western art 1700-1870 part i: rococco, naturalism and neo

January 6, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, European History, Renaissance (1330-1550)
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WESTERN ART 1700-1815 PART I: ROCOCO, NATURALISM AND NEO-CLASSICISM

EUGENIA LANGAN MATER ACADEMY CHARTER HIGH SCHOOL HIALEAH GARDENS, FLORIDA

THEME:

THE TIMES THEY ARE A'CHANGING – THEN EVERYTHING OLD IS NEW AGAIN THE 18TH AND 19TH CENTURIES WERE TIMES OF ENORMOUS POLITICAL, SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CHANGES – AND YET MUCH OF THE ART WAS BASED ON OLDER CONVENTIONS

PEOPLE CLING TO TRADITION IN TIMES OF CHANGE – AND SEEK TO LEGITIMIZE NEW REGIMES BY REFERENCE TO GREAT PAST ONES!

GENERAL GOALS:  UNDERSTAND THE ORIGINS AND SPREAD OF THE LUXURIOUS AND DECORATIVE STYLE KNOWN AS ROCOCO.  DISCUSS THE CHANGE IN EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN TASTES IN ART IN THE MID-18TH CENTURY

 EXPLAIN THE CAUSES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF NEOCLASSICAL ART AND ARCHITECTURE IN EUROPE AND AMERICA.  COMPARE AND CONTRAST THE SUBJECT MATTER AND STYLISTIC FEATURES OF ROCOCO AND NEOCLASSICAL ART.  EXAMINE HOW THE NEED FOR PATRONS INFLUENCES ARTISTS

TIMELINE:  MAJOR NEW PHILOSOPHIES, SOCIOECONOMIC CHANGES:  ENLIGHTENMENT/ AGE OF REASON, © 1637 (DESCARTES' DISCOURSE ON METHOD) – 1789 (FRENCH REVOLUTION)  SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION, ? , © 1637 (DESCARTES AGAIN, AND NEWTON'S PRINCIPIA, 1687) - PRESENT  INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION, FIRST © 1775 (WATT STEAM ENGINE – 1855, SECOND © 1855 (BESSEMER STEEL PROCESS) – WWI

BEGINNING OF THE MODERN AGE – END OF THE MEDIEVAL SACRED CIRCLE (WHICH WAS STILL THE PARADIGM IN THE SO-CALLED "RENAISSANCE"!

MODERN CHURCH

SECULAR HUMANISM/ HEREDITARY SCIENTISM ARISTOCRACY EVERYONE ELSE

EGALITATIANISM AND DEMOCRACY

BIBLE TEXT

MAIN EVENTS:  1688: ENGLISH GLORIOUS REVOLUTION ("CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY")

 IN FRANCE, L'ANCIEN RÉGIME'S LAST GASP  1710 – 1774: REIGN OF LOUIS XV

 FEWER COURTIERS AT VERSAILLE, MORE IN PARIS  NEAR-INSTITUTIONALIZATION OF SALONS AT PARIS PRIVATE HÔTELS – PRINCIPAL FORUM FOR INTELLECTUALS, ARTISTS, ETC.  PRIVATE PATRONAGE MORE IMPORTANT THAN ROYAL  WOMEN HOSTED THE SALONS - FEMMES SAVANTES

 1748: EXCAVATIONS OF POMPEI AND HERCULANEUM BEGIN

 WILL SET OFF NEOCLASSICAL FAD

1751: FIRST VOLUME OF DIDEROT'S ENCYCLOPEDIA PUBLISHED 

NOT THE FIRST – BUT THE MOST AMBITIOUS! ALL "SCIENCE, ARTS, AND CRAFTS"

 1755, 1762: PUBLICATION DATES OF JEAN-JACQUES ROUSSEAU'S DISCOURSE ON INEQUALITY AMONG MEN AND EMILE, OR ON EDUCATION – NATURALISM

