Download BGCSE History...
BGCSE History Theme I Topics: •Migration of the Arawaks •Fate of the Arawaks •Reasons for survival of the Caribs and some Arawaks •Reasons of the two worlds
The first inhabitants of North America arrived to the continent from Asia about 40,000 years ago. This group of persons came from Amerindians who fell into one of four groups: ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦
Hunters Gatherers Fishermen Farmers
The first Amerindians of the Caribbean settled around 4000 BC. A more advanced group settled in South America around 1000 BC. This same group then travelled from South America through the lesser Antilles to the greater Antilles. The Arawaks/Tainos and Kalinagos are known as they Caribbean’s Amerindians.
Introduction to Caribbean People Basic Facts
Beginning Around 250 BC more of the Amerindians of Mesoamerica, migrated to the Caribbean via the Orinoco River of Venezuela. The groups was characterized by their ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦
small villages carved wood pottery Woven Cotton Religion based on nature and Arawakan language
The language evolved as the name by which the people were called, but not refer to themselves as. Like their ancestors the move to the Caribbean was a time of adaption to the new environment.
Discussion: List some ways that this group would have had to adapt to the new surroundings.
The Arawaks Objective: To discuss the migration of Arawak culture in the Caribbean
The Taino Arawaks became one of the best-adapted and advanced cultures of the Caribbean. This was case particularly in areas around Hispaniola . The impact of this culture varied in the throughout the Caribbean especially in the Greater Antilles, Windward islands and the Bahamas. The Lucayans, the Taino Arawaks native to the Bahamas practiced a culture called Tainan. Description of the Arawaks: This group of people were short to middle height well shaped but slightly built. These mongoloid persons had olive skin and according to Columbus were naturally good looking but had features distorted by artificial means.
◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦
They foreheads were flattened. They wore pudding basin hair cuts Bound their limbs with cotton threads. They painted themselves with paints Wore ornaments of items easily found, cacique wore gold and guanin
The Lucayans roamed completely naked with the exception of the married women who wore nagua.
Subsistence Life The Lucayans lead subsistence lives, which meant that they only cultivated enough food for themselves and their families to survive. In this way they maintained very balanced diets; consisting of fish, shellfish, turtle and manatee as well as iguana, utia, and alcos Classwork 1. Describe the Arawak Method of catching turtle. 2. Describe the customary cuisines of the Arawaks, ensure to list some of the local vegetation that they would have eaten.
Lucayans often built their communities far enough from the beach to avoid sudden attacks and hurricanes, but close enough in order to keep lookout. In a typical village were two types of houses, the caneye and the bohio. N.B. Describe the similarities and differences between the caneye and the bohio. There were few pieces of furniture the houses with the exception a hammock, a few pieces of polished pottery and zemis. Directly outside of the caneye was a conuco, a cultivated plot, which bore maize, cassava, groundnuts, sweet potatoes and other crops. The cotton and tobacco were grown separately.
Objective: Review the collective life of the Arawaks covering the political and religious organization
The head of the Arawak society was the cacique, who had a greater role in the religion than politics. The role was hereditary and there were many privileges to it. N.B. describe some of the privileges given to the Cacique [at least 10]. His responsibilities consisted of:
◦ ◦ ◦ ◦
Distribution of land Ordering of labour Planting and distributing crops Leader of war
The keeping of the law was really a matter of the individual. Some of the known caciques of the Caribbean are:
◦ Guacanagari of Hispaniola [greeted Columbus] ◦ Guarionex ruled Magua [the middle of Hispaniola, dies a Spanish prisoner en route to the mainland.] ◦ Anacaona was the Arawak wife of a Carib leader. ◦ Hatuey was a famous Cacique in Cuba who was ultimately burned alive by the Spaniards in 1511.
Religion played a key role in the Arawaks life and was actually what they lived to achieve. The Zemi was the centre of the religion an d one existed for everything; sky gods, war gods, god of maize, etc. Three words in the Arawak vocabulary were of great meaning to them.
◦ Coyaba: Heaven was a place where many Arawaks aspired to be. It is because of this so many of them travelled south, where heaven was believed to be to meet their ancestors. In addition it was the reason so many committed suicide which placed into the Encomienda system. ◦ Cohoba: Powdered tobacco was used in ceremonies to bring about a state of euphoria and allowed the Arawaks to communicate with the zemis. ◦ Cohiba: This referred to the tobacco which was smoked as apart of the recreation.
Assignment: Describe the process of the Religious ceremony as conducted by the Cacique. 2. Describe three of the activities that Lucayans would carry out for pleasure. 1.
It has been fair to say that the Arawaks were a primitive group of people, but their impact on today's culture is longstanding even in the smallest of ways. In addition, the organized way of playing games and cultivation of indications of how advanced they actually may have been. This culture that had no written language could not speak for itself except through it words that remain in the English language: ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦
Hammock Hurricane Barbecue Buccaneer
The many techniques and used for maize have been adopted by Africans as a means of sustenance.
