear at cephalic end

Paired ducts develop and form caudad until they reach posterior and form opening Posterior tubules

Urinary System What is an archinephros?

_______________– Believed to be the prototype from a segmented ancestor

Urinary System

Urinary System Why would glomeruli be larger in freshwater fish and aquatic amphibians… and smaller in marine fishes and tetrapods (especially in tetrapods of arid environments)?

Urinary System How are kidneys organized?

Urinary System Where can one find a kidney? Location: Size: Surrounded by connective tissue (_________________) Protected by renal fat pad (_____________)

Urinary System Gross anatomy!

Urinary System What is extrarenal salt excretion and how does it occur? ________ – actively transport across lamellar membranes

____________ – can empty into nasal canals or mouth

http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/staticfiles/NGS/Shared/StaticFiles/animals/images/primary/marine-iguana.jpg

What other anatomy is significant? Transitional epithelium lines the …

_________ & _________ Contract =

What other anatomy is significant? Transitional epithelium lines the ureters & urinary bladder Stratified & Stretchy Contract = peristaltic movements

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