30 The War to End War

January 6, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, US History
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The War to End War Theme 1: Entering World War I in response to Germany’s unrestricted submarine warfare, Wilson turned America’s participation into a fervent ideological crusade for democracy that successfully stirred the public to a great voluntary war effort, but at some cost to traditional civil liberties. Theme 2: After America’s limited bu important contribution to the Allied victory, a triumphant Wilson attempted to construct a peace based on his idealistic Fourteen Points. But European and senatorial opposition, and especially his own political errors, doomed American ratification of the Versailles Treaty and participation in the League of Nations.

I. Outbreak of War A.

Precarious Neutrality 1. 2.


Assassination of Archduke Pro-British or Pro-German?

Blockade v. U-Boats 1.

Despite early recession, trade benefitted Allies ($2.4B), upset Central Powers ($169 M) a. b.


Lusitania, 1915 (1198/128 US) a. b.


Sussex ultimatum (unless stop, break diplomatic relations) and pledge

“watchful waiting” during 1916 elections Unrestricted Submarine Warfare, 1917 a.


Germans no sinking unarmed ships without warning.

Sussex, 1916 (4 US) a.

5. 6.

Wilson warns with measured approach Resignation of Bryan and war-thirsty TR

Arabic, 1915 (2 US) a.


JP Morgan lent Allies $ Wilson warned “strict accountability”

Wilson broke diplomatic relations

Declaration of War 1. 2.

Zimmerman Note, 1917 Idealism of Wilson a. b. c.

“War to end all Wars” “Make world safe for democracy” 14 Points

II. War Highlights A.

Homefront Mobilization by overzealous CPI (Creel) 1.

Enforcing Loyalty a. b.


Factories go to War a. b. c.


Racial riots 18th Amendment, 1919 19th Amendment, 1920

War Economy a. b.


War Industries Board (Baruch) “Labor will win the War!” NWLB (Taft) Unions struggled

Society Challenges a. b. c.


Espionage and Sedition Acts Radicals and Schenck case

Propaganda and volunteerism Food Administration (Hoover)

Military Mobilization by Pershing 1.

Doughboys a. b. c.


Selective Service Act, 1917 Western Front, 1918 2nd Battle Marne, Meuse-Argonne Offensive

Cease-fire a. b.

Wilson demands Kaiser removal and supplies 112, 432 US deaths (half disease)

III. Battle over the League of Nations A.

Paris Peace Conference 1.

Participants a. b.

Big Four: Wilson, George, Clemenceau, Orlando Notable absent: Henry Cabot Lodge and Russia

“World Parliament”

2. a. b. c. d.


League Covenant 5 permanent members Mandates 14 Points-Article X (morally bound US to aid)

Versailles Treaty a. b.


Article 231 and reparations League of Nations-self determination

Opposition to the Treaty a. b. c. d.

Irreconcilables opposed the treatyfeared entangling alliances Presidential tour, 1919 Lodge Reservations but rejected by Wilson Election of 1920 a referendum on the League of Nations

Former president with former First lady, Edith Wilson. After his presidency, Wilson Lived in Washington, D.C. and lived the Life of an invalid until he died

Putting Things In Order (use the information from chapter 30 to answer these questions) 1.Germany’s resumption of submarine warfare forces the United States onto a declaration of war. 2.The Senate’s final defeat of the Versailles treaty and a Republican election victory ends Wilson’s last hopes for American entry into the League of Nations 3.The United States takes the first steps towards preparedness in the event of war 4.The effectiveness of the American combat troops in crucial battle helps bring about an Allied victory in World War one 5.Wilson struggles with other Allied leaders in Paris to hammer out a peace treaty and organize a postwar world

Answers To Putting Things in Order • • • • •

A.2 B.5 C.1 D.3 E. 4

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