Vision, Reform, and Growth in Lagos, Nigeria
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Cities Alliance Project Output
A City in Transition: Vision, Reform, and Growth in Lagos, Nigeria.
Transforming Lagos: A Mega City Addresses Its Urbanisation Challenges
This project output was created with Cities Alliance grant funding.
A City in Transition: Vision, Reform, and Growth in Lagos, Nigeria.
Michael O. Filani
United Cities and Local Governments
Acknowledgements Funding for this report was made possible by Cities Alliance, for which the author is most
grateful. The Foundation for Development and Environmental Initiatives (FDI), Ibadan, Nigeria where the author serves as the executive director, provided seed funding for the study and a congenial environment for executing the project. The author appreciates the commitment and assistance of staff of the Lagos State Ministry of Physical Planning and Urban Development, particularly the role of Joseph Ayodele Adediran, Special Assistant to the Honourable Commissioner for Physical Planning and Urban Development, in making available the bulk of the relevant records, data, and information used in producing the report. He is also most grateful to the Honourable Commissioner himself, Bolaji Francisco Abosede for his comments and explanations on the various issues discussed in the report and on the lessons derived from the reform process. The author is particularly grateful to Professor Johnson Bade Falade, UNHabitat Programme Manager for Nigeria, for his incisive contribution to and editing of the final draft of the report. Equally worthy of mention is the contribution of Paul Okunnola, the programme officer of the UN-Habitat Programme Office in Nigeria (HAPSO) who assisted with the editing of the final draft. The author also wishes to acknowledge the assistance of Ijeh Chukunyere of the University of Ibadan, my research assistant on the project; Elizabeth Owolabi, Secretary and Administrative officer of HAPSO; and the secretarial staff of Foundation for Development and Environmental Initiatives (FDI), particularly Abiola Elaturoti, Abimbola Adegoke and Dupe Odegbaro for the word processing of the report. This acknowledgement would not be complete without giving especial thanks to the Cities Alliance Secretariat staff, particularly to the Programme Manager, William Cobbett for his suggesting the concept of a study of the transformation process in Lagos, and Chii Akporji, Communications Officer who task managed the project. Special thanks also to Deepali Tewari, Sr. Municipal Development Specialist for her sound reviews and comments. Professor Michael O. Filani Foundation for Development Initiatives Ibadan, Nigeria
TABLE OF CONTENTS Page. Title Page Acknowledgements Table of Contents List of Figures, Tables and Plates Abbreviations and Acronyms Foreword
i ii - iv v vi – viii ix
x - xi
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION.
1.1 Brief Context for the Study
1.2 Goal of Study
1.3 Structure of Report
1.4 Concluding Statement
CHAPTER 2: BACKGROUND TO LAGOS MEGACITY
Location and Natural Environment
Historical Origin and Development
Governance and Policy
Economy of Lagos
Summary of Challenges
CHAPTER 3: TRANSFORMING LAGOS
Catalysts of Change
Specifics of Reforms
3.2.1 Political Will and Leadership
3.2.2 Strategic Visioning of Development
3.2.3 Knowledge-Based Approach to Planning
3.2.4 Budget Reform and Its Linkage with Activities of Government Institutions. 3.2.5 Institutional Reforms for Efficient Service Delivery 3.2.6 Popular Participation Partnership Building
17 17 17
(i) Popular Participation
(ii) Promotion of PPP
3.2.7 Policy, Legislative and Institutional Reforms
3.2.8 Resource Mobilisation; Transparency and Accountability
3.2.9 Application of ICT in Governance
3.2.10 Programmatic Interventions
3.2.11 New partnership for African Development (NEPAD)
CAPTER 4: INNOVATIONS/HIGHLIGHTS
4.1 Physical Infrastructural Development
(i) The Mass Transit System
(ii) Light Rail Transit (LRT)
(iii) Water Transportation
4.1.2 Water and Power Supply
(i) Water Supply
(ii) Power Supply
4.1.3 Drainage and Sanitation
4.1.4 Solid Waste Management
4.2 Urban Planning and Environment
(i) Urban Planning
4.3 Slum Upgrading, Redevelopment and Social Transformation
4.3.1 Slum Upgrading
4.3.2 Slum Redevelopment
4.3.5 Employment Generation
4.3.6 Revenue Enhancement
CHAPTER 5: LESSONS LEARNED 5.1 Evolving Institutional Framework for Effective Service Delivery
5.2 Promotion of Participatory Governance
5.3 Putting in Place Structures for Effective Resource Mobilisation Transparency and Accountability
5.4 Planning and Strategic Visioning of Development
5.5 Use of ICT and Data for Planning
CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSION.
2.1. Map of Nigeria Showing Location of Lagos State
2.2. Map of Lagos State Showing the Lagos Megacity and other Districts in the State. 2.3. Population of Lagos showing Disparity between the
Figures of Lagos State and National Population Census 2006 2.4. Lagos Showing the Mainland Districts
4.1. The Bus Rapid Transit Network and Proposed Highway Improvements
4.2. Light Rail Route
4.3. Location of Model Cities in Lagos
Tables 2.1. Population of Lagos 1911-2006 in Millions
2.2. Household Size and Density in Some Local Government Areas of Lagos Metropolis 12 2.3. Crime Reported in Some Local Government Areas of Lagos Metropolis 2005 13 3.1. Ehingbeti Summits and Thematic Foci 2000-2010
Plates 2.1 Aerial View of the CBD in Lagos Island
2.2 Slum Upgrading Challenges
4.1 Road Construction in Lagos
4.2 Bus Rapid Transit (BRT)
4.3 Existing and Predicted Modal Split in Lagos Megacity
4.4 Infrastructural Upgrade
4.5 Production of Electricity through AES Nigeria (IPP)
4.6 Elsewedy Electricity Transformer Factory in Agbara
4.7 Waste Management Facilities in Lagos Megacity
4.8 Market Redevelopment in Lagos
4.9 Redevelopment of Balogun Market to a Shopping Mall
4.10 Environment and Physical Planning in Lagos Megacity
4.11 Slum Redevelopment in Lagos Megacity
4.12 Healthcare Delivery
4.13 Provision of Security Facilities in Lagos State
4.14 Skill Acquisition Programmes
Nigerian-American Business Club Ikeja
Board of Internal Revenue
Bus Rapid Transit
Central Business Districts
Chinese Civil Engineering and Construction Company.
Community Development Associations
Community Security Assembly
Central Security Surveillance
Electronic Banking System/Revenue Collection Monitoring Project
Electronic Document Management System
Foundation for Development and Environmental Initiatives
Free Trade Zone
Gross Domestic Product
Geographic information Systems
Health System Reform Programme
Information and Communication Technology
International Development Association
Ibile Holdings Limited
Independent Power Producers
Lagos Metropolitan Area Transport Authority
Lagos State Assurance Company
Lagos State Ambulance Services
Lagos State Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy
Lagos State Emergency Management Agency
Lagos State Emergency Medical Services
Lagos State Microfinance Institution
Lagos State University Teaching Hospital
Lagos State Waterways Authority
Lagos State Waste Management Authority
Lagos Building and Investment Company
Lagos Chamber of Commerce and Industry
Lagos State Executive Development Board
Lagos Internal Revenue Service
Lagos Metropolitan Development Project
Liquefied Natural Gas Company
Light Rail Transit
Lagos State Development and Property Corporation
Lagos University Teaching Hospital
Lagos Urban Transport Project
Lagos State Water Corporation
Medium-Term Expenditure Framework
Medium-Term Sector Strategies
Ministry of Women Affairs and Poverty Alleviation
National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategies
National Electric Power Authority
New Partnership for African Development
Nigeria Telecommunications Limited
Nigerian Railway Corporation
Operation Mensa (Military Joint Police Patrol Code)
Power Holding Company of Nigeria
Private Sector Participants
Rapid Response Squad
Senior Advocate of Nigeria
State Health Insurance Scheme
State Security Trust Fund
Transport Master Plan
Transport Monitoring Units
United Nations Development Programme
Value Added Tax
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Executive Summary This study is about Lagos, Nigeria, the centre of excellence and the largest conurbation in Nigeria. Despite the national controversy about population figure for Lagos megacity, it is regarded as the 18th largest city in the world with 10.58 million people and one of the fastest growing cities of the world. Projections are that by 2015, the population of Lagos megacity is estimated to rise to 11.66 million and to 14.16million in 2020, with global ranking of 17th and 12th positions respectively (World Urbanization: Prospects: The 2009 Revision) Lagos is the economic and social nerve centre of Nigeria and the West African sub-region, accounting for 32 percent of national GDP. Over the past several decades, the city has had to contend with the challenges that accompany such staggering growth rates. Since 1999, however, the city’s governance has begun to improve. There is now overwhelming evidence of Lagos’s transformation from its former status as an erstwhile infamous, decaying metropolis into a modern, beautiful, and functional city. This report, funded by Cities Alliance, documents the critical achievements of the city’s governance over the past one-and-a-half decades, the major innovations that accompanied various reforms, the catalysts of change, and the lessons learned in the process. Chapter 1 provides a brief outline of the study, its goals, and structure. Chapter 2 captures the origin and development of Lagos as a megacity. The city’s population grew at a modest rate between 1891 and 1963, but from 1963 till today the population has skyrocketed and the city has expanded to cover the mainland to the west and to spread northwest by more than 40 kilometers, merging with Ikeja and Agege to form a great conurbation. Between 1967 and 1999 the country was under military dictatorship, with the exception of a civilian administration in 1979–83. Lagos witnessed unprecedented infrastructural development during these three decades. But as it faced explosive population growth without effective land-use planning and city management, the city had to contend with various developmental challenges. From 1999 to date, the Asiwaju Bola Tinubu and Babatunde Fashola administrations, through good governance and exemplary political leadership, have brought about the transformation that is now ongoing in the megacity. The essentials of the reforms that have taken place are captured in chapter 3, which discusses the catalysts of change and the reform process. In particular it outlines the 10 attributes of effective reform, which are a knowledge-based approach (KBA) to planning; budget reform (and its linkage with the activities of government institutions); popular participation and partnership building; policy change; legislative and institutional reforms; resource mobilisation; transparency and accountability; the application of information and communication technology (ICT) in governance; programmatic interventions; and sustainability.
Chapter 4 documents the critical innovations of the various reforms. The discussion is grouped under three broad headings: namely, physical infrastructural development, urban planning and environment, and slum upgrading redevelopment and social transformation. The reform process in Lagos aimed to promote effective, equitable, participatory, and accountable governance as well as security of life and property. Such initiatives and their implementation present their own challenges from which several lessons can be learned. These lessons are presented in chapter 5, and include the need for an institutional framework for effective service delivery, the promotion of participatory governance, the establishment of mechanisms for effective resource mobilisation, increased transparency and accountability, planning and the development of a strategic vision, and the use of ICT and comprehensive data in planning. Chapter 6, asserts that during the past one-and-a-half decades, the megacity had witnessed tremendous progress, attributable majorly to the combined efforts of the Tinubu and Fashola administrations, especially during their tenure in office The city’s transformation has resulted from good governance that has hinged, as previously noted, on responsive leadership, strong political will, a strategic vision, popular participation and partnership building, resource mobilisation, transparency and accountability, and the mainstreaming of information technology in promoting governance. But in spite of the success story told in this report, there remains a need to overhaul the administration of physical planning in the state, especially the need to expand the responsibility for planning beyond the Lagos state government alone to include the local governments. With the expectation that Lagos will become the thirdlargest city in the world in 2015, the extent of federal government infrastructure in the city area, and the extension of the megacity into certain parts of Ogun state require cooperation between the federal government, the Lagos state government, the Ogun state government, various local governments, and the private sector in promoting service delivery and public welfare in this burgeoning Nigerian metropolis.