Impact of Arawaks Objective: to discuss some of the present day aspects that have been impacted by the Arawaks
Around 1000 BC the Kalinagos began the migration from South America to the Lesser Antilles. By 1492, the Kalinagos had complete control of this area. This is native name of the people the European labeled as the Caribs. To the Tainos, Carib meant “brave” or “daring”. The Spanish took the word to mean “cannibalistic”. A French Missionary, Father Raymond Breton, lived amongst the Kalinagos, was able to give some insight on the culture. On aspect he was able to understand was the Igneri, which was an Arawak raid which sole purpose was to obtain Arawak wives.
The Kalinagos Objective: Describe the customs, appearance and culture Amerindians of the Lesser Antilles
The Kalinagos were very similar in appearance to the Arawaks due to some of the traditions that were maintained by the Arawak wives. Although, they were taller of a more muscular build. The went naked except for the adornment of ornaments and often panted themselves with a red dye made from tree pigment and animal fat. Like the Arawaks this mixture was fashionable, protected them from rain and insects. The most important piece of jewelry for the men was a necklace of their victim teeth and bones. The Kalinagos was more lean due to their diet, which consisted of more protein but for the most part contained the same staples as the Arawaks. The other part of their build was attributed to the warrior training. Men and boys lived separately in the kabay, from the women in order to develop them as warriors.
Picture of a Carib family
Spoke Arawakan and a pidgin language used fro trading amongst men
Government and religion headed by Cacique
Government headed by Tiubutili hauthe [village headman] Religion headed by Shaman
Tree-trunk made canoes for transport and minor trade
Large tree-trunk canoes agile for sailing against the wind, and large scale trading
Married Arawak women
Married Arawak women
Compare and Contract the Taino Arawaks and Kalinago
Prepare for quiz next class. Read pages 1-6 in your textbooks. Complete the following [turn in on folder sheets].
1. Give an account of the Amerindian migrations from Central Asia through North and South America. Describe their distribution throughout the West indies.  2. Describe the way of life of the Arawaks before 1492.  3. The Arawaks and Caribs made many contributions to the way of life of other people. Do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer. 
Describe the Arawak migration to the Caribbean.  2. How did the Lucayans come to be called Arawaks?  3. What was the means of survival of the Lucayans? 2] 4. Why had the Arawaks never settled in the Lesser Antilles?  5. List two differences and similarities between the Arawaks and the Cacique.  6. List three crops grown by the Arawaks.  7. Define the words: 1.
a. b. c.
Coyaba Cohiba Cohoba
What effect did the marriage of the Kings of Aragon and the Queen of Castile have on Spain’s empire? Which religion dominated Europe at the time? Describe the relationship between the Crown and the Church up during the 14th century. What was the cause for war between the Christians and the Muslims that lasted 700 years? Define the term “encomienda”. Who does the term “hidalgo” refer to? How did the end of the war with the Moors impact Spanish exploration?
Reconquest and Renaissance Objective Questions
Instruction: ◦ Create a five minute presentation about the biography and work of one of the renaissance men;
Group Group Group Group
1: 2: 3: 4:
Michelangelo Botticelli Leonardo da Vinci Christopher Columbus
◦ The presentation may take any format and use any medium of technology. ◦ You will be graded on: The objective Creativity Clarity of presentation
Renaissance is the Latin word for the rebirth of Knowledge. Beginning at the 12th century until the 15th century, the renaissance took Europe out of the Middle Ages, a time were life was centered around the after life, to a period of art, creativity, literature and expansion. Italy had been seen as the center of the Renaissance for art and literature, while the countries of Spain and Portugal clearly had the upper hand on sailing and navigation.
The Spanish had recently conquered the Moors and had several motivations for wanting to explore the world; 1. Vasco de Gama and Bartholomew Diaz, of Prince Henry's school of Navigation on Portugal, found a route to Asia by sailing around the cape of Good Hope. 2. The war between the Moors had ended a the Spanish were look for a new source of riches. 3. In pleasing the Church, they sought to convert heathens into Christians. 4. The desire to expand the countries borders. 5. The search for spices for the preservation and flavoring of food.
The renaissance brought about many inventions to the area of sailing. It helped the sailors in their explorations in three main ways: ◦ New instruments for navigation ◦ Astronomy ◦ Shipbuilding
The new instruments included; ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦
The The The The
compass astrolabe quadrant lead
THE RENAISSANCE Objective: To describe the single the point that evolved the development of the world.
The Renaissance caused many people to begin the study of astronomy in a serious manner. The North Star was used to help the navigator to learn of where they were and where they were going. This enabled sailors to go further away from the shore and still be able to return home. European ships became much larger and more suitable for open ocean voyages. A new way of planking the ships was developed and this allowed ships to be larger and more airtight.
