XI. Burgoyne`s Blundering Invasion
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XI. Burgoyne’s Blundering Invasion
• England wants to take Hudson River Valley – To separate New England from rest – Led by General Burgoyne, Howe, and St. Leger – Benedict Arnold key to our victory • Brits forced to Canada • Washington defeated in Brandywine and Germantown • Washington -- Valley Forge – “The Crisis” by Thomas Paine – Baron Von Stueben • Burgoyne surrenders at Saratoga Oct 17, 1777 – Turning point:: morale up, ensures aid from France – British offer home rule, but tooooooo late
XII. Strange French Bedfellows • • • •
France sides with US Wants to regain power against Britain French inspired by American liberties Military supplies from France – secret aid to avoid war with Brit – 90% of our gunpowder – hesitant at first, then open
• 1778 treaty of alliance • Americans dislike alliance (King Louis XVI is Catholic), but accept it
XIII. The Colonial War Becomes a World War • Global--Holland, Spain, France help US • Armed Neutrality – Russia gets other European nations to involved with passive hostility against Britain • Fought in Europe, North America, South America, Caribbean, Asia • This really becomes too big for Britain to handle • Brits now move to NYC to protect navy against French and leave Philadelphia • Washington has indecisive victory at Monmouth but stays in New York area
XIV. Blow and Counterblow • 1780: 6,000 French troopsComte de Rochambeau • Benedict Arnold sells West Point to Brits – demoralizing for US
• • • •
Brits overrun Georgia, Charleston Bitter patriot vs. loyalist in Carolinas Victories at King’s Mt. And Cowpens Carolina campaign-- Nathan Greene – “Fighting Quaker” gets Brits out of Georgia and S. C.
XV. The Land Frontier and the Sea Frontier • Indian allies of Brit fight in west – Only Oneidas and Tuscaroras side with us • 1777-- “the bloody year” • Indians, led by Mohawk chief Joseph Brant, side w/ Brits to prevent US expansion to the west • pro-Brit Iroquis forced to sign Treaty of Fort Stanwix – Indians cede much of their land • George Rogers Clark seizes western forts – Kaskaskia, Cahokia, Vincennes • naval force ineffective – But John Paul Jones inspiring • Better were privateers-- legalized pirates – bring in gold,harass British, raise our morale
XVI. Yorktown and the Final Curtain • 1780-1781--dark period – inflation of currency, nearly bankrupt – low morale, no unity, mutiny • Assault on Cornwallis at Yorktown in Vir. • Washington joined by de Grasse’s fleet and Rochambeau’s army in Chesapeake • Surrender Oct. 10, 1781 • Fighting continues, mostly in South, for about a year more - helps get Brits to sign good peace treaty
XVII. Peace at Paris • Brits weary of war in colonies and elsewhere • New Whig PM • Peace negotiations Ben Franklin, John Adams, John Jay
• instructions to consult with French and no separate peace John Adams • But France trying to play both Spain (who had helped them) and us • So Jay works secretly w/ Brits who are eager • Treaty of Paris of 1783*
Treaty of Paris of 1783 – Brits recognize our independence – Mississippi, Great Lakes, Florida, fisheries off Newfoundland – No more persecution of Loyalists and recommend return of their property – Pay debts to British creditors
XVIII. A New Nation Legitimized • • • • • •
British very generous…Why? Wanted to lure US away from France Prevent future wars Continue trade France relieved by settlement No one gains from war but US
Who said this? • One of the strongest natural proofs of the folly of hereditary right in kings is that nature disapproves it, otherwise she would not so frequently turn it into ridicule by giving mankind an Ass for a Lion.
• Thomas Paine – Common Sense, 1776
Who said this? • Why do we longer delay? Why still deliberate? Let this most happy day give birth to the American republic.
• Richard Henry Lee – Speech to Second Continental Congress, 1776
Who said this? • America has been the country of my fond election, from the age of 13, when I first saw it. I had the honor to hoist, with my hands, the flag of freedom, the first time it was displayed on the River Delaware; and I have attended it, with veneration, ever since on the ocean.
• John Paul Jones – 1779 – Considered founder of the US Navy – Ship was the Bonhomme Richard
Who said this? • The Great Spirit has caused your old Father the French King and other nations to join the big Knife (Washington) and fight with them, so that the English have become like a deer in the woods.
• George Rogers Clark – Speech to Indians – Captured Vincennes and persuaded Indians to support colonists – Brother of William Clark (of Lewis and Clark)
AP questions! • Number from 1 to 5 at the end of your outline!
1. General Cornwallis’ surrender at Yorktown resulted largely from the: A. Failure of the British to capture and hold Yorktown as a base of operations B. Mass desertion of Hessians from the British army C. Arrival of fresh Spanish forces D. The defection of Benedict Arnold E. French fleet winning control at Chesapeake Bay
2. The Declaration of Independence stated that: A. Our government shall not perish from the earth B. Governments derive their power from God C. It wasn’t right that a small island rule a large continent D. People should have the right to abolish governments destructive of their rights E. The British people were “brutes” and “tyrants” themselves for not aiding the colonists
3. Which of the following contributed most to the American victory in the revolution? A. French military and financial assistance B. The failures of Loyalists to participate in military action C. Washington’s brilliant New Jersey campaign D. Support from French Canadians E. A British failure to capture Philadelphia
4.All of the following were purposes for writing the Declaration of Independence EXCEPT: A. Persuade other English colonies in the Americas to revolt too B. Convince potential foreign allies of American determination to achieve independence C. Protect captured American soldiers from possible treatment as traitors D. Rally the states behind a common cause E. List colonial grievances against the King to support their right to overthrow his government
5. The Battle of Saratoga resulted in: A. An embarrassing defeat for the Continental Army B. An unsuccessful peace overture from Lord North C. France entering the war on the side of the colonies D. Renewed efforts of the Loyalists to enlist colonial support E. The treason of Benedict Arnold