Introduction Brief Context for this Study Lagos, the seat of Nigeria’s government until 1986, remains the nation’s commercial capital, contributing more to its economic growth than any other city. With an estimated population of 10.58 million, the city is the most populous conurbation in Nigeria, the second-most populous and the fastest-growing city after Cairo in Africa, and currently ranked the seventh-fastest-growing city in the world (World Urbanization: Prospects: The 2009 Revision). Until recently, Lagos, was generally written about in a negative light and frequently satirised. Cyprian Ekwensi, a Nigerian author, is known for his many stories that repeatedly portray negative images of Lagos. Among the themes covered in his writings are sex, violence, brutality, and intrigue, portraying the lives of prostitutes, shady politicians, businessmen, police officers, reporters, thieves, and others who witness the seamy side of life. The recommendation to relocate the political capital of the country from Lagos to Abuja in 1976 by the Justice Akinola Aguda Panel was due to the city’s traffic congestion, which could be attributed to bad governance that manifested in the little attention paid to land-use planning and the provisioning of essential infrastructure to accommodate the city’s exploding population growth. Today, things are different, and the city’s governance has begun to improve. There is now overwhelming evidence that new and positive happenings have begun to change this megacity, clearly manifest in beautiful new parks and improved functionality. “The changing face of Lagos,” as it is often called today, is due to a series of transformations occasioned by a new style of governance adopted in 1999. Since Nigeria returned to democratic governance in 1999, the successive governors of Lagos state have initiated and pursued a knowledge-based approach (KBA) to critical reforms, which has manifested in a governance style that promotes sustainable development. These reforms span resource mobilisation, local government reform, innovative and inclusive approaches to spatial planning principles, transportation, provision of educational facilities and health-care delivery, and partnership building in development. Due to the remarkable achievements of these reforms, Lagos, once infamous for gross urban decay in the period 1967–1999, is being transformed into a modern, beautiful, functional 21st-century city.
Goal of the Study This report is the tangible output of a critical review of Lagos’s governance over the past decade and half, and the positive, visible transformations that have resulted. The review was undertaken to identify relevant innovations and their impacts on urban planning and management, provision of physical infrastructure, resource mobilisation, crime prevention, employment generation and taxation, and the various critical lessons learned in implementing reforms. Concluding Statement Lagos is a classic example of a modern city, having metamorphosed from a small farming and fishing village in the fifteenth century to a bourgeoning world-class megacity in 2010, when its population rose to over 10 million people. It has had to contend with the many challenges of rapid urbanisation for decades, but not until the past decade has its governance improved to the point that positive changes are now evident. That such a populous, sprawling city could be transformed in the span of a few years might seem incredible, but the changes are real. The remaining chapters of this report seek to explore their causes and the potential of their sustainability.
Background to Lagos Megacity Location and Natural Environment of Lagos Lagos megacity, located on longitude 3024’E and latitude 6027’N, is naturally endowed and occupies two main islands separated by creeks in the Atlantic Ocean (figure 2.1). The land area of the city region is 154,540 hectares, with 209 square kilometres (km2) (19.6 percent) covered by water and mangrove swamps (figure 2.1). Figure 2.1 Map of Nigeria showing location of Lagos state
Source: Lagos State Government (2009) Ministry of Physical Planning and Urban Development.
Figure 2.2 Map of Lagos state showing Lagos megacity and other districts in the state
Source: Lagos State Government (2009) Ministry of Physical Planning and Urban Development
Lagos experiences tropical rainforest climate typical of southern Nigeria, with two main seasons. The first is the wet season extending from April to November, with
a brief dry spell in August. The second is the dry season from December to March, which is accompanied by harmattan dry winds that can be very severe between December and early February. The city experiences high temperatures and humidity throughout the year. The hottest month is March with a mean temperature of 290 C and the coolest month is July. Origin and Development of Lagos Historically, the city of Lagos was founded prior to the fifteenth century AD by the Aworis and Benin people who named it “Eko.” In 1472 the name “Lagos” was given to the city by Rui de Sequeira, a Portuguese explorer, because of the many lagoons that surrounded the city. Lagos became an important port for the export of millions of slaves from the eighteenth century until the mid-nineteenth century, when the British abolished the nefarious trade (Melireti 1983). Thereafter, some of the slaves returning from Brazil settled in the older parts of Lagos - such as Campbell Street and its environs that are referred to as the “Brazilian quarters.” Lagos has been administered under a variety of different territorial schemes (Abiodun 2009). After it ceded to Britain in 1861, it was administered as a city state with its own separate administration and operated as a separate colony until its merger with Western Nigeria in 1951. In 1953 a federal territory was carved out of the former Western Nigeria including the colony of Lagos, following the split of political and administrative authority between the then top antagonist governments— the federal government dominated by the Northern People’s Congress, which controlled the federal territory, and the Action Group, which administered the rest of Western Nigeria. The resultant fragmented political authority led to a gross lack of coordination in service provision over the territorial space, which then constituted metropolitan Lagos. Also, due to the greater financial resources and administrative capacity available at the federal level, the federal territory of Lagos had a higher degree of infrastructural development than the outer metropolitan area. This brought about the evident contrast in the quality of urban services available in the two areas within the metropolitan settlement (Abiodun 2009). In 1967, following the outbreak of civil war in Nigeria, the country was split into 12 states of which Lagos state was one. In 1976 the military administration decided to relocate the federal capital from Lagos to Abuja. Administratively, Lagos state, with its capital at Ikeja, comprises five divisions: Lagos, Ikorodu, Ikeja, Epe, and Badagry. The divisions were further subdivided into 20 local governments in 1991, and 37 local government development areas based on the principle of federalism and the imperative of promoting grassroots development in 2006. This process of local government creation, however, has not been without its own peculiar consequences. It led to the balkanisation of most major cities in the country into several independent administrative units. For instance, metropolitan Lagos was subdivided into eight local government areas, while the subsequent creation of development areas by the state government further compounded the balkanisation problems.
The population of Lagos estimated at 25,000 in 1866 rose to 40,000 in 1901; by 1911 the city had 74,000 inhabitants, due partly to the resettlement of freed slaves from Brazil. The city grew to 126,108 inhabitants in 1931 and the 1952 census put the population of metropolitan Lagos at 272,020. By the 1963 census, a population of 665,000 was recorded for metropolitan Lagos (table 1). The 1991 census recorded a total population of 5.8 million for metropolitan Lagos, which accounted for 93 percent of the total population of the state. In 2006 the population of Lagos state was 9.1 million, although this figure has been vehemently disputed by the Lagos state government, who conducted an independent census which came up with a figure of 17 million for the state (figure 2.3). The physical growth and development of Lagos are tied to its expanding economic and political roles, which aided by its rapid and explosive population growth has been phenomenal. From a small fishing and farming settlement, Lagos later became an important port. Between 1891 and 1952 the population of the city almost doubled every 10 years. But between 1952 and 1963, the city’s population grew at an average of 5 percent per annum. It has been projected to become the thirdlargest megacity in the world by 2015, with an estimated population of 24.6 million inhabitants (UN-HABITAT 2006). It currently has a population density of approximately 5,000 persons/km2. Table 2.1 Population of Lagos in millions, 1911–2006 Year 1911
Population as per national census in millions 0.07
Source: National population figures.
Figure 2.3 Population of Lagos showing the disparity between the figures of Lagos State and the 2006 National Population Census
Population as per national census in millions
Lagos State figure in millions
14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 1911 1921 1931 1952 1963 1991 2006 Source: Falade (2010). Analysis of Population Growth in Lagos .
Over the years the city grew to cover the mainland to the west and spread northwest for more than 40 km, merging with Ikeja and Agege to form a great conurbation. The metropolitan area also covers approximately 16 of the state’s 20 local government areas and impinges imperceptibly on 4 local government areas of the neighbouring Ogun state. Today the city is made up of the developed areas on Lagos Island and Victoria Island, both connected to the mainland areas by three bridges: Carter Bridge, which starts from Iddo Island; and Eko Bridge and the Third Mainland Bridge, both connecting Lagos Island to the densely populated mainland suburbs of Yaba and Oworonshoki respectively. The mainland districts include Ebute-Meta, Surulere, Yaba, and Ikeja. Greater Lagos includes Mushin, Maryland, Somolu, Oshodi, Oworonsoki, Isolo, Ikotun, Agege, Iju Ishaga, Egbeda, Ketu, Bariga, Ipaja, and Ejigbo (figure 2.4). Lagos megacity has several central business districts (CBDs), which reflect the city’s internal structure approximating to the “multiple nuclei structure,” as postulated many years ago by Professor Akin Mabogunje. The CBD of Lagos Island is made up of several high-rise buildings and houses many of the city’s largest wholesale markets, such as the Idumota and Balogun markets. It also houses the country’s National Museum, a central mosque, the Glover Memorial Hall, the Holy Cross and Christ’s Church cathedrals as well as the Oba’s palace at Iga Iduganran. There is also the famous Tinubu Square, which is of historical importance.
Figure 2.4 Lagos showing the mainland districts
Source: Lagos State Government (2010) Ministry of Physical Planning and Urban Development
2.3 Governance and Policy According to Ajose (2010), before 1800 and up to the mid-1900s Lagos had minimal socioeconomic and political problems to contend with, which made its governance easy. There was no serious population explosion, dirty environment, high crime rate, or social ills that characterise present-day Lagos. But by the mid-twentieth century, the consequences of the influx of people into Lagos due to its prosperity had begun to manifest. Due to rapid and increasing urbanisation, the city changed from being a rural enclave to a modern, heterogeneous, and metropolitan city with a dense road network, modern means of transportation, and new high-rise buildings. As a result of the increasing population growth and expansion of socio-economic activities, the existing infrastructure became inadequate and problems of environmental sanitation emerged leading to the development of shanties and slums and violations of planning regulations among other problems. To address the issue of environmental sanitation, the Lagos Executive Development Board (LEDB) was established in 1923. The LEDB was in charge of the first slum clearance in Lagos, which led to the founding of Surulere. In later years, health sanitation inspectors otherwise called “wolewole” were employed to address
the issue of environmental sanitation. The Lagos City Council, which was established under the 1917 Township Ordinance, was in charge of the administration of the city. The Municipal Transport Service was also established in 1958 for mobility, while a slaughterhouse was built to promote public health. From 1861 till 1951, Lagos was a separate colony administered by the British. Thereafter, the Western Regional Government took over until 1953 when the city was carved out as a federal territory administered by the federal government. This situation more or less compounded the problem of planning and administering the city. This was the situation until 1967, when Lagos state was created as one of the then 12 states of the Federal Republic. Following its creation as a state, Lagos inherited all the problems and liabilities of Greater Lagos and the surrounding areas that were merged with it. As such the new state was saddled with the responsibility of putting in place appropriate political, economic, and socio-cultural infrastructures that would ease its take-off and growth. It also ushered an era of military dictators ruling the Lagos state up until 1979. Nevertheless, between 1967 and 1975, Lagos state witnessed unprecedented infrastructural development. In the area of construction, many townships and rural and intercity expressways were constructed. Housing schemes were also designed to address the urgent need for habitable accommodation for all categories of Lagosians. From 1963 onwards more people migrated into Lagos from other parts of Nigeria, as a result of the oil boom of the 1970s and 1980s. The attraction of Lagos as a place where dreams were realised made many people to troop into the state. The upsurge in population growth had a great impact on infrastructure and social amenities, such as accommodation, sanitation, educational institutions, traffic congestion, waste disposal, physical planning, and other vital sectors in the state. The crime rate became a serious challenge to the capabilities of the security agencies. In view of the explosive population growth, the absence of effective land-use planning and city management was keenly felt. In 1976 the decision to relocate the federal capital from Lagos to Abuja was taken based on the recommendation of the Justice Akinola Aguda Panel. This situation was necessitated by acute traffic congestion and the inadequate provision of essential infrastructures, which, many believed, had ground the functioning of the city to a halt. In the same year, the 1976 Local Government Guidelines was issued, which led to the creation of new local governments. Due to increasing urbanisation, Lagos city had grown to merge with outlying settlements such as Ikeja, Agege, Ojota, Oshodi, and Shomolu. With the creation of local governments, Lagos metropolis was balkanised into 20 local governments by 1991. This situation again compounded the problem of governance and physical planning in the city. From 1979 to 1983 the civilian administration led by Lateef Jakande, launched a programme of action to address the problems of housing accommodation, road construction, water, transport development, and provision of social amenities. These interventions contributed to the socio-economic transformation of the state, which in
