Version - 8 AUGUST 2014

January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Arts & Humanities, Gender Studies, Human Sexuality
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Gender Integration within the Afghan Security Forces

Gender Advisor HQ ISAF

NATO/ISAF UNCLASSIFIED

Aim of presentation

1.Increase awareness and understanding of status on gender integration in ASI/ANSF for all advisors.

2.Discuss gender in a broader Afghan cultural context.

NATO/ISAF UNCLASSIFIED

Legal Framework The Constitution of IR of Afghanistan: • Article 22: “Any kind of discrimination and distinction between citizens of Afghanistan shall be forbidden. The citizens of Afghanistan, men and women, have equal rights and duties before the law”. • Article 43 states that education is the right of all citizens of Afghanistan • Article 44 determines that the state “shall devise and implement effective programs to create and foster balanced education for women,…” • Article 48: “Work is the right of every Afghan”. • Article 52 states that state will provide free preventative healthcare and medical facilities to all citizens . • Article 55: “Defending the country shall be the duty of all citizens of Afghanistan”.

NATO/ISAF UNCLASSIFIED

GIRoA • • • • •

Afghan National Priority Programme 2010-2013 Afghan National Development Strategy (ANDS) 2008-2013 The National Action Plan for Women of Afghanistan (NAPWA) 2008-2018 Law on Elimination of Violence against Women (EVAW) 2009 National Action Plan on Women, Peace and Security (pending approval)

NATO/ISAF UNCLASSIFIED

Afghan’s Goals Plans And Policies In Place

MoI

MoD

Plans and strategies in place – only lacking implementation

Plans and strategies in place – only lacking implementation.



• • • • • • •



2009: Directive on female recruitment (2011 first time mentioned the 5.000 female goal end of 14) 2013: Directive on Harassment 018 2013: Gender Policy 2013: Policy on prevention of sexual violence against women and children 2013: Strategy for the Management of the Affairs of ANP Female Personnel 2014: National Police Plan 2014: National Action Plan 2014: Strategic Implementation Plan on Solidarity of Female Personnel Affairs within ANP (August 2014) Goal: 5,000 women in MoI/ANP by the end of the year; 10,000 in next 5 years; 10% long term

• • • • • •

• •

2010: Order to Train Utilize Assign females in the ANSF 2013: Human Rights and Gender Integration Directorate Working Plan from 2013-2016 2013: National Military Strategy 2013: Female accession management policy 2014: Order dated 19 – 1 – 1393 of Defense Minister for 1393 Training Year 2014: Order Regarding the female recruiting, training, assignment, reassignment and working facilities within the Afghan National Army 2014: Order number 1409 dated 3 – 2 – 1393; Annual female recruitment plan Goal: 10% of the ANA/AAF in 10 years

NATO/ISAF UNCLASSIFIED

Gender Integration within the ANSF End state: Through integrating UNSCR 1325 and a gender perspective, with the objective to have the ASI and ANSF respect gender equality, women serve actively and meaningfully in the ANSF and contribute to the security and stability of the country. What has to be done: 1. Remove the barriers for women to serve in the ANSF. 2. Increase awareness and understanding of gender integration in ASI/ANSF and implement UNSCR 1325 and related resolutions at all levels. 3. Reduce the risk of sexual and gender-based violence within ANSF in order to enhance professionalization of the force. 4. ASI/ANSF leadership recognizes the importance Afghan women can continue to make to the security and stability of the country.

5. ISAF/RS strengthen dialogue with GIRoA, Parliament members and civil society on topics related to UNSCR 1325. 6. Increase cooperation and coordination with International Organizations, Embassies, GOs and NGOs. NATO/ISAF UNCLASSIFIED

1.1 Gender Integration MoD (ANA/AAF) Milestones: 01 Mar 14

A BC

D

31 Jul

E F

31 Oct

G

H

31 Dec 14

01 Jan 16

Decisive Points and Challenges:

Current Assessment: 

In Feb 2010 the MinDef issued order about training, utilization and assignment of female recruits, stating that 10% of the total ANA strength should be women (should be achieved in 10 year period). MinDef reinforced this in 2013 with a 3 year Working Plan from 2013-2016 and in Sep 2013 the ANA Female Accession Management Policy was approved. In Apr 2014 MinDef announced the Annual Accession Plan for Capacity of ANA Female Training Establishments for recruitment and training, which states that 485 women can be trained each year in the current ANA training facilities.  Recruiting females remains a challenge, we see little effort from ANA to fill the female classes approved in the MoD annual female recruitment plan. Only 69 out of 245 female training posts have been filled for courses so far this year. The actual number of women trained will most likely be only 30% of this.

A

  

Conduct an awareness and advertising campaign to change attitude and opinion towards females in ANA and enhance recruitment (EF# 1,4,8, GA). Encourage educated women to join the officer training of the ANA (EF# 4). Provide safe and secure training and working conditions (facilities, transportation) and as well as uniforms and boots (EF# 1, 5). TAA on sexual harassment and violence in-workplace and establish effective complaint mechanism for sexual and/or abuse complaints (EF# 3, 4, GA).

