Aftershock - Charleston School District
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Aftershock Beyond the Civil War
The South faced the challenge of building a society not based on slavery. RECONSTRUCTION-The process the federal government used to readmit the Confederate States to the Union • The Civil War had ended. Slavery and secession were no more. Now what? • How does the Union integrate the South back into American society? • How do 4 million newly freed African American slaves integrate themselves into society?
LINCOLN’S PLAN • Pardoning Confederate officials • Allow Confederate states to quickly form new governments and send representatives to Congress • Lincoln made it clear that he favored a lenient Reconstruction policy • His Ten Percent Plan called for a pardon of all Confederates who would swear an oath of allegiance to the Union (Swallow the dog) • When 10% of the voting population of a state took the oath, a state would be readmitted into the Union
THE POLITICS OF RECONSTRUCTION • The politics of Reconstruction was complicated by the fact that Lincoln, his VP and successor Andrew Johnson, and the Congress all had different ideas of how Reconstruction should be handled
Johnson Becomes President • • • • • •
Johnson became President in April of 1865 He was a Democrat Put on ballot in 1864 with help win border states Former slave-holder Was a stubborn unyielding man Believed Reconstruction was President’s job-NOT Congress • Offered Amnesty to most white Southerners if they pledged loyalty to US government
JOHNSON’S PLAN • After Lincoln’s death, his VP & successor Andrew Johnson announced his own plan by supporting Lincoln • It differed only slightly from Lincoln’s: He excluded high ranking Confederates and wealthy planters from the oath, but did pardon 13,000 while contending that “White men alone must manage the South”
Some members of the Republican Party were not only in favor of the abolition of slavery but believed that freed slaves should have complete equality with white citizens. They also opposed the Fugitive Slave Act and the Kansas-Nebraska Act. This group became known as Radical Republicans. They were led by Thaddeus Stevens of Pennsylvania and Charles Sumner of Massachusetts. Their goal was to destroy the South’s old ruling class and turn it into a region of small farms, free schools, respect for labor, and political equality for all citizens.
Rebuilding Conflicts • How did the Radical Republicans wish to reorganize the south? • Radical Republicans wanted the federal government to play an active role in dictating a variety of aspects of Southern society. Most importantly, the Radical Republicans wanted full and equal citizenship for African-Americans • They divided the South into military districts with Union soldiers placed in Southern states to keep the peace • Felt the South should be punish for starting the war
1. In the South what does the reconstruction period bring?
Racial massacres, vigilante violence, and the riseof para-military groups
2. The Civil War claimed the lives of how many Southern men?
3. How did Southern men find their homes when they returned after the war?
They found utter devastation with cities almost totally destroyed, trains demolished, crops burned, and animals by the road dead.
4. Why was there a so called “Second Civil War” against the Republican Party?
Because they represented, as Lincoln did, the idea of overturning the old order in Southern society.
CIVIL RIGHTS ACT • One of the important acts passed by Congress was the Civil Rights Act -1866 • All people born in the United States were citizens (except Native Americans) • Citizens entitled to equal rights regardless of race • President Johnson vetoed • Congress overrode the veto FROM HARPER’S MAGAZINE 1866 – BLACKS CELEBRATE
14TH AMENDMENT • In 1866, Congress passed the 14th Amendment which provided legal backing to the Civil Rights Act • All people born in the United States were citizens (except Native Americans) • Equal protection under the law • No voting rights for African-Americans
5. What was the Freedmen’s bureau?
America’s first major relief organization responsible for the general welfare of the newly freed slaves.
FREEDMEN’S BUREAU • Congress also passed the Freedmen’s Bureau Act which provided much needed aid to African Americans • To assist former slaves, the president established the Freedmen’s Bureau. This agency set up schools and hospitals for African Americans and distributed clothes, food, and fuel through the South.
EDUCATION WAS AN IMPORTANT PART OF THE BUREAU
6. What were black codes?
Harsh laws designed to regulate the lives of blacks, to control their movements in the South, and to force them back onto the plantations.
• The Southern states passed laws, known as Black Codes, which limited the freedom of former slaves. • Employment was required of all freedmen; violators faced vagrancy charges • African Americans were forbidden to carry a gun or meet in unsupervised areas; they were forced to work on plantations if they did not show proof of work • Freedmen were assumed to be agricultural workers and their duties and hours were tightly regulated • Freedmen were not to be taught to read or write • Public facilities were segregated • Violators of these laws were subject to being whipped or branded.