turn led to more prosperity for the people. This situation also led to rising urbanisation and a population explosion. Other governments and administrations that came after Jakande, especially those who held fort between the periods immediately after 1983, jettisoned some of his good programmes, though it is worth mentioning that they also made conscious efforts to solve some problems of the state. By 1996 Colonel Buba Marwa’s administration had achieved modest success by opening up new development areas at the city fringes and building new housing as well as tackling waste disposal and traffic congestion. The administration introduced Operation Sweep and Neighbourhood Watch to strengthen the capability of the state security outfits. This was the situation until the advent of the Tinubu administration in 1999. Between 1999 and 2007 the mantle of leadership fell on Asiwaju Bola Ahmed Tinubu. His administration like his predecessors had to contend with the worsening situation in the state. The state’s rate of urbanisation had gone out of control and Lagos state had grown to become a conundrum of cities, with a burgeoning population—estimated to be about 12 million by the United Nations and with a growth rate of 600,000 people per annum. Other challenges accompanying this growth included the increased volume of traffic that lead to chronic congestion on the roads, inadequate waste disposal, proliferation of shanties, and inadequate educational and other social infrastructure. All of these were in a serious state of disrepair and neglect. The Bola Ahmed administration confronted these problems frontally. His administration set-up many agencies as parastatals for effective service delivery to the residents of the megacity. These parastatals include Lagos Signage and Advertisement Agency (LASAA) for controlling of advertisement, the Lagos State Waste Management Authority (LAWMA) for waste management, the Lagos State Bus Services (LASEBUS) for rapid bus service and the Lagos State Transport Management Authority for transport (LASTMA) to checkmate the menace of traffic congestions arising from illegal stops and parking along the highways. Since 2007 the Babatunde Fashola administration that took over the governance of the state, continues to build on the foundation laid by its predecessor. The Economy of Lagos Economically, Lagos has two seaports and local and international airports. It is a thriving industrial and commercial centre. Crude oil and bitumen are found within Lagos state at Epe and silica sand is available in Badagry and Eti-osa. Clay is found at Ikeja and Ikorodu, and wood (including teak, opepe, and abora) for timber products is widely available. Maize and ginger are cultivated throughout the state, while kolanut, cocoa, and cassava are found in Ikorodu. More recently, fish farm estates have been developed to exploit the state’s water resources and combat poverty. Much of the nation’s wealth and economic activities are concentrated in Lagos megacity, with manufacturing and service delivery, banking, and telecommunication services making more significant contributions than fishing, mining and quarrying,
agriculture, and forestry (which accounted for less than 2 percent of GDP. Metropolitan Lagos accounted for 38 percent of total manufacturing employment in Nigerian cities and over 60 percent of the total value. Industries are concentrated in the Apapa, Ikeja, and Ilupeju industrial estates. Among the factors responsible for the concentration of manufacturing activities in metropolitan Lagos is the availability of sea, land, and air transport; concentration of skilled and semi-skilled workers; and large markets offered by the teeming population and fairly well-developed infrastructural facilities to support manufacturing industries. Traditional markets such as Balogun, Obun Eko, Ebute Ero, Egerton Square, and Faji on the island, and outlying markets such as Tejuoso, Sabo in Yaba, Agege, Ojota, and others are major outlets for commercial transactions. Plate 2.1 Aerial view of the CBD on Lagos Island
Source: Lagos State Government (2009) Ministry of Information and Strategy
In terms of the urban economy, Lagos megacity is a city of many firsts in the country. In 2006 it contributed 30 percent to Nigeria’s gross domestic product (GDP), consumed more than 60 percent of its energy, collected 65 percent of its value added tax (VAT), and accounted for 90 percent of its foreign trade and 70 percent of its industrial investments. The three lighter terminals and two major ports at Apapa and Tin Can Island in Lagos, today generate 50 percent of Nigeria’s port revenue. Most corporates including manufacturing, financial, and insurance organisations in the country have their headquarters in Lagos. The city has since become an economic hub for West Africa, with the Murtala Mohammed International airport generating 82
percent of international airline departures within West Africa and between the subregion and Europe. Lagos is also a major educational centre, playing host to several tertiary institutions including the University of Lagos, the Lagos State University, the National Open University, the Pan-African University, the Yaba College of Technology, and the Lagos State Polytechnic. The city also hosts the Federal College of Fisheries and Marine Technology, the Lagos State College of Health Technology, and the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH) and its College of Medicine. In addition, there are other private polytechnics including the Grace City Polytechnic and Wolex Polytechnic. The employment generated by the various socio-economic activities in the city continues to attract both domestic and international migrants to Lagos. Despite the movement of the federal capital to Abuja in 1986, metropolitan Lagos has remained the country’s dominant economic, social, and financial centre as well as the hub of national and international communications. Summary of Challenges The peculiar location of Lagos is restrictive for accommodating its rapid and explosive population growth. This calls for efficient utilisation and management of the land and resources of the megacity. Due to the pressure on land, extensive reclamation works have occurred in several parts of the metropolis including Victoria Island, Lekki Peninsula, Amuwo Odofin New Town, and Festac. Private developers who wish to own landed property in the metropolis have encroached on areas zoned as a conservation belt in the Lagos master plan. The continued pressure on land has resulted largely in unmet demand for efficient urban infrastructural services such as water, electricity, access roads, public transport, sanitation, drainage, and waste disposal. The historical development of Lagos shows a city challenged by rapid urbanisation. Unfortunately both governance and policy responses have not been able to cope, plan, and manage the city’s development to achieve sustainable urbanisation. Due to a lack of strategic planning of urbanisation, the city has had to contend with the following challenges:
Uncontrolled urban sprawl Inadequate and overburdened infrastructure Housing shortage Social and economic exclusion Large informal sector arising from large in-migration of unskilled labour High youth unemployment Inadequate funding of urban development Rising crime and insecurity Cumbersome judicial processes resulting in delays and denial of justice
Low-level preparedness for disaster management.
The state is aware of these challenges and current efforts are geared toward tackling them. There is evidence that some of these are yielding results as will be shown in subsequent chapters of the report. Table 2.2 Household size and density in some local government areas of Lagos metropolis in 2004 Local government
Status by income
Persons per room
Source: Lagos State Government 2004.
Table 2.3 Crimes reported in some local government areas of Lagos metropolis in 2005 Local Status by Entry and Armed Bank Threatening Common Murder False Car theft Sudden and Total governme income stealing robbery robbery and violence assault pretence unnatural nt death Eti-Osa High 10 16 1 4 23 1 22 62 1 140 Apapa High 8 12 2 4 34 4 52 120 2 238 Ikeja Middle 12 34 6 8 23 8 22 101 3 217 Surulere Middle 8 14 4 6 44 11 44 186 4 321 Kosofe Low 15 25 2 10 65 20 48 129 13 327 Oshodi Low 12 16 4 28 188 12 12 200 10 482 Isolo Somolu Low 122 100 1 87 300 22 54 102 12 800 Agege Total
Source: Nigeria Police Crime Report 2005.
Plate 2.2 Slum upgrading challenges
Source: Lagos State Government (2009) Ministry of Information and Strategy
Transforming Lagos Catalysts of Change According to the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP 1997), “governance and human development” are “indivisible” and “human development cannot be sustained without good governance. Governance cannot be sound unless it sustains human development.” The UNDP (1997) went further to argue that: “whenever good things are happening, people point to good governance.” The transformation currently taking place in Lagos can be attributed to good governance. The actual catalysts of this transformation or reform process are:
Political will and leadership
Strategic visioning of development
Knowledge-based approach (KBA) to planning
Budget reform and its linkage with activities of government institutions
Popular participation partnership building
Policy, legislative, and institutional reforms
Resource mobilisation, transparency, and accountability
Application of information and communication technology (ICT) in governance
Specifics of Reforms Political Will and Leadership The Asiwaju Bola Ahmed Tinubu administration, which came into being on May 29, 1999, inherited what amounted to a nearly failed state, in terms of governance, infrastructural provision, socio-economic development, human rights, insecurity, and poverty—a result of almost three decades of military dictatorship that represented the darkest hours of Nigeria’s history. For 8 years, the Tinubu administration adopted visionary and exemplary leadership approaches to promote development, resuscitate the state’s value systems, and bring back its lost glory. At his inauguration as governor, Tinubu’s maiden speech showed that he was aware of the development challenges facing the people and was determined to make a difference. According to him: As flag-bearers, we are not unmindful of the heavy burden and responsibility that we carry. We are not unmindful of the huge expectations of our people,
young and old, man and woman, able and disabled. Nor are we unmindful of the misery and poverty that the generality of our people have had to endure almost forty years after Independence. Our goal, as the Prophet of old commands, is to lighten the burden of our people, alleviating poverty by providing jobs for our youths, houses, secure homes, water, good roads and creating efficient mass transportation system, industrial development and providing life more abundant for our people. The above quote captures the main thrusts of the development agenda and its achievements. In 2007 Babatunde Fashola (Senior Advocate of Nigeria), who was Tinubu’s chief of staff, succeeded him as the governor with the same vigour and commitment. In his maiden speech he acknowledged the achievements of his predecessor and promised continuation of Tinubu’s purposeful and exemplary leadership, with an emphasis on “education and the development of quality of human capital; job creation and support for private enterprise; infrastructural development; public transportation; crime fighting; justice delivery; healthcare and the environment.” The governance style of both Tinubu and Fashola demonstrated strong political will and exemplary leadership, and nowhere has this vision and mission been more evident than in Lagos megacity. Strategic Visioning of Development To effectively manage the common affairs of the people being governed, those responsible for governance must have the “vision, goals, targets and broadly accepted performance measurements” (TUGI 2002). The UNDP (1997) identified strategic vision as one of the key elements of good governance, which could be achieved through the adoption of vision/mission statements, land-use plans, and poverty reduction strategies. Through strategic visioning of development, political leaders and the general public were able to envision and take both broad and long-term views of good governance and human development initiatives as well as the resources required for their accomplishment. In 2003 Nigeria adopted a home-grown poverty reduction strategy called the National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS). This was later decentralised to the state level in 2004. Lagos state, following the example of the federal government, formulated and adopted the Lagos State Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (LASEEDS), which was put in place in 2005. The LASEEDS is “a Poverty Reduction Strategy aimed at achieving cohesive coordination of the development process through adoption of a bottom-up approach and inclusiveness of stakeholders” (Ehingbeti 2008: 19). It also has a reform and development agenda articulated using basic strategic planning techniques for stimulating sustainable development. Its main focus includes empowering the people (human development), developing the private sector (wealth creation), and reforming
the government and its institutions (public sector reforms). Its main objectives are to create wealth, reduce poverty, generate employment, and reorient value systems. Its 10-point agenda (TPA) comprises the following:
Environmental and physical planning Roads and transportation Power and water supply Education Employment Health Security Food security Shelter Revenue enhancement.
Environmental and physical planning involves the beautification of the city, community-based and integrated waste management, and so on. Roads and transportation entails aggressive road rehabilitation in all the local government areas and construction of new roads, as well as the introduction of the integrated Mass Transit Programme for road, rail, and water transport services and effective traffic management. Power and water supply include the establishment of Island Power, Alausa Power, Akute Power, Odomola, and Adiyan II. Education involves curriculum review, school infrastructure renewal, awarding of scholarships, and so on. The employment agenda includes the graduate empowerment programme, job creation, skills acquisition, and so on. In the health sector, emergency medical services are to be provided; primary, secondary, and tertiary healthcare services are to be improved; and also personnel capacity building to be developed. Security entails improvement and empowerment of the security apparatus to reduce crime in the city. Food security empowers the farmers to higher productivity and supports strategic food preservation and creation of farm settlements. The shelter agenda involves the provision of affordable mass housing schemes and creation of the New/Satellite Town Development Scheme, and so on. Revenue enhancement includes revenue sources and the tax net. All these have been put into operation since 1999, and the details of how each programme has fared are contained in chapter 4. One of the major goals of the LASEEDS is to make Lagos a model African megacity that is a hub of financial and economic growth, not only in Nigeria but in the West African sub-region. The strategies adopted for achieving the goals of the LASEEDS and TPA include:
Continued communication and engagement with all relevant stakeholders
Conduct of research for planning
Application of geographic information systems (GIS)
Continuous institutional capacity building
Greater enforcement of town-planning regulations
Urban upgrading of blights (slums)
Developing Lagos into a model city-state
Pursuit of systematic physical planning for sustainable development
A reliable database for physical planning
Enhanced partnership for governance
These activities have been actively pursued by the Ministry of Physical Planning and Urban Development. Knowledge-Based Approach (KBA) to Planning Adoption of the KBA to management requires integrating and sharing of specialist knowledge among various components of an organisation. The Lagos state government adopts the KBA for knowledge sharing among the different ministries and parastatals to promote sustainable development. This principle also underlined the biennial organisation of the Ehingbeti Summit, which began in 2000 and continues till date. To promote the KBA, the Ministry of Economic Planning and Budget conceived the idea of an annual economic summit rooted in the Ehingbeti state’s heritage, as a participatory forum for integrating stakeholders into the economic planning and development matters of Lagos state. From year 2000 the ministry has successfully organised the five state economic summits in collaboration with other shareholders. Whilst the first was organised in partnership with the Business Club Ikeja, the subsequent summits have been organised under the aegis of the Lagos Economic Summit Group inaugurated in April 2001, as a framework or structure for public-private partnerships (PPPs) for development. The group’s membership is drawn from the Lagos Chamber of Commerce and Industry (LCCI), the Nigerian-American Business Club Ikeja (BCI), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), some special interest groups, and the state government, under the chairmanship of the Honourable Commissioner for Economic Planning and Budget, with a private sector executive as co-chairman. The outcomes are the summit reports, which have become critical policy inputs for the state. Annual budgets have been published with the resultant conclusions yielding fruitful dividends for the state.