Help Needed: 1. ISAF leadership and advisors convincing MoD/ANA to do some real effort on recruiting women prior to planned courses; ISAF leadership united in their KLEs with ASI/ANSF on conditionality of future funding (connected to the development and sustainability of the ANSF). 2. Other international actors (IOs, Embassies, NGOs, GOs) are sending the same message and influence Afghan authorities.



KMTC Officer Candidate School (OCS)

 Result; 30 out of 35 seats filled

B

Female class planned at; • KMTC NCO Course.  Result; Course cancelled; NONE of 50 seats filled

C

Female classes started at; • National Military Academy of Afghanistan • Afghan National Army Officer Academy  Result; 39 out of 75 seats filled

D

Female class planned at;

Way Ahead: 

Female class started at;



KMTC (NCO) & KMTC (OCS)

 Result; Courses postponed NONE of 85 seats filled

E

F G H

Female class planned at;



KMTC (NCO) & KMTC (OCS)

Female class planned at ; • Afghan National Army Officer Academy. Female class planned at; • ANA OA, KMTC (NCO), KMTC (OCS) End 2016 with 485 women trained pr. year. • 2000 women in ANA 7

1.2 Gender Integration MoI (ANP) Milestones:

A 01 Mar 14

31 Jul

B

31 Oct

CD

E

31 Dec 14

Decisive Points and Challenges:

Current Assessment: 

  

MOI has increased the number of female positions on the 1393 Tashkil to a total of almost 5,000 but recruitment remains slow and insufficient to support the population’s needs. ( In 2014 MoI published the Strategy for the Management of the Affairs of ANP Female Personnel specified recruitment of 5,000 females in the short term, 10,000 in the medium term and having 10% female police in the long term). Providing safe working environment for the projected 5.000 female ANP by the end of SY1393 will require significant united effort at all levels. Abuse of police women remains an accepted fact and official complaint mechanisms are not effective. Illiteracy is a problem within ANP, both among males and females.

Way Ahead:    

Conduct an awareness and advertising campaign to change attitude and opinion towards female police and enhance recruitment (EF# 1, 4, 8, GA) Encourage educated women to join the officer training of the ANP and increase attendance of literacy programs within the ANP (EF# 4) Provide safe and secure training and working conditions (facilities, transportation) and as well as uniforms and boots (EF# 1, 5) TAA on sexual harassment and violence in-workplace and establish effective complaint mechanism for sexual and/or abuse complaints (EF# 3, 4, GA)

Help Needed: 1. ISAF leadership and advisors united in their KLEs and engagements with ASI/ANSF on conditionality of future funding (connected to the development and sustainability of the ANSF) 2. Other international actors (IOs, Embassies, NGOs, GOs) are sending the same message and influence Afghan authorities.

F

01 Jan 16

A B

C

D

17.500 women volunteered as female searchers for the elections Identify Tashkil positions for females leading to gender integration across ministerial lanes • Evaluate Tashkil structure of MOI and identify approved positions for females based on appropriate situations, requirements and conditions. • Recruit qualified females into identified positions. Implementation Plan of Female Personnel • MININT expected to signed a detailed plan of female recruitment, training and promotion within ANP. Implemented Police Inherent Law for increasing promotions and standardized HR processes • ANP must sustain promotion commission capabilities (merit based promotion).

E

Target: 5.000 Police women

F

Target: 10.000 Police women

8

Women in ANSF ANSF Members Officers Bridmals (NCOs) Soldiers/patrolmen

AAF 20 19

ANA 251 286

ANP 280 886

Total 551 1191

9

122

950

1081

78

66

144

737

2182

2967

Cadets (Officer training) 48

NATO/ISAF UNCLASSIFIED

December 2013 – June 2014 Officers

Bridmals (NCOs)

1000

1000

800

800

600

600

400

400

200

200

0

0 December January February AAF

March ANA

April

May

June

December January February

ANP

AAF

Soldiers/Patrolmen 1000

800

800

600

600

400

400

200

200

0

0 AAF

March ANA

April

ANA

April

May

June

May

June

ANP

Cadets (Officer training)

1000

December January February

March

May

June

December January February

ANP

AAF

NATO/ISAF UNCLASSIFIED

March ANA

April ANP

Operations; Different Security threats against men, women, boys and girls security needs Men

Women

Boys

Girls

Robbery

Domestic violence

Gang violence

Infanticide

Assault

Sexual assault

Child abuse and rape

Child abuse and rape

Homicide

Dowry death

Bullying

Child marriage

Gang Violence

Sexual harassment

Kidnapping

Kidnapping

Forced to participate in sexual violence

Domestic homicide

Exposure and abandonment

Female genital mutilation

Rape and sexual torture

Stalking

Human trafficking

Human trafficking

Human trafficking

Prostitution

Prostitution

Prostitution

Child soldiers

Child soldiers

NATO/ISAF UNCLASSIFIED

How do we measure success? Health

2002

2013

Fertility rate

6.3%

5.1%

Maternal Mortality (per 100,000)

1,000

460

Life Expectancy

42 yrs.

