Articles of Confederation

January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Social Science, Political Science
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2010-French-Indian War/Amer Revolution Exam • Average = 78.4

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2009 French Indian WarRevolutionary war Exam • Class Average: 78

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• 1. (p. 101) In the mid 1770s, the relationship between the British Empire and the American colonies was characterized by

a. most Americans being happy with their membership in the empire b. the British trying to continue the policies of the last hundred years C. most Americans becoming disillusioned with the empire d. the British growing more like the Americans in their ideas and institutions e. most Americans taking loyalty oaths to the Crown

• 3. (p. 103-104) During the late 1600s and early 1700s, French settlement in North America was characterized by the a. development of manufacturing in Quebec b. decline of their fur trade with the Indians c. absence of any significant expansion of their territory D. toleration of the Indians' way of life e. lack of any effort to convert the Indians to their religion

10. (p. 115) The Mutiny (Quartering) Act of 1765 was resented by the colonists because a. they could now be prosecuted on mutiny charges for refusing to provide quarters for troops b. they were required to quarter troops who served no purpose other than to oppress them c. some colonies were exempt from the laws provisions D. colonial contributions of lodging and supplies for British troops were made mandatory e. they had never quartered troops in the past

11. (p. 117) Following the "Boston Massacre" of 1770, Samuel Adams stirred up public outrage and then helped to create a committee of • a. vigilance b. military training C. correspondence d. revolution e. public safety

12. (p. 117-118) Colonial leaders based their opposition to British policies on the philosophies of • A. all the answers below b. John Locke, who was a political theorist c. Scots, who viewed the English as tyrannical d. Puritans, who were religious refugees from England e. radical ideas from British opponents of the government

• 19. (p. 128) As the Revolutionary War began, most Americans believed they were fighting for

a. their independence b. the acquisition of more territory c. representation in the British Parliament D. a redress of grievances against the British Empire e. an overthrow of the colonial upper class

• 20. (p. 130) In 1781, the states ratified a plan for a decentralized national government of the United States that was called the a. United States Constitution B. Articles of Confederation c. Declaration of Confederation d. Confederate States Constitution e. Declaration of Independence

• 21. (p. 132-133) As commander-in-chief of the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War, George Washington A. all of the answers below b. displayed serious shortcomings as a military commander c. faced mutinies among his troops and an attempt by Congress to replace him d. became the indispensable man because he held the army and the country together throughout the war e. earned the respect of nearly all patriots

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• 7. (p. 114) When accused of treason for predicting that George III would lose his head if British policies toward the colonies were not reversed, _____ supposedly replied: "If this be treason, make the most of it."

• Written by 2nd Continental Congress during War and took effect in March 1781


“All Men Created Equal” •Mason Dixon Line set the precedent over dividing the country over slavery. •Ohio River would be the dividing boundary between North and South.


WMA 21 yrs. old, educated and property owner…….


Several states would drop property qualifications and education…….

A/C chart

Written by 2nd Continental Congress during War and took effect in March 1781… Becomes the Confederation Congress

•Founding Fathers were determined not to have a king….. •Our first constitution (law of the land) and attempt to create a democratic government based on the ideas of DOI .

The United States in 1787

A/C chart

2. Confederation Government “Treaty of Cooperation between the states” govt. of loosely organized states Each state independent and conducted their own affairs Created a weak national govt. which had little powers to solve US problems States held more power than US govt. Would unite in times of crisis.

Government Structure

Powers of Congress

State Responsibilities

•Congress--1 branch •Confederation Congress •No executive branch or president… •No judicial system….. •One vote per state regardless of size

•Make war and peace •make treaties •build navy and army •settle disputes among states •set up monetary system

•Obey Articles and acts of Congress •provide funds and troops when “requested” by Congress •States regulated own trade and taxed each other •States had their own currency

3. Major Problem:

Created a weak national govt that could not tax, regulate trade or enforce its laws because the states held more power than the National Government.

The Articles of Confederation 4. The Articles of Confederation established a “firm league of friendship” among the States.

Confederation Congress

•Congress was given the power to declare war. •Deal with national finance issues. •Settle disputes among the States. •Request funds (taxes from states) to pay off debt Go To Section:

Obligations •The States promised to obey Congress. •Respect the laws of the other States. •Most other powers were retained by each State.

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Chapter 2, Section 3

A unicameral (1 house) Congress 13 out of 13 states to amend or change Constitution. Representatives were frequently absent. Could not tax, raise armies or regulate trade. No executive to sign or enforce the law. No judicial branch to settle disputes between the states. Could not enforce its laws.

Major Problem Could not tax, regulate trade or enforce its laws because the states held more power than the National Government.