Table 3.1 Ehingbeti summits and thematic foci 2000–10 Year Ehingbeti 2000
Theme Accelerating Economic Growth through Private Sector Partnership in Infrastructural Development
Improving Urban Development, Economic Growth and Social Responsibility through Effective Partnership
Lagos Megacity and the Challenges of Economic Development
Transforming Lagos into Africa’s Model Megacity
Lagos: Investment Opportunities in Africa’s Emerging Model Megacity
Source: Ehingbeti (2008) 4th Lagos State Economics Summit.
Budget Reform and Its Linkage with Activities of Government Institutions One of the results of the adoption of the LASEEDS is budget reform, based on the adoption of the medium-term expenditure framework (MTEF) that projects likely availability of resources over a 3-year horizon (which should be documented in a fiscal strategy paper), and a series of medium-term sector strategies (MTSS) that identify goals and objectives for key sectors of government and translate these, within the confines of sectoral indicative expenditure ceilings, into affordable, fully costed, and well-defined sets of projects over the same period. The MTSS have been adopted by all the ministries and parastatals. Institutional Reform for Efficient Service Delivery The Lagos state government has implemented several institutional reforms through the creation of new agencies for effective service delivery in the areas of transport, sewage management, resource mobilisation, and environmental and solid waste management. These agencies include the Lagos Metropolitan Area Transport Authority (LAMATA), Lagos State Water Authority (LASWA), Lagos State Waste Management Authority (LAWMA), Lagos State Emergency Management Agency (LASEMA), Lagos State Emergency Medical Services (LASEMS), Lagos State Ambulance Services (LASAMBUS), and Lagos State Microfinance Institution (LASMI). Popular Participation Partnership Building Popular Participation In line with the democratic ideals and respect for human rights, the state government has adopted inclusive approaches to development planning, policy formulation, and implementation. The formulation of poverty reduction strategy papers and land-use plans were hinged on effective participation. Participatory approaches are well practiced also at the local government levels. For instance, in Ikeja (one of the 20 local governments) men, women, and youth are involved in management and decision making through holding of town hall meetings with local government officials on
development initiatives. The local government also invites different stakeholder groups in different wards (including market women, landlords, representatives from community development areas [CDAs] and community development councils [CDC], pastors, imams, chiefs, and so on) to deliberate on draft bylaws or other issues brought up by the local government before they are approved. The traditional rulers serve as spokespersons for the community on such issues as granting permits for lock-up [stores, tenement rates, and so on. The traditional rulers are also said to be involved in decision making and are usually consulted by the chairman of the local government and the councillors to obtain their buy-in on important issues that affect the people. The Ikeja local government involve the people in annual budget preparation. Each community is represented by its youth, men, women, and traditional leaders from each of the CDAs. Public expenditure by the local government is tracked by a statutory committee. Promotion of Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) Lagos places great emphasis on the adoption of PPP projects as a mechanism for infrastructure delivery against the backdrop of the inability of the public sector to solely fund the infrastructure needs of a modern megacity. Perhaps the most farreaching in this respect is the ongoing construction of the N44 billion Lekki-Epe Expressway and its accompanying coastal roads, which is the largest concessioning project of its size and complexity in Africa. Several other projects delivered through PPP arrangements by the administration include the rehabilitation of Bishop Kale Close on Victoria Island by Starcomms Limited; rehabilitation of Olakunle Bakare Street, Victoria Island, by Vee Networks Limited; rehabilitation of part of Molade Okoya Thomas Street, Victoria Island, by Zenith Bank; construction of access roads to Beach Resort Estate, Victoria Island, by Beach Resort Nigeria Limited; rehabilitation of Orofin Street/Old Ojo road junction, Mazamaza, Amuwo-Odofin, by Intercontinental Bank Plc; rehabilitation of Oyin Jolayemi Street, Victoria Island, by a consortium of companies; powering and maintenance of street lights on WEMPCO road, Ikeja, by the WEMPCO group; rehabilitation of Adetokunbo Ademola Street as a partnership between the Lagos state government and Eko Hotels; rehabilitation of Danmole Street, Victoria Island, by Intercontinental Bank Plc; provisioning, energising, and maintenance of street lights on Ligali Ayorinde Street, Victoria Island, by Pan Ocean Oil Corporation; rehabilitation of Buraimoh Kenku Street, Victoria Island, by Liquefied Natural Gas Company (LNG) Ltd; redevelopment of Ajose Adeogun Street, Victoria Island, by Zenith Bank Plc; and rehabilitation of Jimoh Odutola Street, Surulere, by Flour Mills. One of the Tinubu administration’s greatest legacies to posterity is the very sound financial pedestal on which it placed Lagos state. From a situation of near-total dependence on statutory allocation from the Federation Account in 1999, the administration reduced the state’s reliance on the Federation Account to not more than 25 percent by the time of its exit from office in May 2007. As a result of the sound management of the state’s finances, the administration was able to pay
salaries/emoluments totalling N180 billion to approximately 50,000 civil servants between 1999 and 2007 and N70 billion as civil service operational running costs within the same period; meet its financial obligations to the state’s 15,000 civil service/teachers pensioners and 51,000 primary school teachers and local government workers; and also promptly pay subventions to the 50 parastatals including tertiary institutions in Lagos state. Not even the politically motivated seizure of over N24 billion of funds statutorily due to the local governments of Lagos state by the federal government for over 2 years could destabilise the state financially or incapacitate the local governments from functioning in the interest of the grassroots—another indication of how rock solid the state’s finances were. Some of the major projects which the administration was able to undertake solely on the strength of internally generated revenues include the renewal, redevelopment, and reconstruction of the Lagos Island Central Business District (CBD) comprising 16 highways at a cost of N15 billion; reconstruction and modernisation of key roads (such as Awolowo road, Ikoyi; Akin Adesola road, Victoria Island; Adeola Odeku road, Victoria Island; Oba Sekumade road, Ikorodu; Yaba-Itire-Lawanson-Ojuelegba road; Agege Motor road; Ikotun-Igando road; and Kudirat Abiola road, Oregun) and commencement of the LASU-Iba road and Ajah-Badore road; upgrading of facilities and buildings at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital (LASUTH) to meet world-class standards (thus ensuring through the vision of Asiwaju Tinubu that the institution is today an acclaimed centre of excellence in health-care delivery); construction and modernisation of high courts; expansion/rehabilitation of general hospitals (in Lagos, Gbagada, Epe, Isolo, Ikorodu, and Badagry) and the Island Maternity Hospital; construction of new hospitals at Mushin, Shomolu, Ibeju Lekki, and Isheri-Iba; upgrading of existing health centers to full-fledged hospitals at Ijede, Ketu, Agbowa, and Agege; massive rehabilitation and construction of new public primary and secondary schools in all divisions of the state; provision of infrastructure in newly constructed housing estates (such as the Abraham Adesanya Housing Scheme, Ajah; Oba Adeyinka Oyekan Housing Scheme, Lekki; Ikeja GRA Housing Scheme, Lekki 1; Millenium Housing Scheme; Ayangburen Housing Scheme, Ikorodu; and Gbagada Housing Scheme), and massive rural electrification and microwater projects. It is impossible to give a detailed enumeration, in this short piece, of the innumerable brick-and-mortar legacies of the Tinubu and Fashola administrations across diverse sectors of the state. Policy, Legislative, and Institutional Reforms The state government undertook several policy and legislative reforms in the areas of physical planning, transport, finance, PPPs, security, resource mobilisation, creation of local governments, building control, solid waste management, and signage and advertisement boarding. These include the following:
Urban and Regional Planning and Development Law 2010.
Law on building construction and planning, February 2011.
Law to provide for physical planning, urban development, urban regeneration, and building control in Lagos state and for corrected purposes, 2010.
Lagos State Model City Plan Law 2009.
Lagos Public Private Partnership Law 2004.
Lagos Transport Law 2003.
Traffic Law 2010.
Lagos Metropolitan Area Transport Authority Law 2007.
Lagos State Universal Basic Education Board Law 2006.
These legislative and policy reforms impacted institutional restructuring and setup of new institutions for efficient service delivery as stated above. Resource Mobilisation, Transparency, and Accountability One of the hallmarks of the state’s success is aggressive resource mobilisation. Another revenue-enhancing measure the administration adopted was the rejuvenation and reorganisation of the state’s Board of Internal Revenue (BIR)—an outfit that used to be a centre of corruption was re-engineered and its revenue collection capacity enhanced through greater autonomy, professionalism, and motivation. The board was strengthened to collect optimum revenue at least cost while earning the trust and confidence of the public. Today, the BIR (now the Lagos Internal Revenue Service, LIRS), has become a matter of pride to the state. A third revenue-enhancing step by the Tinubu administration was a thorough reform of the tax administration process through intensive computerisation of the state’s tax assessment records, culminating in the introduction of the electronic tax clearance cards (which is a fraud-free and convenient method of keeping taxpayers records). This was accompanied by the continuous renovation/upgrading of the state’s tax offices with modern facilities to aid electronic collection and reporting of taxes. A fourth measure adopted to boost the finances of the state was intensive publicity through the mass media to sensitise the public on the imperative of paying their taxes willingly, voluntarily, and promptly as a pre-condition for the delivery of quality infrastructure and social services by the government. Indeed, the administration devised the strategy of having huge signboards with the inscription “Tax Payers’ Money At Work” at various project sites. The result was an increase in the number of those who willingly paid their taxes since they saw concrete evidence that the revenue was being expended for the public good. The introduction of the land-use charge, which consolidated the hitherto fragmented collection of ground rents, development charges, and neighbourhood improvement charges by the state and local governments also helped tremendously to boost revenue collection to the advantage of the two tiers of the government. The new Land Use Charge Law promulgated in 2001 stipulated that once a land-use charge demand notice is levied on a property, ground rent, development charges, and
neighbourhood improvement charges will cease to apply. This led to the collection of the sum of over N3.5 billion as land-use charges between 2001 and March 2007, and the value of this revenue source keeps increasing. As a result of these and other measures, the internally generated revenue of Lagos state rose from N600 million per month in 1999 to a monthly average of N5.025 billion in 2006 and peaked at between N7 billion and N8.2 billion monthly as of March 2007. Determined to deliver on its promise to undertake the radical modernisation of infrastructure in Lagos state, the Tinubu administration was the first to approach the capital market to source long-term funds to prosecute long-term projects. Through this strategy, the first Lagos State Floating Rate Redeemable Bond 2005–06 was floated in September 2002 and the sum of N15 billion was raised in the capital market as a refinancing option with a 2-year moratorium. The floating of the bond enabled the administration to refinance locally sourced short-term funds while fast-tracking the construction of major projects in diverse sectors, thus beating incessant inflationary spirals that would have made the delivery of such major projects impossible without the bond. On redemption of the bond in 2007, the state had saved the sum of N22 billion in the sinking fund against the bond of N15 billion, thus demonstrating the state’s creditworthiness and significantly enhancing its financial rating. The bond was utilised to deliver key projects such as modern highways with ancillary amenities comparable to the best anywhere in the world, millennium housing schemes, global computerisation of the public service, millennium micro-water works, construction/rehabilitation of high courts, waste management projects, and millennium classrooms among others. During this period, the Tinubu administration continued to strengthen the state’s investment portfolio through the Ibile Holdings Limited (IHL), Lagos Building and Investment Company (LBIC), and Lagos State Assurance Company (LASACO). Thus, as of March 2007, IHL’s equity portfolio had a market value of N11.46 billion. Through IHL, the state invested N3.84 billion in Celtel (formerly Vmobile/Econet) in 2003 and by the time it divested from the company in 2007, Lagos state had reaped a dividend of N19 billion in 4 years. Also, through IBH the administration invested N11 billion in the state’s LAGBUS mass Bus Transit Project with N6.5 billion going into the acquisition of brand new Marco Polo buses and N4.5 billion into the provision of infrastructure and maintenance facilities for the Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system that is today a phenomenal success story. In the same vein, the administration increased the share capital of the LBIC from N100 million to N500 million to enhance its capacity to be an effective player in the modern mortgage business, while also supporting the LASACO with over N1 billion to meet the Central Bank of Nigeria’s directive on the recapitalisation of insurance companies. Application of ICT in Governance One radical measure taken in this regard, for instance, was the introduction of the Electronic Banking System/Revenue Collection Monitoring (EBS/RCM) Project, which enabled the utilisation of high-level technology to create a robust database of
tax payers, eliminate ghost workers, plug loopholes of revenue leakage, and enhance revenue performance by partnering with the private sector to ensure more effective monitoring of collected revenue. Programmatic Interventions The state’s overriding policy thrust to combat rising urbanisation with its several challenges was hinged on “poverty alleviation and sustainable economic growth,” which was given a greater fillip with the pursuit of the Lagos Metropolitan Development Project (LMDP). This was initiated in collaboration with Cities Alliance that funded the preparatory work, which led to the design of the project and approval of the World Bank. The project, a product of Ehingbeti 2002, is a World Bank–assisted comprehensive project directed at expanding trunk infrastructure, enhancing the delivery of basic services for the poor, and straightening the capacity of the state/local government to cope with future growth challenges. In this regard, preparatory work has commenced on the generation of a database for planning. The implementation of this project, which is still ongoing, has benefited physical infrastructural development, urban planning and slum upgrading, urban regeneration, opening up of lagoon channels for effective drainage, flood control, transport management, and solid waste management. New Partnership for African Development (NEPAD) The Sustainable NEPAD Cities Programme is the initiative of UN-HABITAT to make key African cities functional, productive, safe, and environment friendly. Consequent upon the above, and the selection of the state as one of the seven cities in Africa to pilot this programme, the ministry, on behalf of the state government, hosted the first NEPAD Cities Forum at the Eko Hotel and Suites, Victoria Island, Lagos, May 11–13, 2004. The Consultative Forum of seven NEPAD cities—namely Lagos, Rabat, Lusaka, Bamako, Durban, Nairobi, and Douala—organised by UNHABITAT, the global focal agency for sustainable settlements, provided an avenue to sharing ideas and best practices for making African cities places of opportunity, innovation, security, integration, and prosperity. This has led to bilateral visits between Lagos and Durban. UN-HABITAT also extended an invitation to the governor and the state for participation at the World Urban Forum held at Barcelona, Spain, in September 2004. Currently, the state is collaborating with UN-HABITAT in conducting profiling of Agege and Ifako, which will lead to the production of structure plans in collaboration with the Foundation for Development and Environmental Initiatives (FDI), a national non-governmental organisation (NGO) for promoting development.