 1763: TREATY OF PARIS CONCLUDED SEVEN YEARS WAR – FRANCE LOST NORTH AMERICAN COLONIES (AND FUR $)  1774 – 1792: REIGN OF LOUIS XVI (DEBT, DEBT, DEBT),  1776: U.S. DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE: "ALL MEN ARE CREATED EQUAL" WITH NATURALLAW RIGHT TO "LIBERTY"  1777: AMERICAN VICTORY IN BATTLE OF SARATOGA   1778: FRANCO-AMERICAN ALLIANCE = FRANCE SENT $$, TROOPS AND NAVY TO AID U.S. (MORE DEBT FOR LOUIS XVI)

 1781: U.S. VICTORY AT YORKTOWN   1783: TREATY OF PARIS – AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE OFFICIAL -- VICTORY FOR "EQUALITY" AND "LIBERTY"  1789 – 1799: FRENCH REVOLUTION – "LIBERTÉ, EGALITÉ, FRATERNITÉ"!  JULY 14, 1789: STORMING OF THE BASTILLE  1792: FRENCH DECLARATION OF WAR ON AUSTRIA ( NAPOLEON = MAJOR MILITARY HERO)  JANUARY 21, 1793: EXECUTION OF LOUIS XVI

 OCTOBER 16, 1793: EXECUTION OF MARIE ANTOINETTE SKETCH BY JACQUESLOUIS DAVID DONE THAT DAY

 1793 – 94: "REIGN OF TERROR"  JULY 13, 1793: ASSASSINATION OF JEAN-PAUL MARAT BY CHARLOTTE CORDAY

 JULY 27, 1794: THERMIDOREAN REACTION  EXECUTION OF ROBESPIERRE & CONSTITUTIONAL REPUBLIC" UNDER THE DIRECTORY

 NOVEMBER 9, 1799/ 18 BRUMAIRE: NAPOLEON'S COUP OF 18 BRUMAIRE  DIRECTORY NAMED NAPOLEON CONSUL  1800: NAPOLEON = FIRST CONSUL + HE CROSSED ALPS INTO ITALY   NAPOLEON VICTORY IN BATTLE OF MARENGO (DROVE AUSTRIA OUT OF ITALY  1803 – 1815: NAPOLEONIC WARS (WORLD WARS)  DECEMBER 2, 1804: NAPOLEON CROWNED EMPEROR BY POPE PIUS VI

 JUNE 1812: NAPOLEON'S INVASION OF RUSSIA  SIXTH COALITION (AUSTRIA, PRUSSIA, UK, RUSSIA AND SOME LESSER NATIONS) CONQUER PARIS MARCH 1814   APRIL 11, 1814: ABDICATION OF NAPOLEON  EXILE TO ELBA  SEPTEMBER 1814 – JUNE 1815: CONGRESS OF VIENNA – BALANCE OF POWER (LOL!)  FEBRUARY 26, 1815: NAPOLEON'S ESCAPE FROM ELBA & RETURN TO PARIS   JUNE 18, 1815: BATTLE OF WATERLOO = FINAL DEFEAT OF NAPOLEON  EXILE TO SAINT HELENA THAT'S ENOUGH TO GET US THROUGH NEOCLASSICISM!

ROCOCO  ROCAILLE = PEBBLE, COQUILLE = SHELL  DICTIONARY OF THE ACADEMY: ROCOCO IS "THE KIND OF ORNAMENT, STYLE AND DESIGN ASSOCIATED WITH LOUIS XV'S REIGN AND THE BEGINNING OF THAT OF LOUIS XVI."

