Wilson Fights for Peace

January 6, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, European History, World War II (1939-1945)
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Wilson Fights for Peace Chapter 11 Section 4

Wilson’s 14 Points • • • • •

1. No secret treaties 2. Freedom of the seas 3. Tariffs lowered or abolished 4. Decrease in armaments 5. Colonial policies should take into account the interests of the colonized

Points 6-13 • 6-13: Deal with specific boundary changes

Point 14 • 14. Created the League of Nations

Allies Reject the Points • France: wanted to weaken Germany to prevent another attack and keep their military strong to defend themselves • Great Britain: Prime Minister won election with slogan “Make Germany Pay” • Italy: Wanted control of Austrian territory

A Strange Peace Conference • No Central Powers invited • Russia and other allies not invited • Big Four – Wilson: U.S. – Clemenceau: France – Lloyd George: Great Britain – Orlando: Italy

The Treaty of Versailles • Signed June 28, 1919 • Established nine new nations • Gave France and Great Britain mandates in the Middle East • Demilitarized Germany • Alsace-Lorraine returned to France • $33 Billion in reparations • War guilt clause

Weaknesses of the Treaty • 1. Humiliated Germany – Germany couldn’t pay reparations

• 2. Russians felt ignored – Lost more territory than Germany

• 3. Colonial issues dealt with poorly – Germany stripped of colonies it needed to pay reparations – Ignored calls for independence from Southeast Asia

Opposition to the Treaty • Hoover and others felt it was too harsh • Some saw it as a sell out to imperialism • Ethnic groups upset over new boundaries

The League of Nations

• Many felt it would draw U.S. into further war • Senate wanted to weaken it, but Wilson would not back down • Senate refused to ratify Treaty of Versailles • U.S. signed a separate peace in 1921, never joined the League

Pershing’s Fears • Most Germans did not know they had been defeated • Germans shocked by Armistice and angered by the Treaty • Believed war would have to be fought again

Rise of Hitler • German Economy destroyed • Looking for scapegoats • Hitler blamed Jews and socialists in the Weimar Republic • Rose to power in 1933

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