Washington Heads the New Government

January 6, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Social Science, Law, Constitutional Law
Share Embed Donate

Short Description

Download Washington Heads the New Government...


INSTRUCTIONS  Take a map from the back bookshelf  Grab a U.S. History book on the right table by the pencil sharpener  Label the front of the map based on the items listed on the back  Use the maps in chapter 6 and maps A6 and A8 in the back of the book



A NEW GOVERNMENT TAKES SHAPE  Washington was the unanimous choice to be the first President

 Washington and Congress established several precedents (examples) for future leaders to follow

THE JUDICIARY ACT OF 1789  The Constitution authorized Congress to set up a federal court system, headed by a Supreme Court

 In 1789, Congress passed the Judiciary Act  It set up the Supreme Court, headed by a Chief Justice

THE JUDICIARY ACT OF 1789  It also set up federal courts throughout the country  Section 25 of the Act allowed state court decisions to be appealed to federal courts over constitutional issues  This guaranteed the supremacy of federal laws over state laws on certain issues

WASHINGTON SHAPES THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH  Congress set up 3 executive departments in 1789 to help run the government: 1) The Department of State to handle foreign affairs 2) The Department of Treasury to handle the nation’s finances 3) The Department of War to manage the military  Congress also created the attorney general to handle the government’s legal matters

WASHINGTON SHAPES THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH  Washington appointed: 1) Thomas Jefferson as Secretary of State 2) Alexander Hamilton as Secretary of Treasury 3) Henry Knox as Secretary of War 4) Edmund Randolph as Attorney General

WASHINGTON SHAPES THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH From these departments Washington set up what became known as the cabinet This is a group of advisers to

the President chosen from the department heads

WASHINGTON SHAPES THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH  The Constitution states that the president has the power to make treaties and appoint government officials  It is silent, however, on how they are approved by Congress  Washington established the precedent that the Senate could: 1) Approve presidential appointees, but not remove them 2) Ratify or reject treaties only after they were made

WASHINGTON SHAPES THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH  Washington led the legislative battle, urging Congress to pass laws he believed in the public interest  Congress almost always followed his lead  This precedent was followed by Washington’s successors, making the President the Chief Legislator

WARM-UP Take a copy of Reteach 8-1 On a separate piece of paper answer the questions in the chart, number 1-15. Do not write on the worksheet. Hold on to your papers and put the worksheet in the basket on the back bookshelf You have ten minutes to do this

HAMILTON’S ECONOMIC PLAN  The nation had a large national debt from the Revolutionary War  The Continental Congress had borrowed money from foreign governments and private citizens

 The national government was responsible for 2/3rds of this debt  The states were responsible for 1/3

HAMILTON’S ECONOMIC PLAN  Secretary of Treasury Hamilton proposed the federal government: 1) Pay off its foreign debt 2) Assume the debts of the states

 Hamilton felt assuming the debts of the states would give creditors an incentive to support the new government  Some southern states objected to this as they: 1) had already paid their debts 2) didn’t want to pay for northern debts

HAMILTON’S ECONOMIC PLAN  To win support for his debt plan, Hamilton suggested moving the nation’s capital from New York City to a new city in the South  In 1790, Congress passed a debt bill, which: 1) Had the federal government take over state debts 2) Authorized the construction of a new national capital in the District of Columbia (Washington, D.C.)

PLAN FOR A NATIONAL BANK  Hamilton also wanted to create the Bank of the United States, funded by both the federal government and wealthy investors  He felt this would tie wealthy investors to the country’s welfare  The bank would issue paper money and handle tax receipts and other government funds

PLAN FOR A NATIONAL BANK  The National Bank’s chief opponents were Thomas Jefferson and James Madison  They based their opposition to the National Bank not being an

enumerated power  Enumerated Power - Power

specifically mentioned in the Constitution

PLAN FOR A NATIONAL BANK  Hamilton believed that the National Bank was legal based on implied powers  Implied Powers - Power suggested, but not directly stated in the Constitution  He used the Elastic Clause of the Constitution to back up his argument

PLAN FOR A NATIONAL BANK  It states, Congress shall have the power

“To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested in this Constitution in the government of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof.”

 This gives Congress the authority to do whatever is “necessary and proper” to carry out its specific enumerated powers

In the end Congress and Washington sided with Hamilton and signed the Bank Bill, establishing the Bank of the United States

HAMILTON & JEFFERSON DEBATE  The political divisions in the nation were embodied in Washington’s cabinet by Hamilton and Jefferson  Hamilton believed in: 1) A strong federal government 2) Government run by the educated upper-class 3) An economy based on commerce & industry

HAMILTON & JEFFERSON DEBATE  Jefferson believed in: 1)Strong state and local governments 2)Government rooted in popular participation 3)An economy based on farming

THE FIRST POLITICAL PARTIES  Differences between Hamilton and Jefferson gave rise to the nation’s first political parties  These parties formed around the issue of the power and size of the federal government in relation to state and local governments

THE FIRST POLITICAL PARTIES  Those who supported Hamilton called themselves Federalists  They believed in a strong federal government  Those who supported Jefferson called themselves Democratic-Republicans  They believed in strong state governments

THE FIRST POLITICAL PARTIES  Washington worried political parties were a danger to national unity  By the time Washington left office, however, the two-party system was firmly established

THE WHISKEY REBELLION  To pay off the nation’s debt, Congress passed a protective tariff in 1789  Protective Tariff - A tax on imports to protect products from foreign competition  Hamilton also wanted an excise tax  Excise tax - Tax paid by the manufacturer of a product and passed on to those who buy  Congress passed the first excise tax in 1791 on Whiskey

THE WHISKEY REBELLION  Most whiskey producers were small frontier farmers  As whiskey was their main source of cash, in 1794, farmers in western Pennsylvania refused to pay the tax

THE WHISKEY REBELLION  They beat up a federal marshal in Pittsburgh, and tarred and feathered others  Washington personally lead the Army and suppressed the rebellion  The Whiskey Rebellion showed the consolidation of federal power in domestic (within the U.S.) affairs

View more...


Copyright � 2017 NANOPDF Inc.