January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, US History, Revolution And Post-Independence (1775-1820), Revolutionary War
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British Colonial America


(See textbook: glossary and pages 104-108)

Part I

Part II

Charter colony

Northwest Territory (Ohio Valley)

Proprietary colony Royal colony mercantilism salutary neglect Navigation Act 1660

Triangle Trade smuggling

Ben Franklin Albany Plan of Union

militia George Washington Fort Necessity French and Indian War Seven Years War (105)

New England Colonies Massachusetts

The Thirteen Colonies

New Hampshire Connecticut

Rhode Island Middle Colonies New York New Jersey Pennsylvania Delaware Southern Maryland Virginia North Carolina South Carolina Georgia

The 13 Colonies were Independent of one another. Each was established in different years: Virginia: 1607 Massachusetts 1620 New Hampshire 1623 Maryland 1632 Connecticut 1635 Rhode Island 1636 North Carolina 1663 South Carolina 1663 separated in 1712 New York 1664 New Jersey 1664 Pennsylvania 1681 Delaware 1704 Georgia 1732 Each was settled for different reasons.

4 New England Colonies Massachusetts Connecticut New Hampshire Rhode Island • All trade, subsistence farm, and fish • All settled for religious freedom BUT… MA, NH, and CT want religious freedom for Puritans only • Rhode Island had religious freedom for ALL • CT and RI ruled themselves and were called Charter Colonies • MA and NH had their Charter governments taken over by the king so became Royal Colonies

• MA had first public school system in the world

4 Middle Colonies Pennsylvania New York New Jersey Delaware All…diversified

-farmed -traded -tolerant of Protestant religions

New York: only middle colony to have large plantations (along the Hudson River) and a large slave population (10%); very loyal to the king; royal government

New Jersey: Quaker refuge; royal government Delaware: big tobacco growers; royal government Pennsylvania: Quaker colony; only colony to remain a Proprietary colony (owned by a friend of the king and run by people of colony)

5 Southern Colonies Virginia

North Carolina South Carolina Georgia Maryland

• All have Plantation economies… grow cash crops; all slave dependent •VA, MD, NC, SC grow cash crops: tobacco and grain •NC, SC, GA grow cash crops: rice and indigo and grain • All are Royal Colonies by 1700; governors appointed by king; Maryland reverted to proprietary in 1715 VA had 1st elected government called the House of Burgesses; largest & first colony MD: settled by Catholics to escape persecution GA:last colony; a debtors colony; last of 13 colonies to legalize slavery SC had more slaves (60%) than white people (40%)

The Colonies are there for the benefit of the Mother Country, Great Britain.

They owe Britain loyalty, respect, and all the goods they can transport back to Great Britain.

Relationship with Great Britain $ Mercantilism: Great Britain orders its colonies to import all their raw materials to England only! $ All lumber, all iron ore, all copper must go to England so it can turn the raw materials into products and sell them back to the colonies. $This makes Great Britain wealthy and the colonies dependent on Great Britain for all manufactured goods! The New England colonies aren’t happy about this order!!!!

Thirteen British Colonies in America

Coloni es i

Colonizing Country

Mercantilism: Trade only with Britain to make Britain rich! YEAH RIGHT!

Great Britain

Summary: British Mercantilism & Empire • Economic world view: there exists a finite amount of wealth – Thus what one nation gained, another nation inevitably lost.

• Importance of Colonies – Colonies supply the mother country with raw materials to be consumed at home or abroad – Provide a market for the mother country’s manufactured goods.

• Navigational Acts: 1651-1673: Aimed at centering American trade around England – Only English or colonial ships could trade in their colonies – Certain American products could ONLY be sold in England or other English colonies – such as wool, sugar, tobacco, indigo, dyes, etc – All foreign goods destined for sale in colonies first had to pass through England & pay import duties

The Navigation Act of 1660 England wrote laws to regulate trade in its colonies: “no goods shall be imported or exported out of any lands…of his Majesty … in any ship …except belonging to the people of England, under the penalty of the …loss of all the goods …after …April 1661, no sugars, tobacco, cotton-wool, indigoes, ginger, woods…grown, produced, or manufactured on any English plantations in America shall be transported to any land…other than other English…” In other words, all colonial raw materials and homemade goods must be sent on English ships to England and no other country. All trade goes through England! But Britain neglected the colonies and the laws were not enforced.

Great Britain was too busy at home to bother enforcing Mercantilism. Great Britain decided not to interfere in American affairs until 1760. This was called Salutary Neglect, when Britain lets the colonies do as they please in trade despite its laws. America got used to being ignored! Colonists did as they pleased. The British government rarely enforced the trade rules. So, the colonists loved Britain. Hurray Britain! Go Brits!

BUT… at the end of the French and Indian War in 1763, Great Britain began to assert its control over the American colonies, levying taxes and pronouncing new trade regulations to benefit the mother country. Naturally, colonists strongly objected. BOO-O-OO-OO!

Boston took advantage of Britain’s salutary neglect & traded freely with other countries.

________ ________ ________ ____

By 1750 The British colonies traded with Europe and Africa as a result of salutary neglect.

