WorkAndWealth

January 9, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Social Science, Sociology, Globalization
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Ethics for the Information Age Chapter 8 – Work and Wealth

William H. Bowers – [email protected]

Topics      

Introduction Automation & Unemployment Automation and Job Creation Working Less, Making More Effects of Increase in Productivity Workplace Changes

William H. Bowers – [email protected]

Topics      

Telecommuting Advantages Telecommuting Disadvantages Temporary Work Monitoring Multinational Teams IT Sector Unemployment

William H. Bowers – [email protected]

Topics    

Foreign Workers in the IT Industry The Digital Divide The “Winner-Take-All” Society Access to Public Colleges

William H. Bowers – [email protected]

Introduction  



Overseas outsourcing Cost of Indian technical service representative about 1/6 of US Simultaneous overseas telephone capacity now about 2.5 million calls

William H. Bowers – [email protected]

Introduction    

Cost savings can be overestimated The economy is becoming globalized Digital divide Unequal distribution of benefits

William H. Bowers – [email protected]

Automation & Unemployment 

Job Destruction – 1979 -1994 43 million US manufacturing jobs lost – 1947 manufacturing jobs were 35% of US workers – 2002 manufacturing jobs accounted for 12% of US workers

William H. Bowers – [email protected]

Automation & Unemployment 

Job Destruction – Manufacturing output has doubled since 1970 – 1977 – it took 35 person hours to produce one automobile – 1988 - 19.1 person hours per automobile

William H. Bowers – [email protected]

Automation & Unemployment 

Lost white collar jobs – Secretarial and clerical positions disappearing – Circa 1980 pharmacies filled about 8,000 prescriptions per day – Merk-Medco currently fills 8,000 per hour through a robotic, web-accessible pharmacy

William H. Bowers – [email protected]

Automation & Unemployment 

Working harder, making less – Between 1970 and 1990 average American working hours increased by 163 hours per year – Downsizing leaves fewer people to do the same amount of work

William H. Bowers – [email protected]

Automation & Unemployment 

Working harder, making less – Technology allows us to take work with us – We are coming full circle from cottage industries to home or partially home workers

William H. Bowers – [email protected]

Automation and Job Creation 



While technology eliminates some jobs, it creates others Our economy is shifting from manufacturing to service and information

William H. Bowers – [email protected]

Automation & Job Creation

William H. Bowers – [email protected]

Service vs. Manufacturing Jobs

William H. Bowers – [email protected]

Working Less, Making More 

Compared to 1900 we Work fewer hours  Produce more  Earn more  Have access to a greater variety of jobs 

William H. Bowers – [email protected]

Effects of Increase in Productivity 



US productivity doubled between 1948 and 1990 We work more hours than in any society at any time in history – Mid 4th century Romans had 175 public festivals per year

William H. Bowers – [email protected]

Effects of Increase in Productivity 

We work more hours than in any society at any time in history – Medieval English holidays totaled 4 months per year – Protestant work ethic – Time versus possessions

William H. Bowers – [email protected]

Workplace Changes  

Technology has changed how we work Organizational changes – Early automation of back office procedures such as payroll required no changes – Later integration of functions such as sales and inventory helped flatten organizations

William H. Bowers – [email protected]

Workplace Changes 

Organizational changes – Information paths are no longer linear – Supply chain automation reduces paperwork and the need for people to process it

William H. Bowers – [email protected]

Telecommuting Advantages    

Increased productivity Decreased absenteeism Improved morale Widens employee pool

William H. Bowers – [email protected]

Telecommuting Advantages   



Decreased overhead Improves resilience through dispersion Good for the environment through decreased commuting Employees save money

William H. Bowers – [email protected]

Telecommuting Disadvantages 



 

Threatens control and authority of managers Decreases or eliminates face to face interaction Decreased information security Harder to schedule team meetings

William H. Bowers – [email protected]

Telecommuting Disadvantages  

 

Decreased employee visibility Decreased contact with off site employees Isolation of remote employees Teleworkers work longer hours for the same pay

William H. Bowers – [email protected]

Temporary Work 

 



Modern business environment changes rapidly Companies once boasted of no layoffs Currently business environment relies on subcontractors and temporary employees Workers no longer rely on longevity, but on "knowledge portfolio"

William H. Bowers – [email protected]

Monitoring  

  

Tracking Internet usage Monitoring telephone usage Checking email content Computer file monitoring Keystroke capturing

William H. Bowers – [email protected]

Monitoring 



25% of UK companies have fired employees for improper Internet usage A recent study showed that 30 - 40% of office Internet usage is not work related

William H. Bowers – [email protected]

Monitoring 



Monitoring can indicate need for training to improve quality or productivity Can tailor information to a person's location

William H. Bowers – [email protected]

Multinational Teams 



Allows for around the clock operations without requiring multiple shifts Provides diversity and multiple viewpoints

William H. Bowers – [email protected]

Globalization 



Worldwide network of businesses and markets Made possible by decreasing cost of IT

William H. Bowers – [email protected]

Arguments for Globalization  





Increases competition Increases employment in developing countries Poor countries become more prosperous through exports Interdependent countries are less likely to go to war with each other

William H. Bowers – [email protected]

Arguments Against Globalization 



US should not be subordinate to the WTO American workers are forced to compete with foreign workers who do not receive fair treatment, such as child laborers

