Verbal Communication

January 8, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Arts & Humanities, Writing, Spelling
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Chapter 5: Verbal Communication This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: *any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; *preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; *any rental, lease, or lending of the program

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Quotable Quote “The difference between the almost right word and the right word is really a large matter— ’tis the difference between the lightening bug and the lightening.” Mark Twain Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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PowerPoint Quiz Researchers estimate that the first humans to speak language as we know it lived in East Africa __________ years ago. A. B. C. D. E.

25,000 50,000 150,000 500,000 1,000,000 Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Survival & Speech Organs Survival Function

Speech Function

• Nose: To get air for and into our lungs

• Nose: To provide nasal resonance in sounds

• Lips: To seal the oral cavity

• Lips: To form vowels and consonants

• Larynx: To seal the passage over our lungs

• Larynx: To produce vibrations for sound Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Survival & Speech Organs Survival Function

Speech Function

• Lungs: To • Lungs: To supply exchange carbon air for speech dioxide and oxygen • Teeth: To break up • Teeth: To articulate food consonants • Tongue: To move food to teeth and throat

• Tongue: To form vowels and consonants Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Human Language Language A system of arbitrary signs and symbols used to communicate thoughts and feelings • There are 5,000-6,000 spoken languages. • All languages have grammatical rules to describe how words should be arranged, modified, and even punctuated. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Quotable Quote “Whatever else people do when they come together—whether they play, fight, make love, or make automobiles—they talk. We live in a world of language.” Victoria Fromkin and Robert Rodman, linguists

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Signs and Symbols Sign An image that stands for or represents something specific and often looks like or depicts the thing it represents Symbol An arbitrary collection of sounds that in certain combinations stand for concepts Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Signs A sign stands for or represents something specific and often looks like or depicts the thing it represents. What do these signs mean?

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Triangle of Meaning

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Denotation & Connotation Denotative Meaning

Connotative Meaning

The objective, dictionary-based meaning of a word

The personal feeling connected to the meaning of a word

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What’s in a Name? What does your name mean? Example: “Dianna comes from the word divine. Also, my grandfather’s name was Daniel so I was sort of named after him.”

Your Name Story: _________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________

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Define pig Denotative Meaning Domestic swine with short legs, cloven hooves, bristly hair, and a snout used for digging

Connotative Meanings • A greedy and gross person • ________________ ________________ • ________________ _________________

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Abstract and Concrete Words Abstract Words

Concrete Words

Refer to ideas or concepts that cannot be observed or touched such as fairness, freedom, and work. Examples: animal, pet, name

Refer to specific things that can be perceived by the senses. Concrete words minimize misunderstanding. Examples: dog, beagle, Fido Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Levels of Language

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Fill in the Blanks Superordinate Term

Basic Term

Beverage

Subordinate Term

Decaf Cappuccino Book

Religion

Christianity

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The Whorf Hypothesis Language reflects cultural models of the world, which, in turn, influence how we think, act, and behave. • Do words such as fireman and policeman lead us to view these as jobs for men?

• Do firefighter and police officer change these perceptions? Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Language and Gender • Women tend to use language that maintains relationships and to cooperate with others. – Tag questions (Right? Is that okay?) – Superpolite forms (Please; Would you mind?) – Hedges (like, you know, kind of)

• Men tend to use more direct and forceful language to assert their ideas and compete with others. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Gender-Biased Words Gender-Biased Term • • • • • •

Stewardess Fireman Female soldier Mankind _____________ _____________

Gender-Neutral Term • • • • • •

Flight attendant Firefighter Soldier _______________ _______________ _______________

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Which Saying Is True? • Sticks and Stones May Break My Bones, but Words Can Hurt Forever.

• Sticks and Stones May Break My Bones, but Words Will Never Hurt Me.

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Improve Your Way with Words • • • • •

Expand Your Vocabulary Use Oral Language Use Active Language Use I and You Language Use Grammatical Language

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Expand Your Vocabulary Define these Words • Connotation ______________________ ________________________________ • Abstract Word ____________________ ________________________________ • Euphemism ______________________ ________________________________ See the next slide. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Expand Your Vocabulary • Connotation. The emotional responses and personal thoughts connected to the meaning of a word.

• Abstract Words. Words that refer to an idea or concept that cannot be directly observed or touched.

• Euphemism. A mild, indirect, or vague word or phrase that substitutes for a harsh, blunt, or offensive one. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Use Oral Language • Use shorter familiar words. Example: home rather than residence • Use shorter, simpler sentences. Example: He came back rather than He returned from his point of departure. • Use more informal colloquial expressions. Example: Give it a try rather than You should attempt it. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Use Active Language Active Voice The subject performs the action. An active voice makes your message more engaging.

Passive Voice The subject receives the action. A passive voice takes the focus away from the subject of your sentence.

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PowerPoint Quiz Identify the passive-voice sentence: A. Independence was brought to the colonies by the Continental Congress. B. The Continental Congress met in Philadelphia in 1776. C. The Continental Congress approved the Declaration of Independence. D. Thomas Jefferson wrote most of the Declaration of Independence. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Use I and You Language • I: Take responsibility for feelings and actions, but don’t overuse I and appear self-centered • You: Don’t shift responsibility from yourself to others. Use you to include someone, not blame that person.

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Avoid Gobbledygook • No more than 40 words in a sentence • Only one subject per sentence • Don’t include information just because you know it. What does the listener need to know?

• Shorter words and phrases such as “now” rather than “at the present time” Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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