SI JOLIE! SI RICHE! SI DÉSESPÉRÉ? THE LAST GASP OF L'ANCIEN RÉGIME

SPECIFIC GOALS:  EXAMINE THE ARTISTIC EXPRESSIONS OF SALON CULTURAL STYLE KNOWN AS ROCOCO.  UNDERSTAND THE PROLIFERATION OF THE STYLE IN DECORATIONS, ACCESSORIES, PAINTINGS AND SCULPTURE, INTERIORS, AND ARCHITECTURE.  NOTE THE SUBORDINATION OF ART TO DECORATION IN MOST ROCOCO WORKS

ROCOCO INTERIORS AND ACCESSORIES

GERMAIN BOFFRAND, SALON DE LA PRINCESSE, WITH PAINTING BY CHARLES-JOSEPH NATOIRE AND SCULPTURE BY J. B. LEMOINE, HÔTEL DE SOUBISE, PARIS, FRANCE, 1737–1740. INTERIOR DECORATION UNRELATED TO FUNCTION EXCEPT TO SHOW WEALTH AND "TASTE" – SOCIAL POWER AND AUTHORITY PAINTING AND SCULPTURE PURELY DECORATIVE

IT’S EASY TO RECOGNIZE ROCOCO INTERIORS: EXTREMELY, ORNATE, GILDED STUCCO DECORATION CRAWLING OVER THE WALLS AND CEILINGS, IRREGULAR SHAPES – BUT NO ENERGY – IT'S "FROZEN"

NICOLAS PINEAU, VARENGEVILLE ROOM FROM THE HÔTEL DE VARENGEVILLE, 217 BOULEVARD ST.GERMAINE, PARIS © 1735. 18' 3 ¾" X 40' 6 ½" X 23' 2 ½". MET.

JEAN-CLAUDE DU PLESSIS, SEVRES POTPOURRI CONTAINER © 1756. SOFT PASTE PORCELAIN WITH POLYCHROME GLAZE AND GOLD, APPROX. 14 ¼" X 11 ¼" EXCLUSIVE OF BASE. MET PATRON: MADAME POMPADOUR (MISTRESS OF LOUIS XV)

CLAUDE MICHEL, AKA CLODION, SATYR CROWNING A BACCHANTE, 1770. TERRACOTTA, 1’ 5/8” HIGH. LOUVRE. FIGURINE MANNERIST INLUENCE – BUT TYPIFIES ROCOCO INTEREST IN PLAYFUL EROTICISM

CLODION, NYMPH AND SATYR CAROUSING, © 1780. TERRA-COTTA, 23 ¼" HIGH. MET

FRANÇOIS DE CUVILLIÉS, HALL OF MIRRORS, THE AMALIENBURG, NYMPHENBURG PALACE PARK, MUNICH, GERMANY, EARLY 18TH CENTURY.

CEILING DETAIL, HALL OF MIRRORS, THE AMALIENBURG

BALTHASAR NEUMANN, INTERIOR OF THE PILGRIMAGE CHURCH OF VIERZEHNHEILIGEN, NEAR STAFFELSTEIN, GERMANY, 1743-1772.

NEUMANN, PLAN OF THE PILGRIMAGE CHURCH OF VIERZEHNHEILIGEN. CLEAR INFLUENCE OF BORROMINI, BUT NO MOTION/ EMOTION

COMPARE BORROMINI'S PLAN FOR SAN IVO AND NEUMANN'S PLAN FOR VIERZEHNHEILIGEN CHURCH

ROCOCO PAINTING

ANTOINE WATTEAU, L’INDIFFÉRENT, CA. 1716. OIL ON CANVAS, 10” X 7”. LOUVRE.

NOTE GREATER INTEREST IN COLOR AND LIGHT THAN IN LINE/ FORM SOFT BRUSHWORK SUGGESTS RATHER THAN DELINEATES FORMS SPLIT IN ACADEMY, "POUSSINISTS" V. "RUBENSISTS". BUT WATTEAU IS NOT LIKE RUBENS – WATTEAU AND THE ROCOCO PAINTERS ARE INCHING TOWARD MODERNISM!

