BigWeekendPres(Dr GavLawrenceEffective Coaching)

January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Social Science, Psychology, Educational Psychology
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“The Institute for Psychology of Elite Performance (IPEP) is housed within the School of Sport, Health and Exercise Sciences, Bangor University. IPEP was established in 2000 and its mission is to develop excellence within business, sport and the military.” http://ipep.bangor.ac.uk/

School of Sport, Health & Exercise Sciences Institute for the Psychology of Elite Performance (IPEP)

Effective Coaching Structuring Practice & Delivering Feedback Dr. Gavin Lawrence

Effective Coaching Skill acquisition/coaching process

Conveying information

Demonstrations Verbal instructions

Structuring practice

Variability of practice, Contextual interference

Providing feedback

Precision, Frequency, Timing, assistance

Figure 1. The skill acquisition/coaching process (adapted from Lavelle et al., 2003)

How do we learn and store skills? Schema Theory (Schmidt, 1975)

2. Parameters/commands assigned to the movement program (movement force & timing) 3. Feedback about the movement outcome 4. Sensory consequences of the movement (proprioception, audition, visual)

Individual movement

Movement commands

1. Initial conditions (body position, wind strength, rig, boat class)

Movement outcome

Schema for different skills

Structuring Practice What is contextual interference? What is variability of practice? How do they work? How and when should we prescribe them? Practice makes Perfect?

Development of skill is generally and positively related to practice Perfect Practice makes Perfect? Optimisation of performance during practice will lead to the best memory of what has been ‘learned’

Time constraints require the teaching/re-learning of more than one skill (actions from different skills; tacking, Gybing, sail setting, heeling)

How do we schedule the practice session to get the best learning? Blocked

Random

Repeated rehearsal of one task before moving on to another

Repeated rehearsal of one task is avoided

1hr session – 3 skills

1hr session – 3 skills

20 mins on skill 1, 20 mins on skill 2, then 20 mins on skill 3

Skill 1, 2 and 3 are practiced in an assorted/intermingled fashion

Good performance

Poor performance

Poor learning

Good learning

How do we schedule the practice session to get the best learning?

Contextual Interference Structure conditions that lead to poor practice performance often lead to better learning

Why? ACTION PLAN RECONSTRUCTION (Lee & Magill, 1985)

ELABORATION HYPOTHESIS (Shea & Zimny, 1983)

RETROACTIVE INHIBITION (Dey, 1969)

Must be: Different Skills Greater the difference, greater the effect Challenging the performer

How do we schedule the practice session to get the best learning?

Variability of Practice Movements from the same class of actions (Same skill)

Variable Constant Initial conditions

Repeated rehearsal of one criterion outcome of a single action (same direction and distance)

Good performance Poor learning

Variable Rehearsal of a variety of movement outcomes with the same action (different directions and distances) Poor performance Good learning

Movement commands

Constant

Movement outcome

How to effectively structure practice? Contextual interference vs.. variable practice? Skills from different classes of movements (different skills)

Modifications of the same skill

Low CI

High CI

Blocked

Random

Novice

Intermediate/Experienced

Children

Adults Early stages of learning – need to understand ‘what’ is required (Gentile, 1972, 2000) engage in complex cognitive tasks (Fitts and Posner, 1964) constrain multiple joints to act together (Bernstein, 1967)

Random

High

Structuring Practice

Constant Low

Children

Experienced/ Experts Practice

Variable High

Contextual

Variability of

Interference

Adults

Children Novices

Blocked

Low

Novices

Effective Coaching Skill acquisition/coaching process

Conveying information

Demonstrations Verbal instructions

Structuring practice

Variability of practice, Contextual interference

Providing feedback

Precision, Frequency, Timing, assistance

Figure 1. The skill acquisition/coaching process (adapted from Lavelle et al., 2003)

Providing Feedback

Performance/predicted success

Nominal task difficulty: difficulty regardless of performance Functional task difficulty: how challenging the task is relative to the skill level

Expert Skilled Intermediate Novice

low

Nominal task difficulty

high

Feedback and Task Difficulty Optimal Challenge points.

1. 2. 3.

No learning without information/feedback Learning reduced with too much information Learning achievement depends on optimal amount of information which differs as a function of skill level.

Considerable

Optimal challenge points

Minimal

low

high functional task difficulty

Performance decrease

Potential available feedback

Expert Skilled Intermediate Novice

Feedback and Task Difficulty high Potential learning benefit (dashed line)

Performance in practice (solid line)

high

Optimal challenge point Potential learning benefit

low

low low

high functional task difficulty

Feedback and Task Difficulty expert

novice

high Potential learning benefit (dashed line)

Performance in practice (solid line)

high

Optimal challenge point

low

low low

high functional task difficulty

Feedback and Task Difficulty Do we need to provide it? How much should we provide? When should we provide it?

How precise should it be? FREQUENCY, PRECISION, AND TIMING.

Feedback and Task Difficulty Structuring practice and optimal learning point – CHALLENGING THE LEARNER.

Feedback – often too much, too precise and too soon

‘misty coaching world’ Bandwidth Summary Self Selected

Appropriate Focus of Attention

Feedback Specifics

Sensory FB

Is the learner experienced?

no

Is the no task simple?

yes

Does the learner comprehend the fundamental motion/movement pattern?

no

Provide fundamental movement FB

yes Provide movement parameter FB yes Provide more precise FB

Provide less frequent FB

Intrinsic FB sufficient Provide FB when requested

Review Nov 13

Feedback and Focus of Attention Internal focus Attention is directed to performers own body External focus Attention is directed at the effects that the performers movements have on the environment What type of instructions do you give? Instructions and feedback – typically given about the movement pattern or technique Coordination; order, form, timing etc. Ineffective when compared to external focus of attention!!!

Feedback and Focus of Attention Cognitive/novice Internal focus; performers consciously control their actions, constrain the motor system and intervene with automatic control processes

Forces learners to the cognitive end of the continuum

Autonomous/expert External focus; allows unconscious, fast, reflexive processes to control actions; outcome is achieved as a ‘byproduct’. Forces learners to the autonomous end of the continuum

Constrained action hypothesis (Wulf & colleagues (2001,2001,2003)

“The Institute for Psychology of Elite Performance (IPEP) is housed within the School of Sport, Health and Exercise Sciences, Bangor University. IPEP was established in 2000 and its mission is to develop excellence within business, sport and the military.” http://ipep.bangor.ac.uk/

School of Sport, Health & Exercise Sciences Institute for the Psychology of Elite Performance (IPEP)

Effective Coaching THANK YOU FOR LISTENING!! Dr. Gavin Lawrence

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