World War II

January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, European History, World War II (1939-1945)
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World War II

War In Europe and Africa 1942-1944

War Plans Churchill meets with FDR – Three weeks on war plans

Decide Germany and Italy pose greatest threat – Japan secondary

Must gain foothold in Europe first – Then worry about the Pacific

Will strike against Hitler first

Battle of the Atlantic German U-Boats attack US – East coast/Atlantic regions – Trying to cut off supply lines to Britain and USSR Allies organize into convoys – Escorted by destroyers with sonar and planes with radar 1943 > Battle turns in favor of Allies

Battle of Stalingrad

Germany invaded USSR in June1941 – Summer of 1942 Germans go on offensive • Oil fields and industrial center on Volga River • Symbolism of taking Stalingrad Luftwaffe strike first, set city ablaze – Soviets ordered to defend at all costs – Germans hold 9/10 of the city Winter sets in…Germans crippled – Soviets launch massive strike, cut off supplies to Germans – Hitler orders Germans to dig in Germany surrenders January 31, 1943 TURNING POINT! USSR moves toward Germany

Stalingrad

North African Front Stalin pressures Allies to open 2nd front – Not enough troops for W. Europe front Allies launch Operation Torch – Invade Axis-controlled North Africa – Commanded by Dwight D. Eisenhower – Land in 1942 and move east – Chase Erwin Rommel’s Afrika Korps •Nickname “Desert Fox”

Notable Commanders

Rommel (Germany)

Patton (US)

Montgomery (Britain)

Battle of El Alamein Montgomery vs. Rommel Fought in deserts of Egypt Heavy use of landmines by Rommel’s men Decisive Allied victory – Marked turning point in Western desert campaign in favor of Allies Leads to retreat of Rommel’s Afrika Korps – Afrika Korps eventually surrender May 1943 Result = complete destruction of Rommel’s infantry divisions and tanks

Kasserine Pass Fought in Tunisia After Allied victory at El Alamein, Montgomery pushes into Tunisia from the South – US and other Allies push in from the West

Kasserine Pass – Rommel launches an attack on Allies • Hopes to drive a wedge between two groups of Allies

– Allies get rocked, many losses

Map of Tunisia

Battle of El Qatar First U.S. victory over Rommel U.S. forces led by General Patton U.S. forces prove they are up to the Nazi challenge U.S. prepares for invasion of Sicily

Italian Campaign Churchill and Roosevelt meet in Casablanca – Morocco – Decide they will only accept an unconditional surrender of the Axis powers Roosevelt > launch attack across English Channel through France into Germany Churchill > better to attack Italy

Italian Campaign Cont. Allies take Sicily in 1943 – Allies under command of Patton and Montgomery – Within three days 150,000 Allied troops ashore – Face little resistance from Sicilian troops

“Race to Messina” – – – –

Allies want to trap Axis forces in NE corner of the island British moving up the Southeast coast US moving east across the north coast Result = 100,000 Axis troops retreat to the mainland

Ultimately leads to collapse of Mussolini’s government – Replaced by Marshal Pietro Badoglio – Begin secret pacts with Allies

Race to Messina

Patton

Italian Campaign Cont. Montgomery begins assault on mainland Italy – Result = Italy surrenders to the Allies • Deal was they would be treated with “leniency” if they helped to expel Nazis from Italy

Mussolini is rescued from prison – Becomes Nazi puppet government leader in northern Italy

Badoglio government declares war on Germany Mussolini later captured and executed

Operation Overlord Allies liberate Europe – Plan is to invade France and move to free Western Europe

D-Day (June 6, 1944) – Attack Normandy in Northern France – Led by General Dwight D. Eisenhower and Montgomery – Largest land and sea operation in military history • Allies land over 1 million troops!

– Brutal fight with German armies, especially at Omaha beach

Allied Landings in Normandy General Omar Bradley •July 25th > unleashes massive air raid at St. Lo •Breaks a gap in the German line •Allows for Patton and his 3rd Army to move into position

German Line

Patton’s 3rd Army Advances •August 23rd 1944 Patton’s 3rd Army reaches the Seine River south of Paris

•Two days later French Resistance and Allies take the capital (Paris) •By September France, Belgium and Luxembourg are free! •Roosevelt is elected to a 4th term

Battle of The Bulge •Last major German offensive

Antwerp

•Allies capture first German townAachen •Hitler orders troops to break through Allied lines and take Antwerp • 8 Nazi panzer divisions break through Allied lines, separate British and US troops •Created a “bulge” in the line •Battle raged for a month, massive German losses •Germans eventually retreat

Pinching Germany

Liberation of Death Camps US troops push east, Soviets push west toward Berlin Majdenek first liberated – SS try to bury/burn all evidence – “gigantic murder plant”

Hitler’s last address – Letter blaming Jews for starting the war, German generals for losing it

Hitler commits suicide May 8th, 1945 Eisenhower accepts unconditional surrender of 3rd Reich – V-E Day (Victory in Europe Day)

Roosevelt Dies Roosevelt dies of a stroke April 12, 1945 – Did not live to see V-E Day

Harry S. Truman becomes 33rd President of the United States

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