WATTEAU, THE RETURN FROM CYTHERA, 1717. OIL ON CANVAS, 4' 3" X 6' 4 ½". LOUVRE, PARIS. HIS ACADEMY PIECE! FÊTE GALANTE. "AMOROUS" LANDSCAPE

DETAIL, THE RETURN FROM CYTHERA

FRANÇOIS BOUCHER, Cupid a Captive, 1754. Oil on FRANÇOIS BOUCHER, canvas, 5’ 6” x 2’ The Wallace 1754. Collection, CUPID A 10”. CAPTIVE, OIL London

ON CANVAS, 5' 6" X 2' 10". THE WALLACE COLLECTION, LONDON

PATRON? MADAME DE POMPADOUR BAROQUE DEVICES, ROCOCO EROTIC THEME

JEAN-HONORÉ FRAGONARD, THE SWING, 1766. OIL ON CANVAS, APPROX. 2' 8 5/8" X 2' 2". WALLACE COLLECTION, LONDON.

DETAIL, THE SWING

ENLIGHTENMENT/ INDUSTRIALISM: SCIENCE AND NATURALISM

SPECIFIC GOALS:  UNDERSTAND THE EXPRESSION OF SCIENTIFIC IDEAS IN ART AND THE RESULTING ARTISTIC INTEREST IN RECORDING OBSERVATIONS OF THE NATURAL WORLD.  UNDERSTAND THE INFLUENCE OF THE PHILSOSOPHY OF ROUSSEAU ON THE ARTISTIC INTEREST IN NATURALISM  UNDERSTAND THE DIFFERENT STYLES OF THE "NATURAL" IN FRANCE, ENGLAND, THE UNITED STATES, AND IN ITALY.  EXAMINE CHOICES OF 'ORDINARY' LIFE, THE NATURAL WORLD, AND SENTIMENTALITY AS SUBJECTS IN ART.

A GLIMPSE OF SCIENCE AND INDUSTRY IN ENGLAND

JOSEPH WRIGHT OF DERBY, A PHILOSOPHER GIVING A LECTURE AT THE ORRERY, © 1763–1765. OIL ON CANVAS, 4' 10" X 6' 8". DERBY MUSEUMS AND ART GALLERY. WRIGHT'S PATRONS: INDUSTRIALISTS

BRAHAM DARBY III AND THOMAS F. PRITCHARD, CAST IRON BRIDGE AT COALBROOKDALE, ENGLAND, 1776–1779. FIRST IRON BRIDGE – AND A HARBINGER OF VISIBLE STRUCTURAL STEEL "SKELETONS" IN 19TH C. ARCHITECTURE

FRENCH NATURALISM

JEAN-BAPTISTESIMÉON CHARDIN, SAYING GRACE, 1740. OIL ON CANVAS, 1' 7" X 1' 3". LOUVRE. CLEARLY INFLUENCED BY VERMEER AND OTHER DUTCH GENRE PAINTERS BUT NOTE CHARDIN'S SOFT BRUSHWORK -COMPARE TO ROCOCO

CHARDIN, BACK FROM THE MARKET, 1739. OIL ON CANVAS, 18 ½" X 14 ¾". LOUVRE. Q: WHY WOULD ARISTOCRATIC PATRONS BE INTERESTED IN GENRE PAINTINGS OF THE LIVES OF THE PETIT BOURGEOISIE?

DETAILS, BACK FROM THE MARKET

JEAN-BAPTISTE GREUZE, VILLAGE BRIDE, 1761. OIL ON CANVAS, 3' X 3' 10 ½". LOUVRE. SENTIMENTAL NARRATIVE – REFLECTS BOURGEOIS PATRONAGE BUT ACCEPTED BY ACADEMY

ÉLISABETH LOUISE VIGÉE-LEBRUN, SELFPORTRAIT, 1790. OIL ON CANVAS, 8' 4" X 6' 9". UFFIZI, FLORENCE. WOMAN ARTIST HUMAN BODY: NOTE CONFIDENT SELFIMAGE LEBRUN WAS ADMITTED TO THE ACADEMY (BUT BOOTED OUT AFTER REVOLUTION