Sustainability One of the major features of the transformation in Lagos state has been its sustainability for 13 years. This is mainly due to governance by the same political party during this period and the common vision of successive governments. The hallmark of this test of continuity has been the passage of good practices into law, which will be binding on successive governments.
Innovations/Highlights This chapter is devoted to capturing some of the critical innovations that are fallouts of the various reforms discussed in chapter 3. The presentation is grouped under three broad headings, namely; physical infrastructural development, urban planning and environment, and slum upgrading and social transformations. Physical Infrastructural Development Transportation In response to the enormous transport challenges and the desire to reform the transport sector, the Lagos state government in collaboration with the World Bank has been implementing the Lagos Urban Transport Project (LUTP). This project was designed to create an efficient and effective integrated Intermodal Mass Transit System involving land, water, and rail transport and in the process contributing to poverty reduction. The state government’s policy thrust in transportation development is centred on: Provision of a sustainable, efficient, and safe integrated mass transit system. Improvement of transportation infrastructure and the traffic management system. Introduction of rapid rail transportation. The Mass Transit System The Government enacted Law No. 3, 2002, established the Lagos Metropolitan Area Transport Authority (LAMATA) to facilitate the project. The LAMATA, established in 2003, has a mandate to ensure the provision of the highest level of service in public transportation in Lagos megacity, play a leading role in undertaking transport planning for the city area, and assist in transport policy formulation, coordination, and implementation of major operational and investment decisions. The agency has developed a strategic Transport Master Plan (TMP) for Lagos. The plan specifies the transport infrastructure details of the modal routes required by the megacity by 2020. It provides specific information infrastructure requirements for the state and ensures that transport developments are geared toward inter-modalism with the keyword being “integration.” The plan also provides detailed requirements including the mode of achieving them and other targets. Since its inception the LAMATA has embarked on improving the efficiency of the road network. This is done through periodic maintenance of about 24 kilometres (km) of road network, rehabilitation and improvement of about 35 additional junctions, establishment of 3 transport monitoring units (TMUs), and implementation of the transport system management along the bus franchise corridor to improve traffic flow. It has also engaged in the enhancement of bus services through the
creation of bus by-lanes along the line of each route, provision of traffic system management measures on the routes and at the bus depots, and garages for the parking and maintenance of the bus fleet. The government has also invested heavily on the periodic maintenance of roads, construction of new ones, and expansion of existing roads as well as the construction of vehicular and pedestrian bridges (plate 4.1). The setting up of the LAMATA signalled the Lagos state government’s intention to re-orientate the way in which transport services were managed and implemented (Mobereola 2006). Plate 4.1 Road construction in Lagos
Source: Lagos State Government (2009) Ministry of Information and Strategy.
The government also introduced the Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system on the Mile 12 CMS corridor (plate 4.2). The BRT system entails the operation of a fleet of highcapacity buses run on a segregated and dedicated roadway that are not affected by the traffic snarls that have characterized Lagos for a long time (plate 4.3). The Mile 12 CMS BRT runs on a segregated lane for about 65 percent of the entire corridor and mixes with other traffic for the rest of the route.
Plate 4.2 Bus Rapid Transit (BRT)
Source: Lagos Metropolitan Area Transport Authority (LAMATA) 2010
The state government also introduced the Corporate Taxi Scheme to complement the BRT. The objective is to provide secured taxi operations that will meet international standards and best practices. The scheme is operated by reputable corporate organisations, each with its own identified colours—such as, Yellow Taxis, Blue Corporate Taxis, Red Cabs, Easy Cabs, Orange Cabs, and so on. There are about 1,225 of these taxicabs operating now in Lagos megacity.
Plate 4.3 Existing and predicted modal split in Lagos megacity
Source: Lagos Metropolitan Area Authority (LAMATA) 2010
The impact of the BRT system is diverse. It has reduced the major challenges of mobility in Lagos megacity, most especially in the corridor and the catchment areas. As of January 2010, it had moved more than 114 million passengers and brought a lot of discipline and order in public transportation, promoting the queue culture as well as order at bus shelters. It offers commuters affordable, safe, efficient, and reliable public transportation and provides employment to more than 2,000 people, (Lagos State Government 2009a). The BRT has reduced carbon dioxide emission by about 13 percent and greenhouse gases by about 20 percent. Six percent of car owners along the corridor have opted to use the BRT because of its affordability, reliability, timeliness, and safety. The journey time to the workplace has drastically reduced by 55 minutes as claimed by a commuter on the BRT; it has also reduced household income spent on transportation. Today, the BRT is a key factor in the solution to the transportation problems of Lagos megacity. Plans are already on to extend services to other parts of the city. Figure 4.1 shows the BRT system projection for 2009–20 and highway improvements for the same period while plate 4.4 shows the other proposed Lekki–Epe Express Road expansion and the Lagos–Badagry 10-lane expressway project. Work has started on both proposals.
Plate 4.4 Infrastructural upgrade
Source: Lagos Metropolitan Area Transport Authority (LAMATA) 2010.
Fig 4.1 The Bus Rapid Transport Network and Proposed Highway Improvements
Source: Lagos Metropolitan Area Transport Authority (LAMATA) 2010
The LAMATA Act recognises the need to engage civil society in validating major infrastructure investment and policy changes (Mobereola 2006). This calls for active involvement of all stakeholders through information, consultation, and participation in various consultative, interactive, and participatory fora. The identified stakeholders include the government, development partners, mass media professionals and institutions, civil society, transport associations, the police, the organised private sector, the general public, and the United Nations (UN)/donor/bilateral agencies. This community engagement and participatory strategy encourages the citizens of Lagos to lay claim to the ownership of BRT and the success of the system. Light Rail Transit (LRT) Lagos state government has planned to provide the Lagos urban rail network, which is expected to have seven rail lines covering a total of 264 km. Two of the rail lines, the Blue and Red Lines are being developed as a matter of priority. The design of the two rail lines has been completed, bidding has been done, and the contract has been awarded (Lagos State Government 2009b). The Blue Line runs from Okokomaiko in Ojo to Lagos Island West, covering a distance of about 27 km. It is projected to have an annual passenger demand of 200 million. The Red Line, on the other hand, runs
from Agbado in Lagos North to the Marina with a connection to the Muritala Mohammed International Airport Ikeja, covering a total distance of 24 km (figure 4.2). It also has a projected annual passenger demand of 200 million. Construction work on the rail lines has begun. When completed, the rail line services will further diversify and ease Lagos city traffic and at the same time provide employment most especially for the youth. Figure 4.2 Light rail route
Source: Lagos Metropolitan Area Transport Authority (LAMATA) 2010
Water Transportation Seven corridors were indentified for water transportation These are the Badore corridor, the Badore-Admiralty-Osborne-Marina corridor, Ikorodu-OworonsokiMarina corridor, Ijegun-Egba corridor, Oke-Afa-Festac-Mile 2-Marina corridor, and Iddo-Ota area-Marina corridor. Of these, the Ikorodu-Marina and the BadoreAdmiralty-Osborne-Marina corridors have been opened with daily water transport passenger services across the channels. Old jetties have been rehabilitated and new terminals built to facilitate smooth operations of water vessels. The new jetties include those in Ipakodo, Badore, and Osborne. Provision has been made for terminal buildings with park and ride facilities. There are also provisions for banking, shopping, and dining. The development of water transportation has enhanced the integration of transportation in the city and brought relief to residents of the neighbourhoods of the water transport corridors.
The Lagos State Ferry Services has been upgraded to the Lagos State Waterways Authority (LASWA). The authority is a regulatory agency, charged with the responsibility of ensuring that the safety on water is maintained and best practices are used to achieve sustainable water transportation. It has also opened other avenues of investment and employment opportunities, at the same time relieving the roads of the burden of mobility. Water and Power Supply Water Supply Out of a total estimated water demand of 1,800 million litres per day, only 600 million litres per day or 30 percent of the estimated demand is supplied by public agencies in Lagos state. To improve water supply, the state government has invested a substantial sum on the rehabilitation of waterworks and the privatisation of the Lagos State Water Corporation (LWC). Other methods adopted in its policy for the provision of the potable water system include:
Construction/refurbishment of other micro and macro water works. Improvement of power generation to power the various schemes. Provision of efficient bill collection. Repair/rehabilitation of collapsed boreholes.
In the first phase of the water project coordinated by the LWC and constructed by Naston Engineering Nigeria Ltd, 15 mini micro waterworks have been constructed with a capacity to produce 30 million gallons per day across various local government areas and local council development areas. The long-term plan of the state government is to resuscitate the Adiyan/Iju waterworks both with a total production capacity of 130 million gallons per day. Power Supply The population in Lagos state consumes between 45 percent and 50 percent of the electricity generated in the country and generates only 20 percent of its electricity supply. Lagos megacity requires 6,000 megawatts (MW) of electricity but only 1,000 MW is being met by the Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN). Consequently, power supply has been prioritised among the state government’s economic reforms. The Lagos state governments’ previous attempts at partnering with the federal government on energy supply improvement for Lagos through an international consortium named ENRON Corporation were aborted. In recent years the government has involved some independent power producers (IPPs) to assist in alleviating the power supply problems, most especially in Lagos megacity. Among these are AES Nigeria, a subsidiary of AES USA, responsible for generating 270 MW through the IPP and Akute Power Limited (IPP) responsible for the installation of the 12.15 MW plant supplying electricity to the Adiyan/Iju waterworks. The government has also partnered with El Sewedy Electric of Egypt to build a transformer production factory in Agbara (plates 4.5–4.7).
Plate 4.5 Production of electricity through AES Nigeria, an independent power producer (IPP)
Source: Ehingbeti (2008) 4th Lagos Economic Summit.
Plate 4.6 Elsewedy electricity transformer factory in Agbara
Source: Ehingbeti (2008) 4th Lagos Economic Summit.