The improvements developed a kind of ship called the caravel. Instead of using only one mast, three or four masts were used, allowing the ships to move faster. A rudder was moved to the back of the boat instead of using oars. The larger boats allowed more provisions to be taken for long voyages, as well as being able to bring back more cargo. A combination of square sails (to increase speed) and lateen [triangle] sails (to catch the wind from any direction) were used. This new type of boat was called a carrack.
In the Middle Ages man’s early life had been seen only as a preparation for life after death. The men of the Renaissance emphasized the importance of man’s happiness on earth. The new way of thinking was shown in the works of artists such as Leonardo Da Vinci and Michelangelo. Copernicus the great scientist claimed that earth was not the centre of the universe nor was it flat, but was one of the many planets and was round. The great astronomer, Galileo confirmed this. The discovery of printing by Gutenberg enabled more people to acquire books and read them for themselves.
MEN OF THE RENAISSANCE
European Exploration and Expansion Objective: To describe the European motives for exploration outside of the continent
Marco Polo was one of the first Europeans to make a successful trip from Europe to Asia. For nearly two centuries later, 15th there had been little communication or travel to Asia due to a war with the Moors. During the war, Europeans were attempting to take back their lands from Moors, while converting these Muslims to Christians and in addition to European slaves. This increased the power of the European countries, particularly Spain who had emerged as powerful after the uniting of Aragon and Castile.
The war ended in 1492, and at this encouraged the Europeans to seek out other lands. They set their interests on Asia. The only route to Asia was known as the Silk Route. Only few were successful persons before the Ottoman Turks closed the route to the European. Additionally, the treasures that they hoped to get would be too much to take back this way.
Prince Henry of Portugal, established a school of navigation at Sagres, of the coast of Portugal. Bartholomew Diaz and Vasco de Gama, two of his students, were able to find a route to Asia, around the cape of Good Hope. The Spanish and the Portuguese, although neighbours, these two countries were enemies. Learning that Portugal had found a route made Spain want to establish its own route. Christopher Columbus was a Sailor from Genoa Italy who had read about the riches of China from a book written by Marco Polo. He took his theory of the world being round to the King and Queen and promised that he would be able to sail to the Indies by sailing west into the ocean.
Columbus was born in Genoa, Italy in 1451. In may of 1476, Columbus has an encounter with persons presumed to be Pirates, and this changed the course of his life into one of greater adventure. Initially Columbus joined his brother, Bartholomew and became a Cartographer in Portugal. He soon took advantage of the era of discovery that plagued Europe at the time and became a master-mariner for the Portuguese service. He life as a sailor further intrigued his interest in the locating the world outside of Europe. He had a comfortable life, but was interested in finding the treasure of China.
Enterprise of the Indies Objective: To describe the discovery on the New World and the first voyage of Christopher Columbus
Columbus estimated that the coast of Japan would only be 2,400 miles from the coast Europe and the trip would only take three weeks. Columbus found great difficultly in securing financing for the “Enterprise of the Indies” in Portugal. When his wife died in 1483, he sought aid from Spain. The Spanish court took six years to reach a negative decision. The still motivated Columbus, decided to head for France. On the day he was to leave he received word from the Queen that his proposal was indeed accepted.
After three months of preparation Columbus and his crew of 90 men set sail from Palos, Spain on August 3, 1492 with three ships. The Nina, Pinta and Santa Maria. A first stop was made in the Canary Islands, this took one week. The journey was delayed but to a broken rudder on the Pinta. The repair took another three weeks and the crew left for ‘The Indies” on September 9, 1492. During the stopover on the canaries, lanteen sails had been put onto the Nina. Life on the ship was miserable as only the captains had sleeping quarters and the sailors had to sleep where they could. This voyage was aided through the compass , the quadrant and the hourglass.
There had been several false alarms on the ship where sailors thought that they had spotted land. An issue arose on the ship when the compass changed directions and the sailors were concerned that they were no longer sailing North. This matter was calmed by Columbus. On October 7th, the direction of the ships was altered in order to follow a flock of birds that had flown over the ship. The crew had not seen land for more than 28 days. On October 9th, Columbus and the crew, who was at a point of mutiny, decided to turn back if land had not been sited in three days. At 2am on the morning of October 12th land was sited by Rodrigo de Triana. The island was called Guanahani by its natives and San Salvador by Columbus.
1. 2. 3.
4. 5. 6.
Where did Columbus think he had landed? Who did he meet there? Describe this encounter like? How was Columbus able to locate other islands in the Caribbean? What incident occurred at Hispaniola and how was this matter resolved? What did Columbus take back to Spain with him as evidence of his trip?
East meets West Objective Questions
What was Columbus given by the Crown in preparation for his second voyage? How did Columbus respond to the Kalinago settlement? What was the fate of the Spaniards left at Fort Navidad? Describe the Taino weapon technology. What were conditions of the encomienda system? What was the fate of the Arawaks who resisted servitude? List four circumstances of the encomienda system that led to Arawak genocide. Describe the following persons impact on the Encomienda system. a. Nicolas de Ovando b. Bartholeme de las Casas c. Antonio de Montesinos