ÉLISABETH LOUISE VIGÉE-LEBRUN, STATE PORTRAIT OF MARIE ANTOINETTE AND HER CHILDREN, 1787. OIL ON CANVAS, 9' ½" X 7' 5/8". EXTRAORDINARY COMBINATION OF STATE PORTRAIT, GENRE PAINTING, AND SENTIMENTAL NARRATIVE

ENGLISH NATURALISM

WILLIAM HOGARTH, MARRIAGE À LA MODE, THE MARRIAGE SETTLEMENT, © 1745. OIL ON CANVAS, 2' 4" X 3'. NATIONAL GALLERY, LONDON - 1ST IN SERIES OF 8 (FOR COPPERPLATE PRINTING. SATIRICAL NARRATIVE

HOGARTH, BREAKFAST SCENE FROM MARRIAGE À LA MODE (#2), © 1745

HOGARTH, THE BAGNIO FROM MARRIAGE À LA MODE, (# 5), © 1745.

THOMAS GAINSBOROUGH, MRS. RICHARD BRINSLEY SHERIDAN, 1787. OIL ON CANVAS, 7' 2 5/8" X 5' 5/8". NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART, WASHINGTON, D.C. NATURAL, ROCOCO COMPARE WATTEAU AND FRAGONARD

GAINSBOROUGH, MRS. SIDDONS, 1785. OIL ON CANVAS, 4' 1 ½ X 3' 3". NATIONAL GALLERY, LONDON NATURAL PORTRAIT OF ACTRESS (NOT IN A ROLE).

SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS, LORD HEATHFIELD, 1787. OIL ON CANVAS, 4' 8" X 3' 9". NATIONAL GALLERY, LONDON ENGLISH "GRAND MANNER" PORTRAIT "HEROIC" FIGURE IN FOREGROUND, LOW HORIZON WITH SMOKY BATTLEFIELD IN BACKGROUND

REYNOLDS, GENERAL JOHN BURGOYNE, © 1766. OIL ON CANVAS, 4' 2" X 3' 3 7/8". FRICK MUSEUM, NYC.

REYNOLDS, MRS. SIDDONS AS "THE TRAGIC MUSE," 1784. OIL ON CANVAS, 7'9" X 4' 9 ½". HUNTINGDON LIBRARY AND GALLERY, SAN MARINO, CA.

GRAND MANNER PORTRAIT OF THE ACTRESS

NATURALISM IN COLONIAL AMERICA

BENJAMIN WEST, DEATH OF GENERAL WOLFE, 1771. OIL ON CANVAS, APPROX. 4' 11" X 7' NATIONAL GALLERY OF CANADA, OTTAWA. HISTORICAL NARRATIVE - WEST – TRAINED IN ITALY, LIVED IN ENGLAND , CO-FOUNDED ENGLISH ACADEMY

TRUE SUBJECT? WILLIAM JOHNSON – WHO WASN'T AT PLAINS OF ABRAHAM BUT WAS A HERO AT BATTLES OF LAKE GEORGE AND NIAGARA IN MOHAWK VALLEY – A REMINDER OF AMERICAN LOYALTY TO BRITAIN?

JOHN SINGLETON COPLEY, PORTRAIT OF PAUL REVERE, © 1768–1770. OIL ON CANVAS, 2' 11 1/8" X 2' 4". MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS, BOSTON. COPLEY WAS STILL SELF-TAUGHT WHEN HE PAINTED THIS. AMERICAN "DOWNRIGHTNESS"?

