Atom Vocabulary

May 15, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Science, Physics, Atom
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Atom Vocabulary

Atom 

The smallest particle of an element the building blocks of all matter

Element 

Is a substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances

Sodium atom

Subatomic particle  

particles smaller than the atom parts of the atom there are three main subatomic particles   

Protons Neutrons Electrons

Proton 

   

a subatomic particle found in the nucleus of the atom has a positive electrical charge has a mass of 1 amu used to help find the mass of an atom used to help find the charge of an atom determines the identity of an atom

Neutron 

  

a subatomic particle of the atom found in the nucleus has no electrical charge (neutral) has a mass of 1 amu used to help find the mass of the atom has no effect on the charge of the atom a different number of neutrons makes a different isotope of the same element

Electron 

   

a subatomic particle found outside of the nucleus in the electron cloud has a negative electrical charge is 1/1600th the size of a proton or neutron does NOT affect the mass of the atom is used in determining the charge of an atom

Nucleus 

a region located in the center of the atom contains protons and neutrons contains the mass of the atom it has a positive electrical charge held together by strong nuclear force

Electron cloud 

 

a region surrounding the nucleus of an atom where electrons are likely to be found is mainly empty space is negatively charged is arranged in energy levels called shells or orbitals

Valence Electrons 

the electrons found on the outermost energy level of an atom most important in determining an element’s chemical properties and reactivity

Atomic Number 

Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of an element

Atomic Mass or Mass Number 

 

The total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom Mass (of an atom) = protons + neutrons unit is amu (atomic mass unit)

Ion 

An atom that has gained or lost electrons and has a charge

Anion 

A type of ion when an atom gains electrons and becomes negatively charged

Cation 

A type of ion when an atom loses electrons and becomes positively charged

Isotopes 

Atoms of the same element, but having a different numbers of neutrons in their nucleus Isotopes will have the same number of protons (same element), but a different number of neutrons (different mass)

Atoms, Elements, Periodic Table

Groups  

Vertical columns in the periodic table. All elements in a group have the same number of electrons in their outer orbital

Periods  

Horizontal rows in the periodic table. All elements in a period have the same number of atomic orbitals

Metals 

Elements that are good conductors of electricity and heat. Found left of “stairs”

Alkali Metals 

Group 1 (minus Hydrogen) Metals with one valence electron

Alkaline Earth Metals  

Group 2 Metals with 2 valence electrons

Transition Metals  

Groups 3-12 Elements that have valence electrons at 2 different energy levels.

Nonmetals 

Elements that are poor conductors of electricity and heat. Found to the right of “stairs”

Metalloids  

Semi-metals Physical properties of both metals and nonmetals.

Halogens  

Group 17 Nonmetals with 7 valence electrons

Noble Gases   

Group 18; 8 Valence electrons Except Helium (has 2 valence electrons) Full valence shell- not very reactive

Properties of Matter

Molecule 

Particle that is made up of 2 or more atoms of the same element.

Compound 

Substance made up of the combined atoms of 2 or more elements.

Mixture 

Contains 2 or more types of substances and does not form a new compound after mixing; maintains individual properties.

Colloid 

A mixture of substances in which one of the substances is suspended within the other as small, non-dissolved particles. Ex: hairspray (aerosols), foams (whipped cream), gels, butter.

Mixing to make butter


Solution 

Homogeneous mixture in which one substance is dissolved in another substance

The ocean is a solution.

Solute 

A substance that is dissolved into another

Salt is a solute.

Solvent 

A liquid or gas that another substance dissolves in

Water is a solvent

Physical Property 

Characteristics of a substance that can be observed or measured without changing the substance 

Size, shape, color, density, melting point, boiling point, volume

Chemical Property 

Properties of matter that become evident during a chemical reaction

Precipitate 

A solid formed by mixing two liquids

A yellow solid precipitate forms from the mixture of two clear liquids: potassium iodide and lead nitrate.

Corrosiveness 

A substance that can cause damage to another that is irreversible.

Flammability 

A measure of the extent to which a material will support combustion

Oxidation 

The combination of a substance with oxygen. A reaction in which the atoms in an element lose electrons

Luster 

The appearance of a mineral surface judged by its brilliance and ability to reflect light.

Viscosity 

Measure of a liquid’s resistance to flow

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