Drainage and Sanitation Several drains have been rehabilitated or reconstructed. Most of the clogged canals have been cleared, for example, the Macgregor Canal which serves several communities such as Ijeh, Obalende, Dolphin, Ikoyi, Osborne (and others within that boundary), and Lagos Island. Apart from cleaning up the canal, it has also been properly aligned all the way to the Lagos Lagoon. A chain-link fence has also been constructed to prevent further abuse of the canal. The same thing has been done in the Achapo Canal, Ajegunle. The communities adjoining these canals do not experience flooding as in the past. A major channel called System 5, which runs all the way from Surulere down to Apapa, through Orile and Ajegunle has also been cleared through dredging. Work is going on in the Oko-Oba channel in Abule Egba and also at the Gbagada and Medina channels. Sanitation and waste disposal have many components. One of these is highway sanitation, that is, the cleaning of major highways. The Highway Sanitation Unit, formerly under waste management services, became a department of its own in September 2006. The department appointed “Litter Marshals” who were charged with the responsibility of cleaning the highways. The success of the Litter Marshals’ programme led to the establishment of a new private partnership, whereby over 90 companies (private sector participants) referred to as “service providers” registered with the Lagos Waste Management Authority (LAWMA). They provided
cleaning/sweeping services at various strategic locations (highways and streets) in the state. About 5,000 workers were employed by these companies to help in keeping Lagos state clean. Apart from providing employment, this programme made almost all the major roads and streets in Lagos metropolis litter free. Over 150 trucks patrol the highways to collect bags of refuse that are collected all over Lagos, keeping the city clean everyday. Transfer loading stations have been constructed and they serve as transit camps for refuse to be regularly compacted (plate 4.8). Plate 4.7 Waste management facilities in Lagos megacity
Source: Lagos State Waste Management Authority (LAWMA) 2010.
A school advocacy programme has been established through which schools are supplied with beautiful bins for refuse storage before collection instead of the previous incinerating or burning of refuse. The schools are also supplied with wastesorting bins to teach the pupils how to sort their waste. The essence of this programme is to catch the students young so that they can become agents of change in their various homes and environments. Another aspect of the state’s waste management strategy is the waste-to-wealth programme. This is a strategy to convert waste into fertiliser and use it for beautification.
Solid Waste Management The state’s population of almost 18 million people generates over 6,000 metric tonnes of municipal solid waste daily. To tackle this problem, the state government created the LAWMA, which was charged with the responsibility of managing waste generated within the city. Other agencies involved in waste management included the Ministry of Environment as a policy regulator, the local government by virtue of its constitutional role, and private sector participants (PSP operators) who were assigned with the task of collection, transportation, and disposal of waste. An informal labour force was also actively involved in the collection of residual wastes that may have been left uncollected. The state policy in waste management is geared toward providing an enabling environment for effective public-private partnerships (PPPs) in infrastructure maintenance. Through such partnerships, Lagos has become the largest producer of compost which it supplies throughout Nigeria and to the Federal Ministry of Agriculture. It has also improved its management of medical waste to prevent its comingling with domestic waste. The mission of the LAWMA is “to provide a professional efficient and sustainable waste management and disposal service to the generality of Lagosians, corporate bodies and Governments (Local and State) in Lagos State.” Its vision statement includes:
Provision of unprecedented efficient waste management services to all its domestic, industrial, and commercial clients, including the government. Provision of unparalleled professional services to the government, especially in the area of landfill management. Adequate provision of waste receptacles as an alternative to indiscriminate waste dumping. Promotion of unequalled professionalism and efficiency in public service administration. Adequate public enlightenment and education for reorientation and decent waste collection and disposal habits. Effective partnership with the private sector and other stakeholders in waste management. Ensuring a conducive work environment and promotion of a good working relationship, among the workers and general public. Establishing the organisation as a household name in the area of waste management and other related services.
The agency provides services such as industrial/commercial waste collection, market waste collection, medical waste collection, hazardous waste collection, destruction of classified and expired waste products and materials, licensing of PSPs for industrial/commercial waste collection services, waste collection/sale of waste receptacles, issuance of waste dumping permits, and industrial cleaning.
The LAWMA manages three major landfills/dumpsites. These are:
The Olushosun landfill site. Situated in the northern part of Lagos within the Ikeja local government, it receives approximately 40 percent of the total waste deposits from Lagos. Its size is 42.7 hectares and it has a residual life span of 20 years. The Abule-Egba landfill site. The site occupies a land area of about 10.2 hectares in the western part of Lagos and receives waste from the densely populated Alimosho local government area. Its residual life span is approximately 8 years. The Solous sites. Situated along the Lagos State University–IBA road, Solous II occupies 7.8 hectares of land and has an average life span of 5 years. Solous III is a new site with approximately 5 hectares of land and an average life span of 5 years. Each site receives an average of about 2,250 cubic meters of waste per day.
The LAWMA also has a monitoring, enforcement, and compliance department, which is charged with the responsibility of ensuring regular monitoring of the state of the environment, enforcing environmental laws on defaulters/violators, and promoting strict compliance by the citizenry of Lagos state. It is also charged with the responsibility of enlightening the public, especially market men and women, on the best environmental practices in their areas. The department is divided into three units, namely, monitoring, enforcement, and compliance. The monitoring unit monitors the state of the environment, prepares daily monitoring reports, monitors the stateapproved PSP operators, and issues sanitation alarms to government agencies, public communities, and other stakeholders. The enforcement and compliance unit investigates public complaints relating to issues affecting the state of the environment, issues abatement notices, enforces sanitation laws of the state, and produces weekly enforcement reports and pictorial representations. It also holds mediation meetings between aggrieved parties from the public and private sectors. It documents reports and generates data related to waste management. Urban Planning and Environment Urban Planning Since 1999 the Lagos state government has overhauled planning activities in the state. This manifested in the review of the Lagos State Regional Planning Law in 2005. It witnessed the setting up of several commissions of consultants to prepare land-use plans for several districts and local governments in the state. Along with the passing of new planning laws the State Building Code was also adopted. The vision of the Ministry of Physical Planning and Urban Development is to develop Lagos megacity into a place where people live, work, and recreate in an environment having world-class infrastructure, utilities, and services that support an improved quality of life and cultural diversity. The mission is to plan and facilitate an
organised, safe, green, dynamic, economically and culturally vibrant, and sustainable city which supports optimal land use. In the area of planning the following have been accomplished to achieve the above vision and mission:
Preparation of district plans.
Draft of state town plans and regulations.
Preparation of layout plans for excised villages.
Preparation of interim regional and structural plans.
Resettlement of saw mills in Epe.
Preparation of the Metropolitan Master Plan for Ikorodu.
Preparation of model city plans (for Victoria Island and Ikoyi).
Creation of sites for motor dealers at Mowo Badagry.
Determination of alignment for proposed major state roads.
Setting up of the Central Lagos Redevelopment Scheme.
Creation of a new building control authority to ensure the construction of safe and good-quality buildings. Establishment of the Lekki Free Trade Zone, which is located about 80 km from the Murtala Mohammed International Airport in Ikeja. This is an international PPP between a Chinese-government-sponsored company (CCECC) and the Lagos state government. It is conceived as a hi-tech industrial zone which will incorporate petrochemical facilities that will utilise Nigeria’s abundant natural gas resources. The zone will also accommodate a new international airport, a deep-sea port complex, and other top-of-the-range facilities such as high-class residential apartments, shopping malls, and recreational and service centers. Planned to rank among the most-vibrant free trade zones in the world, it will stimulate development, better public transport facilities, steady electricity supply, decent health facilities, and efficient road linkages, among other infrastructures in this sleepy suburb. The zone will provide enormous job opportunities, international business havens, and immense economic benefits for the existing host communities.
One of the major components of all these plans and interventions is that they are based with the active consultation and engagement of all the stakeholders. Right from the data-gathering stage up till the final plan, beneficiary communities, individuals, community development associations (CDAs), traditional rulers, and other interest groups were, as a matter of course, invited to town-hall meetings where they were
thoroughly briefed about the objectives and contents of the plans. Contributions from such meetings usually formed critical inputs in the decision-making process. The model city plans already prepared are those of Alimosho, Badagry, Ikeja, Ikorodu, Ikoyi/Victoria Island, and Lekki and Mainland (figure 4.3). Figure 4.3 Location of model cities in Lagos state
Source: Lagos State Government (2009) Lagos State Regional Plan
Work has started on the urban facilities upgradation through the redevelopment of old regional markets such as Tejuosho, Oluwole, and Balogun into shopping malls (plate 4.9 and 4.10). Local governments were mandated to begin re-development of the various local markets into modern shopping centers provided with small stalls (KKlamps) to accommodate street traders, thereby removing street trading which has been the bane of Lagos traffic and the cause of environmental degradation.
Plate 4.8 Market redevelopment in Lagos
Source: Lagos State Government (2010) Ministry of Physical Planning and Urban Development.
Plate 4.9 Redevelopment of Balogun Market into a shopping mall
Source: Lagos State Government (2010) Ministry of Physical Planning and Urban Development.
Environment The objective of the Lagos state government has been to create a safe, friendly, and sustainable environment which is conducive for living, business, and pleasure (Lagos State Government 2009a). This objective involves the following:
Efficient community-based waste management. Aggressive greening and beautification of open spaces, decrepit loops, verges, and medians under Operation Green Lagos (plate 4.11). Social rehabilitation and economic empowerment of “area boys” (miscreants) through their engagement in environmental beautification and landscaping projects, thereby adding value to society and upholding the dignity of labour. Upgrading of the Olusosun landfill, Ikeja, through construction of three access roads to tackle the perennial Oregun traffic, as well as the installation of deodorisers to eliminate pollution, thereby enhancing the air quality and public health of adjoining neighbourhoods. Construction and equipping of eight waste-transfer-loading stations at Yaba, Ogombo, Ebute-Elefun (Simpson), Oshodi, Ishasi, Ajegunle, Abule-Egba, and Oba Ogunji Street, Agege. Procurement of 240 waste collection trucks and 3 Tana giant landfill compactors for efficient management of waste at the landfills.
Introduction of Dino bins in over 2,000 locations across the state and evacuation of illegal dumpsites at 10 locations including Obele Oniwala (Surulere), Oba Ogunji Street (Agege), Opebi (Ikeja), Ajah (Eti-Osa), and Festac Gates (Amuwo), as part of a new waste disposal/environmental project. Establishment of the Lagos State Emergency Management Agency (LASEMA). Building of seven mini fire stations situated at the Palm Shopping Mall; Lekki; Simpson Street, Lagos; Ojo-Alaba Market, Ojo; Oriade; Ikotun; and Apapa Dockyard to complement existing ones.
Plate 4.10 Environment and physical planning in Lagos megacity
Source: Lagos State Government (2010) Ministry of Information and Strategy.
Land The sprawling nature of Lagos as a megacity makes land issues important, both in terms of land ownership as well as in the case of the boundary between the different communities being integrated into its continuous built-up area. Access to land within the megacity is governed by the Land Use Act of 1978. This act, whilst conferring the right to grant statutory certificates of occupancy to parcels of land to state governors, also makes their consent mandatory for any land transaction, either for mortgage or assignment purposes. The act also allows the state or federal government to acquire land for public purposes on the payment of compensation as and when the land is utilised. Non-payment of compensation has encouraged encroachment and development of squatter settlements on such land.
As a result of the Land Use Act, land has become one of the major sources of revenue for Lagos state and over the years successive administrations have put in place effective and dynamic reforms to ease land-use procedures and in turn boost state revenue. In 1999 the Asiwaju Bola Ahmed Tinubu administration designed a policy that made land administration a strategic resource block for the realisation of social and economic prosperity. The government created a Lands Bureau for this purpose. The Fashola administration that followed introduced some reforms at the Lands Bureau which included:
The deployment of professional personnel to achieve optimum performance of the bureau. The minimisation of land abuses especially those relating to corrupt practices and red tape. Change of the mode of payment (to direct payment to designated banks) for services delivery by the Lands Bureau. The creation of of templates for the conduct of business in the bureau. The introduction of the Electronic Document Management System (EDMS). Consent of Governor within 30 days instead of the prior 365 days. Digital mapping of Lagos state to complement the effect of EDMS. The reduction of consent fees, capital gains tax, stamp duty, and registration fees. The establishment of the Directorate of Land Regularisation to eliminate the hitherto defective ratification procedure, to ensure easy access to land and checkmate corruption. The introduction of new land administration policies to aid industrial, commercial, and housing requirements particularly affecting private developers’ schemes. The introduction of new urban renewal policies that would create new towns out of old communities. The introduction of a proactive policy on property regularisation and registration to develop a reliable database. A review of the change-of-use policy to prevent the massive abuses of town planning and urban protection laws that have adversely affected Ikoyi, Victoria Island, and others and turned them into an urban slum. Both Ikoyi and Victoria Island were initially developed and high-brow middle class housing areas which over the years have increasing witnessed the conversion of residential buildings to offices, shopping plazas, banks and churches among others. The insensitive application of development control in these areas have occasioned the un-imaginable growth of vehicular traffic in residential areas as well as the nerve-breaking traffic congestions witnessed in these earsthwile quiet and beautiful residential neigbourhoods tht have been increasingly turned into high streets and central busnesnes districts.