COPLEY, MRS. JOSEPH SCOTT, © 1765. OIL ON CANVAS, 5' 9 ¼ X 3' 3 ½". NEWARK MUSEUM, NEWARK, N.J. PATRONAGE: JOSEPH SCOTT WAS A RICH MERCANT AND BRITISH LOYALIST STILL NATURAL ALBEIT POSED IN BORROWED FINERY

ITALIAN NATURALISM

ANTONIO CANALETTO, RIVA DEGLI SCHIAVONI, VENICE, © 1735-1740. OIL ON CANVAS, 1' 6 ½" X 2' 7/8". TOLEDO MUSEUM OF ART, TOLEDO – VEDUTA PAINTING. PATRONS = TOURISTS

CANALETTO, THE THAMES AND THE CITY OF LONDON FROM RICHMOND HOUSE, 1747. OIL ON CANVAS, APPROX. 3' 5 ¼" X 3' 10 ¼". PRIVATE COLLECTION.

 RECALL THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DISCOVERY OF POMPEII AND HERCULANEUM IN INSPIRING NEOCLASSICAL ART  UNDERSTAND THE USEFULNESS OF NEOCLASSICAL ART AND ARCHITECTURE TO NEW GOVERNMENTS  EXAMINE CLASSICAL REVIVAL IN ARCHITECTURE AND HOW IT WAS USED IN THE UNITED STATES (FEDERAL STYLE).  OBSERVE THE INFLUENCE OF PALLADIO ON NEOCLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE.  ANALYZE NEOCLASSICAL SCULPTURE FOR ITS CLASSICAL REFERENCES AND STYLISTIC QUALITIES

 AND NOTE THE INFLUENCE OF JOHAN JOACHIM WINCKELMAN, THE FIRST MODERN ART HISTORIAN AND COMMITTED HELLENSIST "GOOD TASTE . . . HAD ITS ORIGINS UNDER THE SKIES OF GREECE. . . . THE ONLY WAY FOR US TO BECOME GREAT . . . IS TO IMITATE THE ANCIENTS." REFLECTIONS ON THE IMITATION OF GREEK WORKS IN PAINTING AND SCULPTURE," 1755.

NEOCLASSICAL WESTERN EUROPEAN ART BEFORE NAPOLEON

PAINTING

ANGELICA KAUFFMAN, CORNELIA PRESENTING HER CHILDREN AS HER TREASURES, OR MOTHER OF THE GRACCHI, © 1785. OIL ON CANVAS, 3' 4" X 4' 2". VIRGINIA MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS, RICHMOND. EXEMPLUM VIRTUTIS -- NARRATIVE

ANGELICA KAUFFMAN, VENUS PERSUADES HELEN TO GO WITH PARIS, 1790. OIL ON CANVAS, 102 X 125.5 CM. HERMITAGE, ST. PETERSBURG, RUSSIA

DAVID, OATH OF THE HORATII, 1784. OIL ON CANVAS, APPROX. 10' 10" X 13' 11". LOUVRE. EXEMPLUS VIRTUTI. NARRATIVE HUMAN BODY – STRONG RIGID MEN V. WEAK CURVY WOMEN

THE DEATH OF MARAT, 1793. OIL ON CANVAS,. 5' 5" X 4' 2 1/2". MUSÉES ROYAUX DES BEAUXARTS DE BELGIQUE, BRUSSELS. NEOCLASSICAL? PROPAGANDA! NARRATIVE

ARCHITECTURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN

JACQUES-GERMAIN SOUFFLOT, PANTHÉON (SAINTEGENEVIÈVE), PARIS, FRANCE, 1755-1792

BEGUN BY LOUIS XV AS CHURCH, HE RAN OUT OF $ FOR IT, FINISHED DURING REVOLUTION  SECULAR MAUSOLEUM FOR GREAT FRENCH MEN

RICHARD BOYLE AND WILLIAM KENT, CHISWICK HOUSE, NEAR LONDON, ENGLAND, BEGUN 1725. NEO-PALLADIAN.

29-21 ROBERT ADAM, ETRUSCAN ROOM, OSTERLEY PARK HOUSE, MIDDLESEX, ENGLAND, BEGUN 1761. VICTORIA AND ALBERT MUSEUM, LONDON "POMPEIAN STYLE" – BUT MORE ROCOCO THAN CLASSICAL!

