A Dividing Nation

January 6, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, US History, The Civil War And Reconstruction (1850-1880), Civil War
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Pick up an Interactive Notebook packet and answer the “Processing” questions (#1-3)


Northwest Ordinance of 1787

Process for forming new states Unspoken agreement to keep free states and free states equal

Questions About Missouri 

Northerners questioned whether Missouri should be slave or free Allowing Missouri to be entered as a slave state would open slavery to the Louisiana Territory and beyond A northerner’s nightmare

The Tallmadge Amendment 

Rep. James Tallmadge suggested that Missouri could only be entered as free

Sparked debate on states’ rights and slavery

A Deadlocked Congress 

North had more representatives in the House Equal in the Senate

Southern senators able to block anti-slave laws Missouri would change that

A Deadlocked Congress (continued) 

Tallmadge Amendment awakened strong anti-slavery feelings

Anti-Slavery petitions sent to Congress

House approved Tallmadge Amendment

Defeated in Senate


The Missouri Compromise 

Congress returned to the debate in 1820 Maine was trying to achieve statehood as a free state Southerners threatening secession and civil war

A Compromise is Reached 

Compromise crafted by Rep. Henry Clay

Admitted Missouri as slave and Maine as free Drew a line through the Louisiana Territory North of the line = Future free states  South of the line = Future slave states 

Reactions to the Compromise 

Unpopular decision

Northerners viewed it as the easy way out Southerners disliked the ban on slavery in future western states


The “Gag Rule” 

Abolitionist movement flooded Congress with petitions Abolitionists wanted Congress to question slavery in the District of Columbia Congress decided to set aside all antislavery petitions and “gag” all debate on the issue

The “Gag Rule” (continued) 

John Quincy Adams proposed that no one could be born into slavery after 1845

Congress refused his proposal

Southern Fears 

Nat Turner’s rebellion created fear in the south Created stricter laws on transport of slaves Reward for arresting abolitionists

Fugitive Slaves

Slavery in the Territories 

Gag rule delayed the slavery debate for 10 years Wilmot Proviso added to a bill requesting funds for Mexican-American War “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist” in the territory acquired from Mexico

Slavery in the Territories (continued) 

Southerners opposed the Wilmot Proviso

Passed in the House

Rejected in Senate

Statehood for California 

Southerners proposed extending the Missouri Compromise line to the Pacific

Rejected by Northerners Applied for statehood in 1849 as a free state

Statehood for California (continued) 

California would upset the balance between slave and free states

Deadlocked Congress once again

South continued threats of secession

THE COMPROMISE OF 1850 Chapter 21 Section 5

Something for Everyone 

Henry Clay’s plan

Admitted California

Allowed N. Mexico and Utah to decide on slavery

Ended slavery in D.C.

Something for Everyone (continued) 

Called for passing a strong fugitive slave act Made it easier to find and reclaim runaway slaves

The Compromise is Accepted 

Congress debated Clay’s compromise for 9 months Accepted in 1850 after heated discussion and threats of civil war

THE COMPROMISE OF 1850 FAILS Chapter 21 Section 6

The Fugitive Slave Act 

Southerners did not do enough to ensure the success of the act Northerners did not want to enforce the act Denied all rights of captured slaves

The Fugitive Slave Act (continued) 

Jailed people who helped escaped slaves Northerners ridiculed slave catchers Almost impossible to catch slaves in the north

Uncle Tom’s Cabin 

Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe First published as short stories in an abolitionist newspaper Published in 1852 as a full novel

The Ostend Manifesto and the KansasNebraska Act 

Ostend Manifesto was a message sent from three American diplomats to the Secretary of State President Pierce was trying to purchase Cuba

The message called for the seizure of Cuba by force Northerners believed Cuba was going to be a slave state

The Ostend Manifesto and the KansasNebraska Act (continued) 

Wanted to build a railroad to California Believed the project would happen if the Great Plains was organized into states

The Ostend Manifesto and the KansasNebraska Act (continued) 

Kansas and Nebraska Act

Created two new territories, Kansas and Nebraska (obviously) Abolished the Missouri Compromise and allowed citizens of a territory to vote to allow slavery

Bloodshed in Kansas 

Most new settlers were peaceful farmers Others came to support or oppose slavery Two separate governments created

Bloodshed in Kansas (continued) 

On May 21, 1856, pro-slavery activists burned hotels, looted homes, destroyed printing presses In response, John Brown and his sons killed five slave supporters with swords

Violence in Congress 

Senator Charles Sumner suspected Stephen Douglass had tried to make Kansas a slave state

Sumner described the “crimes against Kansas” as being in favor of slavery

Violence in Congress (continued) 

Sumner verbally attacked Senator Butler on his proslavery stance Preston Brooks, Butler’s nephew beat Sumner with a metal tipped cane on the senate floor

Violence in Congress (continued) 

Took Sumner over 3 years to recover Southerners applauded Brooks Sent him replacement canes

THE DRED SCOTT DECISION Chapter 21 Section 7

The Dred Scott Decision 

Dred Scott was a slave who traveled to Wisconsin with his master  Slavery

was banned in Wisconsin

Scott claimed that his stay in Wisconsin made him free

Questions of the Case 

9 Supreme Court Justices total 5

from the south  4 from the north 

Was Dred Scott a citizen? Did his time in Wisconsin make him a free man?

Two Judicial Bombshells 

Scott could not sue for his freedom because he was not a citizen  No

African American could ever become a citizen

The Missouri compromise was unconstitutional

Two Judicial Bombshells 

The Dred Scott decision opened slavery to all territories Protected “property rights” of slave owners Outraged Northerners


From Compromise to Crisis 

Republican Party forms with anti-slavery beliefs Abraham Lincoln nominated to run for Senate as a Republican

The Lincoln-Douglass Debates 

Stephen Douglass believed in half free, half slave Lincoln believed slavery was a moral issue Lincoln lost the election but turned into a national figure

John Brown’s Raid 

Anti-slavery extremist

Wanted to capture guns and ammo to create slave revolts Raided the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, VA

John Brown’s Raid (continued) 

All of Brown’s followers either captured or killed Told followers: You "will never get out alive" Many Northerners believed Brown was a hero

THE ELECTION OF 1860 AND SECESSION Chapter 21 Section 9

The Election of 1860 and Secession 

Republicans unite behind Lincoln

Democrats split between north and south Constitutional Union Party forms

Abraham Lincoln is Elected President 

Division in parties allows Lincoln to be elected president South now in the minority Feared the abolishment of slavery

The South Secedes from the Union 

Lincoln would not interfere with slavery in the south He would enforce the Fugitive Slave Act He would not allow slavery to extend to the territories

The South Secedes from the Union 

South Carolina is the first state to leave the United States Six states follow Formed the Confederate States of America February, 1861

The Civil War Begins 

Lincoln becomes president March 4th, 1861 Declares secession wrong and unconstitutional Attack on Fort Sumter by the Confederates

The Civil War Begins 

Fort Sumter surrendered after 33 hours

Wave of patriotism in the North

Showed that the South was not afraid of using force

Official beginning of the Civil War

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