A massive reclamation and expansion programme to increase the land mass available to the state for its use. Mortgage registry. Acquisition and excision registry. An automated validation of receipts of payments.
The Lands Bureau has become a major revenue-generating source for Lagos state since 1999. The total revenue rose from 6.7 million in 1999 to 4.2 billion in 2004 to 8.8 billion in 2007 and 17.3 billion naira in 2008. Today the bureau is the secondhighest income-generating agency in the state with the Lagos State Internal Revenue Service being the first. Housing The challenge for housing the ever-increasing population of Lagos metropolis is enormous. There is a serious overcrowding with a room occupancy of five to seven persons. Housing needs have been estimated for about 8 million, requiring an annual delivery of about 40,000 units. The land on which houses can be built is also in short supply and corporate financing of mass housing, particularly for the poor, is nearly absent. The organised private sector’s involvement and financing of housing has been directed mainly to cater for the medium- and high-income brackets. It has been suggested that there is a sense in which the proliferation of slums in the Lagos metropolis, especially in the peripheral areas, can be ascribed to the difficulties of producing houses for all categories of income levels, especially the low-income groups. As a first step in the creation of a conducive environment, the state’s land policy reforms involved the following:
Land tenure and ownership reforms. Establishment of a mortgage division in the Lagos state high court. Thirty-day consent by the Governor (down from 365 days), mortgages 0.02 percent of loans, and consent 15 percent of land value. Establishment of electronic land registry with web access. Securing of tenure/titling through regularisation of illegal occupation of government land in slum communities. Granting of certificate of occupancy in 90 days (down from 365 days). Preparation of area action plans. Controlled reclamation and development of land. Introduction of housing mortgage financing.
The Lagos state government has also realised that the housing demand of about 18 million people in Lagos cannot be met by the government alone. The government, therefore, has redefined its role in the delivery process by enhancing the role of PSPs. In doing this, the government re-evaluated the operational environment with the objective of removing existing bottlenecks and strengthening the private sector delivery process. It then provided a conducive, enabling environment for private
sector participation in housing delivery. In addition, the government made equity contributions in terms of providing land for genuine investors. For this, the Ministry of Environment developed a template for appraising interested private developers and facilitated the necessary sign-off from relevant ministries and government agencies on behalf of private developers. The efforts of the government at encouraging PPPs in housing have started yielding fruits. Some private sector investors have completed their projects and others are at advanced stages of completion. Foremost among these are Messrs Cortex, Marimpex Imperial Homes, and First World Communities whose efforts have led to the completion of several housing units. Another major challenge in the housing sector is the issue of sustenance/maintenance of these housing estates and their existing infrastructure. The government has upgraded the infrastructure in these estates, renovated the buildings, improved the common facilities, and beautified their surroundings. The estates which have been renovated in the state are the:
Millennium Housing Estate Gbagada I Millennium Housing Estate Oko-Oba Agege Millennium Housing Estate Alaagba Agege Millennium Housing Estate Amuwo Odofin Millennium Housing Estate Shasha Millennium Housing Estate Oke-Eletu Millennium Housing Estate Ibeshe Millennium Housing Estate Lekki Scheme II Oba Adeyinka Oyekan Housing Estate Lekki Howson Wright Housing Estate Ojota Ayangbunren Housing Estate Ikorodu Abraham Adesanya Housing Estate Ikorodu Jakande Housing Estate Amuwo-Odofin Jakande Housing Estate Eric Moore Michael Otedola Housing Estate Omole Phase II Millennium Housing Estate Ojokoro
With the exception of the estate in Ikorodu, all others are within the Lagos megacity region. The renovation works in the estates have not only enhanced the value of the houses, but have also created healthy environments for the inhabitants. They have also provided backward and forward linkage for activities in the housing sector by generating employment for the locals who are encouraged to pay their taxes from incomes derived during the renovation period. Structures have also been put in place by the Ministry of Environment to engage professional facility managers to continue the maintenance of the upgraded facilities in the estates for sustainability.
The government has also commenced the process of issuance of deeds of sublease to allottees, so that they can be registered to secure their property. The documents provided can then serve as collateral for raising new funds. Slum Upgrading, Redevelopment, and Social Transformation Slum Upgrading In the last one and a half decades, the Lagos state government has progressively embarked on upgrading the slum communities and bringing them to a level conducive to healthy living. A comprehensive Urban Renewal Programme was launched in 2001, which was based on a 1995 World Bank Study and covered 750 hectares of largely swampy terrain. The government created the Lagos State Urban Renewal Authority, which adopted a citywide approach supported by a $200 million World Bank (International Development Association, IDA)–assisted credit intervention. It is a 7-year upgrading project that commenced in October 2006 and ends in March 2013 (Lagos State Government 2009a). The project involves the upgrading of the worst 9 of the 42 slum communities identified in 1983. It targets 1.1 million inhabitants and 150,000 households whose average monthly income is about $170. The intervention involves upgrading dilapidated roads or footpaths, provisioning public toilets/bathrooms, sinking boreholes to provide water, building new schools and upgrading existing ones, developing health facilities, and creating youth empowerment through skill acquisition and capacity building. Slum Redevelopment For slum redevelopment, the government came up with a strategy of redeveloping slums in partnership with the private sector for funding the project. The upgraded slums in most cases feed into the redevelopment scheme. Under this arrangement the property owners and tenants of the slums are duly consulted. The owners contribute their properties for redevelopment though a cooperative. Property developers are brought in to develop the property as high rise building so as to prevent displacement of the occupiers. As most propertires affected are mainly bungalows, the tendency is to redevelop the properties to 3 to 4 storey flats to compensate for land use allocation to roads, drainages, open spaces in the new developed areas and to avoid displacement of any of the residents of the slums. The property owners are given reasonable compensation for contributing their properties. After redevelopment, the property owners are allocated a three-bedroom flat in the high building and given the opportunity to purchase additional flats from the compensation received (plate 4.12). During redevelopment the occupiers are temporarily displaced and provided transit housing. They are also given relocation allowances during this period. A typical example is the case at Oluwole in the Lagos Central Business District (CBD) where 39 displaced families were provided better alternative accommodation and also financially assisted to relocate. The residents were also equity holders in the
redevelopment of their former abode with a reversion of the entire development after the redevelopment period. This approach by the Lagos state government is a unique and a welcome strategy for Nigeria. It is significant to note that past slum redevelopment in Lagos (such as the one in Isale Eko, Maroko, and others) always led to some social dislocation. In addition, the slum redevelopment projects in Lagos were preceded by surveys to profile the communities. Community inclusion is an essential component of the urban regeneration process, which allows communities to prioritise their needs and inform the executing agency The pursuit of slum redevelopment in this way ensured participation as the fortune, future, and social networks of the property owners were assured. This project was conceptualised at Isalegangan and to date about 13 families have signed up to submit their properties for redevelopment. This is a win-win approach for everyone. Plate 4.11 Slum redevelopment in Lagos megacity
Lagos State Government (2010) Ministry of Information and Information and strategy
Health The peculiar demographic and geographical features of Lagos state have created more challenges to its health-care system than any other state in Nigeria. The fact that 40 percent of the land mass is riverine, coupled with increasing urbanisation due to the continuous flow of migrants from other parts of the country has posed great
challenges to health-care delivery. Thus, there are acute problems of communicable diseases, malnutrition, and poor maternal and child health care. As in other parts of Nigeria, the health-care system is organised along primary, secondary, and tertiary levels. The government’s health-care policy and programmes have been focused on the following:
Free community-based primary health-care services. Provision of comprehensive secondary health-care services. Institution of the Health System Reform Programme (HSRP), which includes take-off of the State Health Insurance Scheme (SHIS). Improvement of the health-care system and its management. Reduction of the disease burden and improved access to health services. Fighting HIV/AIDS as a development issue. Improvement in health resources and their management. Improvement in the quality of health services. Improvement in consumer awareness/community involvement. Promoting of effective partnership/collaboration and coordination. Establishing of a communication strategy for the HSRP. Establishing of a performance monitoring and evaluation system.
Given the above, the Lagos state government embarked on the provision of propoor health-care programmes, including the following:
Eko Free Malaria Programme. Blindness Prevention Programme. Limb Deformity Rehabilitation Programme. Free treatment for expectant mothers, children upto 12 years of age, and elderly people aged 60 years and above. Emergency medical services incorporating the Lagos State Emergency Medical Service (LASEMS) and Lagos State Ambulance Services (LASAMBUS). Commencement of the construction of maternal childcare centers in six locations: Isolo, Ajeromi, Gbaja, Ikorodu, Ifako-Ijaye, and the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital (LASUTH). These are expected to ease the pressure on Ayinke House, the state’s premier gynaecology and obstetrics centre.
In Nigeria tertiary health facilities are the preserve of the federal government. But, in Lagos, with its population of about 18 million, the challenges of health-care services are enormous. Prior to 1999, there was only one tertiary hospital, the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), which was totally inadequate. This resulted in the government sending a lot of people abroad for tertiary health services. It therefore started improving health-care services from the tertiary level. The Ikeja General Hospital was made a teaching hospital by Bola Tinubu’s administration, and the government refurbished and upgraded the hospital to a level that was comparable to
any tertiary institution worldwide. Several projects that were started by the Tinubu administration were completed by the Fashola administration. These included the commissioning of the Bola Tinubu (BT) Ward, the B.T. Pediatric Complex, and the diagnostic centre. A clinical service complex was built for lecturers working in the College of Medicine of the Lagos State University and a cardiac/renal centre is under construction at the upgraded Gbagada General Hospital. A trauma and burns centre is also being constructed while the planning of a cancer centre is at an advanced stage. The secondary tier of health-care services, which is mainly the preserve of the state government, has also been improved tremendously. There are at present 24 general hospitals most of which have been or are being refurbished. Their scope of services is being increased to bring them to the level of a fully fledged general hospital. The state government has worked closely with the local government to address the issue of primary health care. It has also made a conscious effort to look at preventive health care as a strategy. For this, immunisation campaigns have been intensified and many facilities been put in place at the primary health-care level. The administration has equally focused on non-communicable diseases that have a high mortality rate and have become prevalent in the state, including hypertension, diabetes, and cancer. Preventive services including public enlightenment, screening programmes, and public education have been embarked upon. High mortality rates have been ascribed to the poverty level of Lagos’ inhabitants. The state government has, therefore, embarked on the policy of free medical services for tuberculosis patients, children under 10 years, and adults aged 60 years and above. Antenatal and general basic maternal care are also free. The institutional framework for health-care services has been revamped. The Health Management Board has been decentralised and each hospital now has its own governing board. The old Hospital Management Board has been repackaged to become the Health Services Commission and its sole responsibility is to address the issues of human resources (such as recruitment, training, remuneration, and so on) in the health sector.
Plate 4.12 Health-care delivery
Source: Lagos State Government (2010) Ministry of Health.
Security Security is an important pre-condition for human existence. Economic prosperity thrives only in a situation of safety and security. Nowhere in Nigeria is the issue of security more critical than in Lagos, which has a high incidence of armed robbery and violent crimes including assassination attempts; car snatching; transportation union unrest; religious, ethnic, and political riots; the menace of area boys/girls and other miscreants; and vandalisation of pipelines and other installations. Ensuring the security of lives and properties of about 18 million people as well as the continuous influx of visitors within and outside Nigeria is essential to the development of Lagos megacity. In addition only a safe and secure environment will bring in domestic or international investors. Although efforts had been made in the past to make Lagos safe, the government has, since 1999, taken on the challenge and embarked on several strategies to combat crime. These include the following:
Establishment of the State Security Trust Fund (SSTF), in partnership with the private sector. Evolving of a comprehensive security strategy called the “Safe City Project,” which will enable central security surveillance (CSS).
Expansion, reorganisation, rekitting, and remotivation of the state’s Rapid Response Squad (RRS). Establishment of the Surveillance and Command Centre at Alausa, Ikeja. Purchase of over 200 patrol vehicles. Installation of a new communication system linking all security formations (plate 4.14). Provision of comprehensive insurance cover for all RRS members. Establishment of Nigeria’s first dedicated emergency call centre, which can be reached toll free on “767” and “112” numbers on all networks. Launch of a joint military-police patrol code named Operation Mesa (OPMESA) to complement the efforts of the State Police Command. Installation of street name posts and directional signs to guide emergency relief to crisis points/centres on time. Installation of streetlights on major roads and streets to deter criminals and enable effectiveness of security cameras. Beefing up of the “Neighbourhood Watch,” a complementary community security outfit made up of members of various communities who serve as volunteers within their respective neighbourhoods. Introduction of the Community Security Assembly (CSA) to educate people at the grassroots about safety to their lives and property. Publication of telephone numbers of senior police officers from the commissioner of police down to heads of police departments for public usage in case of distress. Introduction of police information/complaints boxes at strategic locations all over the state by the Force High Command.
