Versailles, Weimar and Modernity (Paris, Berlin)

January 6, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Social Science, Law, Constitutional Law
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A DECADE OF RECOVERY EUROPE IN THE 1920S • The War’s End: 11 November 1918 Monuments to the dead Yearly commemorations

FAILED REVOLUTIONS • In Germany: “Spartakists” vs. “Free-corps” Liebknecht executed, Luxemburg lynched • In Hungary: Bela-Kun’s nationalizations vs. Romanian army repression

Who will foot the bill ? • Britain and France owed gigantic sums by Russia • Britain and France owe still greater sums, principally to the USA • The Soviets refuse to recognize the debts of the Tsar… • The US refuse to reschedule.. • So, let Germany pay…

THE VERSAILLES TREATY • Signed on 28 June 1919 in Versailles • 440 articles in 15 parts – Art. 231 war guilt clause -- 132 billion gold marks • Three main areas: • Territorial losses – Alsace-Lorraine and colonies • Financial losses – heavy fines/war reparations • Military losses – Military abolished. No big standing army

ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES OF THE PEACE • Maynard Keynes: Versailles Treaty is wrong. Price is too high for • Moral reasons • Political reasons


• Financial reasons -• Economic reasons --

Germany was conned G. necessary to European equilibrium. Debt burden overvalued Allies overestimate G.’s capacity to pay back

PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE LEGACY • Covenant of the League of Nations

• Wilson’s Idealism • No U.S. ratification • Weimar Germany and USSR not permitted to join

CONSEQUENCES… • Central Europe • The National Question: • Territorial claims vs. disgruntled national minorities

CONSEQUENCES… • Eastern Europe: liberal democracies fall prey to authoritarian regimes • • • • • •

Bulgaria: 1923 Military coup d’etat Poland: 1926 coup by Joseph Pilsudski Lithuania: 1929 one-party state Romania: 1930 royal dictatorship Estonia: 1934 state of emergency Latvia: 1934 parliament dissolved

CONSEQUENCES… • The Colonies • Despite fears of declining prestige in Britain and France, high tide of Western Imperialism

WEIMAR REPUBLIC • Constitution: • Reichsrat – delegates of Laender • Reichstag – universal suffrage • President – 7 years • Armed with unlimited powers with art. 48 to dissolve Parliament in exceptional circumstances

WEIMAR REPUBLIC CHRONOLOGY • 1923: hyper-inflation • • • • •

1924: Dawes Plan – refinancing scheme 1925: Spirit of Locarno on West. borders 1926: Germany enters League of Nations 1929: Young Plan – 59 year plan 1930: 2 million unemployed


Expressionism in the arts Satirical newspapers Bertolt Brecht Theater Berlin nightlife Cabaret Functional Bauhaus architecture and interior design

THE CRAZY YEARS: PARIS IN THE TWENTIES • The circle of Montparnasse: bars and cafes such as Le Dome, La Coupole and Le Select English-speaking artists from the West: Dos Passos,Hemingway,the Fitzgeralds, Ezra Pound, E.E. Cummins, Sylvia Beach, Gertrude Stein, Josephine Baker, James Joyce, Samuel Beckett Diaspora refugees from the East: Diaghilev, Lipchitz, Zadkine, Soutine, Chagall

PARIS IN THE TWENTIES • Coco Chanel: • Her clothes appealed to the modern, independent, career-woman • Hair clipped short • Marketing inexpensive costume jewelry • The first of grands couturiers to make perfume an adjunct to fashion line • 1927 Charles Lindbergh solo flight across Atlantic • 33 hour ordeal. 45,000 ecstatic people at Le Bourget airport.

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