NEOCLASSICISM IN THE EARLY UNITED STATES

FEDERAL ARCHITECTURE

THOMAS JEFFERSON, MONTICELLO, 1770-1806. CHARLOTTESVILLE, VA. NEO-PALLADIAN - BUT WITH AMERICAN TWIST – MORE BRICK THAN MARBLE

THOMAS JEFFERSON, ROTUNDA AND LAWN, UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA, CHARLOTTESVILLE, VIRGINIA, 1819-1826.

SCULPTURE

JEAN-ANTOINE HOUDON, GEORGE WASHINGTON, 17881792. MARBLE, 6' 2" HIGH. STATE CAPITOL, RICHMOND. PATRON? VIRGINIA LEGISLATURE 13 FASCES (13 STATES) + PLOW =? WASHINGTON AS CINCINNATUS (BUT N.B. WASHINGTON WAS IN HIS FIRST TERM WHEN STATUE WAS COMPLETED)

HORATIO GREENOUGH, GEORGE WASHINGTON, 1840. MARBLE, 11' 4" HIGH. SMITHSONIAN AMERICAN ART MUSEUM, WASHINGTON, D.C. WASHINGTON AS ZEUS AND AUGUSTUS COMBINED

PATRON: U.S. CONGRESS– WHICH REJECTED IT

NAPOLEONIC NEOCLASSICISM

SPECIFIC GOALS:  UNDERSTAND REASONS WHY NEOCLASSICISM REMAINED THE PREFERRED STYLE DURING THE NAPOLEONIC PERIOD  IDENTIFY AND REMEMBER NEOCLASSICAL ARTISTS OF THE NAPOLEONIC PERIOD AND HOW THEY SERVED THE EMPIRE

EUROPE IN 1811, AT THE HEIGHT OF NAPOLEON'S POWER

DAVID, CORONATION OF NAPOLEON, 1805–1808. OIL ON CANVAS, 20' 4 ½' X 32' 1 ¾". LOUVRE

DETAIL, CORONATION OF NAPOLEON

NOTE WHAT A POLITICAL CHAMELEON DAVID WAS (LIKE NAPOLEON) PROPAGANDA, POWER AND AUTHORITY

DAVID, NAPOLEON CROSSING THE ALPS (SECOND VERSION), © 1802. OIL ON CANVAS, APPROX. 8' 10¾" X 7' 9½". CHATEAU DE MALMAISON, RUEILMALMAISON PROPAGANDA: NAPOLEON HAD 5 VERSIONS MADE SARCOPHAGUS OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT, ISTANBUL

DAVID, NAPOLEON IN HIS STUDY AT TUILERIES, 1812. OIL ON CANVAS, APPROX. 6' 8 ½" X 4' 1¼". NATIONAL GALLERY, D.C. PROPAGANDA, POWER AND AUTHORITY

ANTOINE-JEAN GROS, NAPOLEON AT THE PESTHOUSE AT JAFFA, 1804. OIL ON CANVAS, 17' 5" X 23' 7". LOUVRE PROPAGANDA - THE BIG LIE

JEAN-AUGUSTE-DOMINIQUE INGRES, APOTHEOSIS OF HOMER, 1827. OIL ON CANVAS, 12'8" X 16'10 3/4". LOUVRE

INGRES, GRANDE ODALISQUE, 1814. OIL ON CANVAS, APPROX. 2'11 7/8" X 5'4". LOUVRE

NEOCLASSICAL OR ROMANTIC?

ARCHITECTURE AND SCULPTURE

PIERRE VIGNON, LA MADELEINE, PARIS, FRANCE, 1807–1842 ORIGINALLY TEMPLE DE LA GLOIRE DE LA GRANDE ARMÉE .

ANTONIO CANOVA, PAULINE BORGHESE AS VENUS, 1808. MARBLE, 6'7" LONG. GALLERIA BORGHESE, ROME.

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