Why? Feared a tyrannical government like King George

Major Problem Could not tax, regulate trade or enforce its laws because the states held more power than the National Government.

Why? Feared a government like King George

•13 colonies had a tradition of governing themselves….. •Elected their own representative law making bodies. •Passed laws to keep peace within their communities. • Colonies had a tradition of representative democracy. •That’s why they fought the Revolution.

•The Confederation Congress created a National Government based on representative democracy.

National Govt. AOC/Congress given 20% of govt.powers

States given 80% of governmental powers…States were over the National Govt.

Fearing a strong central govt. like King George the AOC created a weak National Government that was not given the power to tax, regulate trade or enforce their laws.

EFFECTS Could not deal effectively with US problems.

Currency • States had their own currency

Foreign Debt

We owed France, Spain and other countries who helped us with the Revolutionary War.


Individual states owed citizens who loaned money to their state.

State Debt $21,500,000

US Govt. owed soldier’s for fighting in the war, debts to British and Loyalists.

Federal Domestic Debt $42,414,000

$80 Million debt

•Disputes with US over land claims led Spain to build forts. •Disputes over the Mississippi River

British were to remove their troops from US soil…..The National Government under the AOC was powerless to force Great Britain to honor the Treaty of Paris, 1783 Jays

Disputed Territorial Claims Between Spain & the US: 1783-1796

Indian Land Cessions:


State Claims to Western Lands

Northwest Territory


■Grid system

was created by Thomas Jefferson…

■Promoted an orderly

expansion westward..

Northwest Territory

■Confederation Congress

convinced states who claimed land out west to cede their land to the US Govt. ■US Govt. was to come up

with a fair and reasonable land policy…..Unlike the Proclamation of 1763….

Land Ordinance

Northwest Territory

Plot #16 was set aside for public education

Public Land sold for $1.00 to $2.00 an acre = pay debt

An addition to the Land Ordinance of 1785

Northwest Territory

Congress sold land in large blocks, 40, 80, 160, 320 and 640 acres. $1 to 2$ an acre to help pay debt.

Encouraged settlers to form townships. New states formed would be = to original 13 Influx of settlers causes violence with Indians Guaranteed settlers “unalienable rights”



2nd STEP

3rd STEP



60,000 SETTLERS:

Congress appoints a governor and three judges to govern the territory

Landowners elect a congress to make laws and raise taxes with approval of governor. 1 representative is elected to the US Congress who can debate but not vote.

Becomes a state, with its own government and constitution. New states admitted with same rights as the original states. No more than 5 states can carved out of this area.

The Northwest Ordinance encouraged ideals of the DOI and republicanism (representative democracy) religious freedom, protection of liberty and property, encouraged education, admitted new states and no slavery.

Northwest Ordinance of 1785


10. Daniel Shay 1785 to 1787, unfair taxes, debt and foreclosure Farmer’s rebellion to overthrow Mass. Govt.

11. In early 1787 a group of small farmers protested against the Massachusetts govt. Why? They were in debt, their homes being repossessed and unfair taxation.

They were led by Daniel Shays, a former army captain in the Revolutionary War. The purpose of the rebellion was to prevent foreclosures by keeping the courts from sitting until the next election.

Shay’s Rebellion was put down by private army paid for by wealthy merchants from Boston. 12. The AOC was unable to put down the rebellion with a national guard or army.


13. Outcomes

Attacks by Shay followers Encounters between Shay’s and hired militias.

Rebellion put down by a private militia US Govt. too weak to put down rebellion Americans feared govt. too weak = anarchy

Call for a Constitutional Convention to change AOC and create a stronger national government.


total chaos, mob rule, survival of the fittest, no respect for law and order or attempting to overthrow the authority of govt. = unstable govt. = no govt.

The Elites Response to Shay’s Rebellion: “Respectable” Americans were shocked by the violence. Feared “mobocracy”. Let us have { a Constitution } by which our lives, liberties and properties will be secured....

Why A New Constitution

The AOC was unable to act decisively in a time of crisis (could not protect life, liberty and property). Provided all the evidence needed to finally convene and revise the constitution. Why was Shay’s Rebellion such a concern to our founding fathers?

The Elites Response to Shay’s Rebellion 15. The Annapolis Convention (1786) H George Washington hosted a conference at his home in Mt. Vernon, VA (1785) H Representatives agreed that the problems were serious enough to hold further discussions at a later meeting at Annapolis, MD, at which all the states might be represented H Only 5 states sent delegates

H Alexander Hamilton and James Madison persuaded the others to call for a Constitutional Convention, to be held in Philadelphia for the purpose of revising the Articles of Confederation

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