Triangle Trade: In the beginning, Great Britain traded rum and manufactured goods with Africa for for slaves, gold and spices. British ships then sailed across the Atlantic to the West Indies and Americas to trade slaves for sugar, tobacco, rum, rice & raw materials. The ships returned to Europe to sell these goods.

But…under salutary neglect the triangle changed a bit in direction…

The real Triangle trade & the Thirteen Colonies

Triangle trade & the Colonies

The green arrow shows what the colonists were supposed to do with their products under mercantilism…trade directly with England. The blue arrow indicates New England’s triangle trade with Africa, a result of salutary neglect on the part of the British.

Colonial Slave Trade Boston was the capital of slave trade until the early 1700s when Rhode Island took over and became the slave trade center in the American colonies.

This map shows the Triangle Trade route of the American ship Sanderson. It carried 8220 gallons of rum from Newport to the Gold Coast of Africa in 1752. From Africa it sailed to Barbados in the West Indies with 56 slaves, gold dust and pepper. From Barbados it carried molasses and sugar for making rum and British pounds (paper money).

Colonial Independence Caused Concern: Triangle Trade was an economic issue . Westward Expansion by British colonists was a political problem. England's American empire needed to expand. The colonies pressed westward to Ohio and Kentucky as colonists sought new agricultural lands and trade opportunities. Settlers crossed landmasses into French and Indian territory, where they were not welcome.

Colonists want to move into the Northwest Territory (Ohio Valley) claimed by the French and Indians.

Land claimed by French

The French did not settle the Ohio Valley in the Northwest Territory. They built trading posts & forts, and paid natives for the use of the land. They got along with the natives for these reasons. In addition, French trappers worked with natives. They traded furs, guns, horses, etc. Both profited from this trade relationship and lived in peace.

British colonists from western PA and VA move “west” into French & Indian territory in 1750s.

1749- British build forts in Ohio Valley on French land.

1752- French attack the British forts to drive them out. 1754- Colonel George Washington, age 22, led his Virginia militia… civilian military force, into western PA in May, captured French scouts, killing French officers. The he built Fort Necessity for his men. 1754-The French and Indians retaliate in July, take the fort, kill VA militiamen! Meanwhile in Albany, NY…

Washington’s map of the Ohio River 1753-1754 with notes on French intentions

On the brink of war, some colonists urged unity. Ben Franklin, went to Albany, NY in June 1754 to meet with delegates from seven northern colonies.

They met to discuss ways to strengthen colonial ties with the Iroquois League of 5 Indian nations. They hoped to become allies to protect themselves from the French & hostile Indians in the west.

Franklin’s Albany Plan of Union

In 1754 Benjamin Franklin proposed the Albany Plan of Union to unite the British North American colonies. He wanted a legislative body with the power to control trade and organize defenses. His plan called for legislators to be under the authority of the king of England.

Franklin’s political cartoon from his newspaper The Pennsylvania Gazette 9 May 1754

“Union of the colonies is absolutely necessary for their preservation.” Benjamin Franklin, Reason for the Albany Plan of Union, July, 1754

The beginning of the Plan…That the said general government be administered by a President-General, to be appointed and supported by the crown; and a Grand Council, to be chosen by the representatives of the people of the several Colonies met in their respective assemblies. 2. That within -- months after the passing such act, the House of Representatives that happen to be sitting within that time, or that shall be especially for that purpose convened, may and shall choose members for the Grand Council, in the following proportion, that is to say, Massachusetts Bay 7 New Hampshire 2 Connecticut 5 Rhode Island 2 New York 4 New Jersey 3 Pennsylvania 6 Maryland 4 Virginia 7 North Carolina 4 South Carolina 4 48 3. -- who shall meet for the first time at the city of Philadelphia, being called by the President-General as soon as conveniently may be after his appointment….etc.

The Albany Plan was rejected by both the colonists and the British government in England. The King worried that the Plan would create a powerful colonial government, difficult to control. The colonists did not see the value of unity & worried about losing individual power.

No Albany Plan!

No Colonial Unity!

This Means War!!!

July, 1754- French surrounded Fort Necessity. Colonel Washington surrendered. The surrender of Fort Necessity starts the French and Indian War.

The French & Indian War

The British & their American colonists waged war against the French & Indians along the Great Lakes, in the Ohio Valley and in New France (Canada) from 1754 to 1763 and called it the French and Indian War. Another war between Britain and France raged in Europe called the Seven Years’ War from 1756 to 1763. These wars were all about LAND, ECONOMICS and POWER. Whoever owns the land, boosts the economy and has domination over over all.

Causes: in Textbook: American migration (page 89-90) British and French rivalry (see pages 104-5) British v French colonization practices (105)

Overall Causes of the War: • Britain and France fought for land supremacy in the New World for decades. • Britain built forts in French-claimed Territory known as the Northwest Territory in present day western Pennsylvania and in Ohio. • English and French settlers colonized the Ohio River Valley, causing conflict.

• English settlers, from Virginia and Pennsylvania, and French settlers, from the Great Lakes and southeastern Canada, each thought they owned the rights to the disputed land in these Northwest Territories in the Ohio Valley. • Washington attacked and killed French officials outside Fort Duquesne in May, 1754. This was the impetus.

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