7. During the Civil War how many black men served in the Union Army? 180,000 and many of them were escaped slaves
8. What happened on July 30, 1866, in New Orleans?
Black Union veterans are attacked by a voluntary police and massacred.
9. The Reconstruction Acts of 1867, an attempt to crush the ex-confederates, stated what?
All state governments elected before this time were abolished, new elections were ordered, and in the elections freemen must be allowed to vote.
RECONSTRUCTION ACT OF 1867 • Congressional Republicans again joined forces to pass the Reconstruction Act • This act voided the state governments formed in the South under the Presidential plans and instead divided the south into 5 military districts • Before the South could reenter the Union, they had to ratify the 14th Amendment and approve the new state governments.
This image depicts an artisan, a businessman, and a soldier standing in line to cast their first
Rebuilding Brings Conflict • Many Southern states set up governments much like old ones • Refused to ratify 13th Amendment • “This is a white man’s government, intended for white men only.” • Passed Black Codes
1868 ELECTION • Civil War hero U.S. Grant ran as a Republican against Democratic nominee Horatio Seymour • Grant won by a margin of 300,000 in the popular vote • 500,000 African Americans voted – 90% for Grant
10. The Ku Klux Klan was started in Tennessee by?
The Pulaski 6 who were ex- confederates soldiers
KU KLUX KLAN
• The Klan was formed by disgruntled Confederate soldiers whose goals included restoring Democratic control of the south and keep former slaves powerless • Estimates range as high as 20,000 murders attributed to the Klan whose membership peaked at almost 4 million in the 1920s • Many African Americans were lynched as a form of terror • The Klan utilized acts of intimidation and violence to bring about its goals
11. Who became the first Grand Wizard of the KKK?
Nathan Bedford Forest
12. Ex- confederates formed groups to use violence to further their racial cause, list the groups.
Red shirts, White liners, White League
13. The Lowry War in North Carolina starts after what?
A Lumbe carpenter and his son were killed, by the home guard, for helping Union prisoners escape to the north
14. In northeast Texas a war against ex-confederates was called what?
The Lee Peacock War Lewis Peacock was considered a scalawag-a southerner who remained loyal to the Union. Peacock tried to suppress white supremisists who terrorized the area of Northeast Texas. Bob Lee wanted to get rid of Peacock and any of his Unionist friends.
15. What changes the tide in northeast Texas in 1871?
President Grant sends Union Troops to confront the ex-confederates
1868 Election • In 1868 the Republican party seemed to be stronger than ever • That year, its candidate, General Ulysses S. Grant, won the presidency. During the campaign the Democrats attacked the Republicans’ Reconstruction policies. They blamed the party for granting rights to African Americans.
15th AMENDMENT • Soon after Grant’s election, Congress passed the 15th Amendment • Prevented men form being stopped from voting based upon the color of their skin, Native Americans were once again exclude • Women protested because it failed to give them the right to vote • The 15th Amendment was ratified in 1870
Grant Fights the Klan • African Americans continued to be terrorized by the Klan in the South • Pres. Grant asked Congress to pass a tough law against the Klan • Congress approved the bill in 1871 • Federal marshals arrested thousands of Klansmen the bill was called, the Anti-Klan Bill Grant signed the Anti-Klan Bill in 1871.
The Election of 1872 Grant Defeats Horace Greeley of New York
The Liberal Republicans nominated New York Tribune editor Horace Greeley to run against Grant. The Democrats who were in disarray went along with the nomination.
Ulysses S. Grant and running mate Henry Wilson. Grant won an overwhelming victory over Greeley.
Scandal Rocks Grant • Grant made poor choices for his advisors • Many were unqualified and corrupt • Bribes were accepted from the Union Pacific Railroad to head off a Congressional hearing by Cabinet members • Done in by the “Spoils System”
Grant’s Administration was marred with scandal. Although he was an honest man himself, some of his advisors weren’t. Republicans broke away and formed the Liberal Republican Party
Panic of 1873 (-1878) • Started in Europe and reached the U.S. in the fall of 1873 • Severe economic depression • Several Banks ran out of money • More than 18,000 businesses failed • Stock market collapsed • 89/364 Railroads went broke • Midwestern farmers couldn’t move their crops • Hundreds of workers lost their jobs • Panic of 1873
Reconstruction Ends Election of 1876 Rutherford B. Hayes vs Samuel J. Tilden