All these interventions have gone a long way to drastically reducing crimes especially armed robberies, car snatching, and riots, and have raised public confidence in the capacity and ability of police officers to respond to distress situations in different parts of the city.
Plate 4.13 Provision of security facilities in Lagos state
Source: Lagos State Government (2010) Ministry of Information and Strategy
Employment Generation The issue of unemployment constitutes a major challenge to economic development in Nigeria. In Lagos metropolis, the restiveness and evil tendencies among the youth and particularly the “area boys” has been a problem. The “area boys” are the unemployed, able-bodied men, possibly drug dependent, that harass people, mostly motorists for money in broad daylight. Unemployment has been addressed by the Lagos state government since 1999 through the introduction of several programmes including training, creating projects that engage the hitherto unemployed, and providing employment opportunities for several people. The state has provided employment and employment opportunities for a lot of people in the science and technology sector. Over 7,000 graduates called “Millennium graduates” have been employed. They are given special training in information technology (IT) and then become trainers themselves. They are dispatched to various agencies of the government to train everyone from the top echelons of the public service organisations to the lowest levels on the use of IT.
The government also created the Ministry of Women Affairs and Poverty Alleviation (MWAPA) in 1999 to improve the lot of women and youth through sustainable economic empowerment programmes. Various skills acquisition centers were established at various locations for vocational skills/courses in areas such as refrigeration and air conditioning, tile laying/pave-lock making, aluminium fabrication, vulcanising/wheel balancing and alignment, screen/transfer, printing technology, and shoe making. Plate 4.14 Skill acquisition programmes
Source: Lagos State Government (2008) Ministry of Women Affairs and Poverty Alleviation
The ministry also introduced other poverty reduction initiatives, which included microcredit lending through microfinance banks, and financial and material empowerment of parents with multiple births and those that are physically challenged. The first of such centers was commissioned in 2007 and since then one of such centers has been established in each of the 20 local government areas of the state. A total of 5,300 students have graduated from these skill acquisition centers. Some of these graduates were formerly “area boys” whose incessant menace has now been reduced drastically in Lagos. Apart from this long-term training, the government has been organising regular short-term vocational training and over 30,000 women across the state have benefited in skills such as catering, soap and pomade manufacture decorations, production of stove thread and insecticide, tie and dye, beads stringing, hat making, and hair
dressing (plate 4.15). The government established the Lagos State Microfinance Institution (LASMI) to provide easy access to micro-credit loans for women and youth to start their own businesses, especially those who benefited from the vocation skill acquisition training programmes. Credit loans are given automatically to the beneficiaries to purchase equipment and commence their businesses. Such loans range from N20,000 to N100,000 and are collateral free. The only requirement is that the beneficiaries inform the LASMI as to where they live and provide them with a guarantor. The repayment of such loans has been almost 100 percent. This is possible because the beneficiaries are particularly sensitive to loan repayment, and they fear the consequences of default especially within the highly regarded social system in which they reside. The LASMI has partnered with eight banks for this programme. These are the Integrated, Gapbridge, LASU, Ojokoro, MIC, City Serve, G.L., and Infinity Micro-Finance banks. Almost 25,000 persons have benefited from the programme since its inception in 2008. The government’s micro-credit scheme has been a useful tool to alleviate poverty and create employment. One of the major job-creating projects is the construction of the Lekki Free Trade Zone (FTZ), which is being developed with a Chinese consortium. While the Lagos state government has provided the land as equity contribution, the Chinese consortium is funding the infrastructure (including power, water, sewage, and some roads) for the first phase. The agreement with the Chinese is that there would be some skill transfer to the local Nigerians. There are four Nigerians working with every Chinese on this project to acquire the necessary skills. The local communities are given jobs that they are capable of handling, which is a source of employment creation. Under a special arrangement, the Lagos State Drivers’ Owners Association has been assisted with loans to purchase brand new vehicles to create jobs, alleviate poverty, and improve the transportation system within Lagos megacity. Revenue Enhancement The key sources of revenue generation in Lagos state are taxes, federal monies (allocations), bonds, land-use charges, sales tax, development assistance, lotteries, joint ventures, and concessioning arising from PPPs. The state’s internally generated revenue profile has been rising since 1999. It rose from N7 billion a month in 1999 to N11 billion in 2008 and was more than N15 billion in 2010. It is expected to reach N25 billion in 2020. Improved government financial controls and other steps intended to create a favourable climate for investment have seen confidence grow in Lagos as a destination for investors. An agreement for the largest direct funding of a sub-national government had been concluded between the Lagos state government and World Bank. Multilateral donor partnerships include $150 million for public transportation, $100 million for water expansion, and $200 million for a slum-upgrading project.
Some programmes are designed to train and educate all sectors of the society. Together with job creation strategies, these create large corps of skilled employed people and, in turn, develop new markets. The potential in the growing market of Lagos for investment is already recognised by many foreign companies. For example, LG Electronics, a global home appliance company, has opened a N600 million plant in Apapa to produce products for Lagos state and beyond. As stated by Mrs. Olusola Oworu, Special Adviser to the Governor on Commerce, Lagos “is ready for business.” The intention of the government is to make Lagos “the Dubai of West Africa.”
Lessons Learned The implementation of the different reforms discussed in chapter 4, were all aimed at promoting effective, equitable, participatory, and accountable governance as well as the security of life and property. No doubt the implementation of these reforms presents its own challenges from which several lessons can be learned. In this chapter, an attempt has been made to capture some of these lessons including the:
Evolving of an institutional framework for effective service delivery. Promotion of participatory governance. Putting in place of structures for effective resource mobilisation, transparency, and accountability. Planning and strategic visioning of development. Information and communication technology (ICT) and use of data for planning.
Evolving Institutional Framework for Effective Service Delivery The growth, structure, and extent of Lagos megacity and its fragmentation into several local governments (eight in number) demands an innovative governance structure. This manifests in the reforms undertaken for policies, legislations, and institutions in the past decade and a half. The state government passed several legislations and policies and established many metropolitan-wide parastatals for effective service delivery in such areas as solid waste management, health-care delivery, transportation, security, water supply, pollution, and land-use planning. These are citywide services that constituent local governments cannot handle in isolation. These response needs are to be extended to the handling of central sewage disposal in the city. These parastatals include the Lagos State Emergency Management Authority ((LASEMA), Lagos State Emergency Medical Services (LASEMS), Lagos State Waste Management Authority (LAWMA), Lagos Metropolitan Area Transport Authority (LAMATA), and so on. There is the need to work out a modality for promoting effective interagency relationship between these parastatals and local governments for service delivery. Many cities that are fragmented into several local governments, which is an emerging and enduring phenomenon, can learn from the Lagos experience by creating a similar structure. Promotion of Participatory Governance In the spirit and principle of democracy, which means “government of the people by the people and for the people,” the state government embraced a participatory approach to promoting development. The government made it a point of duty to mainstream participation in promoting development issues in all sectors of development. This practice is a complete reversal of the top-down approach, which characterised the military era.
Stakeholders’ engagement has been institutionalised through active consultations with a broad spectrum of the community that is either going to be affected or benefit from a policy, programme, or project. For any project, the government does the preliminary work and comes up with a draft proposal that it presents to a target audience at a formal gathering within the beneficiary community. For policy formation, which oftentimes results in legislation, the stakeholders’ engagement is even more involving. After the initial series of consultations leading to policy formulation, the draft legislation is sent to the state assembly (legislature) which after the first and second readings and committee considerations, organises the stakeholders’ forum on the proposed bill. Inputs from such interactions eventually result in modification to the bill before its enactment. The Lagos State Urban Regional Planning and Development Law 2005 went through this process before its enactment. It contains elaborate and copious provisions for the preparation of an urban development plan. In addition, town hall meetings have been institutionalised. Here the various communities aggregate at the community centers where they are briefed about government programmes and positions and achievements by members of the executive council and high-ranking government officials. At such interactions, questions are asked and requests made by members of such communities for government action. The media is also often used and press briefings are done periodically for informing the general public about the government’s plan, programme, or policy. One of the major lessons from the Lagos experiment is the importance of community participation and inclusion in the decision-making process for any undertaking that concerns the community. The Lagos state government and consultants on development projects organise stakeholders’ fora to include communities in the planning and decisionmaking process and ongoing strategies, which consider the cosmopolitan background of the people of Lagos. Another lesson learned is the effectiveness of the application of the bottom-top approach rather than the traditional top-down approach, which has been put into place at the three levels—local, state, and federal. Public enlightenment is used to bring planning to the grassroots. Urban management and development programmes and projects are capital intensive. In Nigeria, as in most other developing countries, there has been a continuous dependence on government statutory allocations. In Lagos the success of many projects has been attributed to the strategy of public-private participation. Also a major lesson from the Lagos experience is the usefulness of data collection, storage, and utilisation. Lagos state is perhaps the best in Nigeria in the statistical documentation and the use of geographic information systems (GIS) to resolve complexities of land use and as an aid to making day-to-day decisions.
Putting in Place a Structure for Effective Resource Mobilisation, Transparency, and Accountability The hallmark of the achievements of the Lagos state government over the decade and a half under consideration is the aggressive attitude toward resource mobilisation, using internally generated revenue (IGR), and involving the private sector. This has been matched also by putting in place an effective and transparent accounting system. Participation is also one of the strategies for ensuring prompt payment of taxes—the state government involves the people, educating them on the values of paying taxes. The government-introduced e-payment system has cut off ghost workers and ensured a transparent and accountable system. Planning and Strategic Visioning of Development Another lesson is the role accorded to planning, especially, fiscal planning and projection, strategic visioning of development, and adoption of long-term land-use plans for all sectors in the state, which is highly commendable and enviable. All settlements in the state have land-use plans. The state has an operative poverty reduction strategy, which is backed by 10-point agenda focusing on poverty reduction. The strategy paper is also backed by a medium-term sector strategy, which ensures that funds are available for implementing government projects. Use of ICT and Data for Planning The state accorded high priority to the use of ICT and establishment of databases for planning, monitoring, and evaluation. The state needs to be commended for use of a georeferenced database through the use of GIS images, a strategy worth emulating by other cities in Nigeria.
Conclusion The accounts of this report indicate that rapid urbanisation transformed Lagos into a megacity with associated social and environmental problems, which make demands on good governance. It has documented the challenges of developing the city, the reform processes, changes that have taken place, and the success story of these efforts from 1999–2011 during the Tinubu-Fashola administrations. Undoubtedly, in the last one-and-a-half decades a lot of progress has been made in the good governance of Lagos megacity. The accounts underscore best practices in city governance, planning, development, and management as well as institutional reforms and resource re-mobilisation. With Lagos megacity merging imperceptibly with settlements in Ogun State, there is the need for inter-governmental cooperation between Ogun state, Lagos state, the federal government, and the various local government areas in promoting service delivery in the megacity. Lagos megacity is one of the largest conurbations and emergent urban corridors in West Africa. The Lagos megacity region consists of the 153,340 hectares of built-up area, comprising most of the local government areas of Lagos state and four local governments in Ogun state namely Ado-Odo/Otta, Ifo, Obafemi Owode, and Sagamu. The case for this kind of collaboration has been well made by the Presidential Committee on Re-Development of Lagos Megacity Region which says that: An institutional arrangement to facilitate the implementation of the many recommendations for transforming and re-developing the Lagos Megacity Region is proposed. It is a three-tier arrangement with a President’s Council for constant dialogue and strategic decisionmaking by the President with the governors of both Lagos and Ogun States; a Megacity Intergovernmental Committee of relevant Ministries at both the Federal and the two-state levels; and a Lagos Megacity Transportation and Planning Authority with a Policy Board of political actors and a Management Board of professionals. With the expectation that Lagos megacity will become the third-largest in the world in 2015, there is need to overhaul and expand the responsibility for its planning and development beyond the Lagos state government alone. Apart from the public sector involvement through the other levels of government, the emphasis on public-private partnership (PPP) should continue and all the strategies that have created the success reported in this study should be continuously adopted. All the legislative reforms necessary to make multi-government and private sector participation possible must be undertaken so that the right, friendly, and sustainable social, political, and economic environment will be available to the city’s inhabitants.
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