William H. Bowers – [email protected]

Arguments Against Globalization  

Causes loss of American jobs US subsidized businesses, such as farms can operate below cost and undercut foreign farmers unfairly

William H. Bowers – [email protected]

IT Sector Unemployment 

 

1990's dot-com boom and speculation led to unnatural expansion Early 2000 the bubble burst Silicon Valley lost 13% of non agricultural jobs, highest since the Great Depression

William H. Bowers – [email protected]

Foreign Workers in the IT Industry  



 

H1-B visas valid up to six years Hiring company must certify that no qualified Americans are available Foreign workers must be paid prevailing wage Prevalent in IT Quota reduced to 65,000 for FY 2004

William H. Bowers – [email protected]

Foreign Workers in the IT Industry  



L-1 visas Allows companies to bring current, foreign employees to US Does not requirement of prevailing wage

William H. Bowers – [email protected]

The Digital Divide 

 

Disparity between those with technology and Internet access and those who do not Exists between countries Social divide is between rich and poor within a country

William H. Bowers – [email protected]

The Digital Divide 

Global divide – Poorer countries with little individual wealth – Inadequate telecommunications infrastructure – English language is not prevalent – Low rate of education and literacy – Country's culture does not make it a priority

William H. Bowers – [email protected]

Internet Access by Region

William H. Bowers – [email protected]

Social Divide  

Disparity in Internet access within a country 2000 survey of Internet use – – – – – – –

18 – 29 year olds – 66% Age 65 and older – 13% College degree – 74% High school drop outs – 18% Whites – 50% Hispanics – 46% Blacks – 35%

William H. Bowers – [email protected]

Models of Technological Diffusion  

 

 

New technology is expensive Price drops as technology matures First VHS VCR cost $1,000 in 1977 Price dropped 98.5% between 1976 and 2003 Normalization model Stratification model

William H. Bowers – [email protected]

Critiques of the Term Digital Divide 

  



Promotes the idea of ‘haves’ versus ‘have nots’ as simply one of access Ireland produces a great deal of IT products They are not high consumers of IT 1997 – Ireland’s telecommunications company held a contest to select and fund an “Information Age Town” Winner was Ennis, a town of 15,000

William H. Bowers – [email protected]

Critiques of the Term Digital Divide  

$22 million prize ($1,200) per resident Every business was provided with – ISDN line – Web site – Smart-card reader



Every family received – Smart-card – PC

William H. Bowers – [email protected]u

Critiques of the Term Digital Divide  







3 years later, most IT was unused Benefits not fully explained or understood Formerly, unemployment claims filed in person, which also served social function After new IT, applications filled online Many PCs later sold on the black market

William H. Bowers – [email protected]

Critiques of the Term Digital Divide  

 

Social systems must support IT change “Digital Divide” implies binary division Access is actually a continuum “Digital Divide” implies that lack of access is a disadvantage

William H. Bowers – [email protected]

The “Winner-Take-All” Society 

 



The Declaration of Independence declares that “all men are created equal” We are not equal in society What if we were all guaranteed the same income? “From each according to his abilities, to each according to his needs.”

William H. Bowers – [email protected]

The “Winner-Take-All” Society 







IT and efficient transport makes it easier for products to dominate world markets Network economies encourage people to use the same product English has become the dominate language of business Business norms have changed

William H. Bowers – [email protected]

Harmful Effects of Winner-Take-All  



 

Increases the gap between rich and poor Attracts many people to lucrative, but socially unproductive work Creates wasteful investment and consumption Competition for elite schools increases Less well known but good schools suffer

William H. Bowers – [email protected]

Reducing Winner-Take-All Effects 







Societies can enact laws limiting business hours Businesses can form associations with their own rules Progressive and luxury taxes remove some incentives Campaign finance reform reduces influence of the wealthy

William H. Bowers – [email protected]

Access to Public Colleges 



  

It is proven that in general more education equates to higher salaries State’s funding of higher education has decreased since 1980 Tuition must make up the difference Tuition rise has outpaced income growth 63% of Americans believe education should be paid for by students and families

William H. Bowers – [email protected]

Ethical Analysis 



Should states make college available to all qualified high school graduates? Requires state funding of difference between cost and ability to pay

William H. Bowers – [email protected]

Utilitarian Analysis   

 



Goal of state is universal access Cost to state may average 50 – 75% of actual Average college graduate makes $20,000 per year more than a high school graduate Difference over 35 years is almost $750,000 At a tax rate of 12%, this means $84,000 more in taxes paid Graduates less likely to be jailed, unemployed, etc.

William H. Bowers – [email protected]

Utilitarian Analysis 





More graduates can lower the value of a degree Other consumers of state resources can not pay their way A degree does not guarantee success

William H. Bowers – [email protected]

Kantian Analysis  



Perfect duty is fulfilled in all cases Imperfect duty is general, but not applicable in all cases Is providing access to higher education a perfect duty, imperfect duty or neither?

William H. Bowers – [email protected]

Social Contract Theory Analysis 

 

Rawl’s second principle of justice states that inequalities of income and wealth must be to everyone’s advantage and all qualified must have equal access to positions of responsibility Greater education leads to positions of greater authority Children from poorer families have unequal access to education, therefore power

William H. Bowers – [email protected]

Questions & Discussion

William H. Bowers – [email protected]

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