60.5 yrs.

Under 5 Mortality (per 100,000)

176

99

Afghan Population Pashtun 42%, Tajik 27%, Hazara 9%, Uzbek 9%, Aimak 4%, Turkmen 3%, Baloch 2%, other 4%

13

NATO/ISAF UNCLASSIFIED

Women’s Safety and Security

Bamiyan

Kunduz

Bamiyan

Takhar





• • • •

The departure of foreign troops have had minimal impact on Bamiyan’s security But Bamiyan has become gradually insecure since 2005 Insecurity in neighboring provinces, Baghlan, Maidan Wardak and Parwan, is impacting Bamiyan’s security – Saighan, Kahmard and Shibar Insecurity along Kabul – Bamiyan highway Anxiety about the Transition process in general “In my opinion, hence, if the situation changes, in a positive or negative way, it will be due to the overall situation of the country and the decisions of the current and future Afghan Government, not because of the foreign forces’ exist from Bamiyan.” ~ Baba Mohseni

• • • • • • •

Respondents believe that the departure of foreign troops have had negative impact on Takhar’s security Explicit anti-women rhetoric by conservative mullahs Re-emergence of the local militias and armed men; 20 – 30 local commanders have mobilized their men and exercise power Police acknowledges the presence of local militias, but sees them as deterrence to the Taliban [creating new enemies] Clashes between the local commanders adds to insecurity A number of security incidents targeting women and overall increase in criminal activities Difference in men and women’s views regarding safety and security Women have restrained their movements, appear in chadari

Takhar Kunduz • 17 out of 20 respondents said that Kunduz has become more insecure since departure of foreign troops • Insecurity between 2008 – 2010 • 2010: Kunduz was declared the second crisis zone after Kandahar and the Surge took place • The threats of insurgents were not eradicated – ANSF has continued to launch operations against insurgents • 2010: 11,00 people were recruited as part of the Afghan Local Police (ALP) – added to the problem • Threats of militiamen and thugs – 3,500 irresponsible armed men in Khanabad District alone • Did the foreign forces really control the militiamen? Surveillance vs. CIP • Women’s Response: To protect themselves and their families. Wearing chadari, less use of cars that attract attention, less movement particularly outside the city.

Uruzgan Uruzgan • • • •



• • •

Respondents had mixed views about the Transition’s impact How do we explain the discrepancy? ISAF ended its mission in Uruzgan in December 2013 [QARA’s field research was in progress] 2006 – 2010: Netherlands forces let ISAF’s efforts in Uruzgan and a strong contingent of Australian forces remained under the Dutch command By the end of 2010, 35 – 45% of the province was under the Government’s control In 2010, US-led multi-national Combined Team Uruzgan took-over from the Dutch forces August 2011 marked the most insecure period in Uruzgan since the fall of the Taliban Changes that followed

Women’s Political Participation Bamiyan

Takhar

• Transition has not had any impact on women’s political participation • All respondents said that due to women’s higher political awareness more women will take part in the elections this year compared to the past • In 2009: 6 out of 94 Provincial Council candidates were women – which is 6.4% • In 2014: 13 out of 53 Provincial Council candidates are women. That is 24.5% • Unlike Kunduz and Takhar, none of the respondents in Bamiyan had heard of threats against women with public profile

• Female Respondents: women feel less confident/secure to participate in the elections. • Respondents claim that last election 12 women were running for Provincial Council seats; This election, there are only 8 women running - in reality, last election there were only 8 too. • Female MP feels insecure to visit her constituencies at hometown because of threats • A female judge in Baharak feels that the district is too insecure for her to work in [story of rulings against the interest of the local militias – also women not coming after their cases]

Kunduz

Uruzgan

• Respondents, particularly female respondents, said that women with public profile feel more insecure about their activities than when the foreign were still in the province • Female respondents talked about threatening phone calls that they had received from anonymous callers • 2009 Elections: 12 out of 124 Provincial Council candidates were women • 2014 Elections: 5 out of 107 Provincial Council candidates are women – there is an obvious decrease. Female civil society activists said that they had to lobby and encourage these 5 women to run for the PC seats. Otherwise, the number would have been probably even lower.



• •

• •

Foreign forces had minimal impact in enabling Uruzgani women to participate in politics – Dutch forces had the “under the radar development” approach. So they couldn’t actively advocate for women’s political empowerment Foreign forces or the Afghan Government did not manage to be present in all the districts of Uruzgan Instead, support from key government officials was mentioned as an important factor for women’s political participation Even a small number who have been politically active have paid a price [even when foreign forces were in Uruzgan] Ethnicities and women’s political participation

Boys and girls…

16

NATO/ISAF UNCLASSIFIED

Questions

17

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