January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, US History, The Cold War And Beyond (After 1945), Cold War
Share Embed Donate

Short Description

Download ch6...


Propaganda and Ultranationalism 

Propaganda refers to information and ideas that are spread to achieve a goal. This information can be dishonest and misleading. It is used to manipulate strong human emotions, especially fear and insecurity. It often:  

Calls opponents names that are designed to arouse anger in people Plays down their own failures and defeats, or use words that hide the meaning of their actions Use respected symbols such as religious symbols, family images or a national flag Appeal to peoples fears when trying to persuade them to support particular actions

Both Stalin and Hitler have used propaganda to achieve their goals. Stalin used to show the people of the Soviet Union that he was a caring leader, that he was “father-like” to his people while in reality, he was sending people to work camps or having them executed. Hitler had a similar method. He created a department whose sole purpose was to create propaganda for all aspects of the media. Through this, the department portrayed the Jewish population as evil.

How does Ultranationalism develop? 

There are many factors that can lead from nationalism to ultranationalism. Economic change, political change, social change can all lead to this. The Great Depression began on October 29th, 1929. The price of stocks on the New York Stock exchange dropped drastically. This caused a chain reaction to other businesses and then to other countries throughout the world. As banks closed, people lost their savings and investments. Businesses shut down so people lost their jobs. With no work, there was less money. Less money means less spending and the economy slows down to the point of recession or even further to a depression.

Germany after WWI 

After WWI, Germany became a republic and people earned the right to vote for their next leader. However, there was never a political party who won enough votes to make real change in the country. Germany also suffered from having to pay war reparations to the Allies, and had to pay their loan back to the Americans that they had borrowed to rebuild their country. In the 1920s Germany went through a period of extreme inflation. This meant that there were rising prices while the value of the money dropped. German money became worthless while prices continued to climb for product.

By 1929, trade began to increase and the German economy began to recover. However, with the crash of the economy, other countries stopped trading to protect their own industries. Due to the lack of trade, many people in Germany were laid off from their jobs and faced homelessness and starvation. Many people wanted change. They wanted a strong leader. The National Socialist German Workers’ Party – the Nazi Party – started to gain support. By 1933, Hitler and his Nazi party gain power after several failed attempts. Once in power, he dissolved parliament and declared the start of the Nazi Reich with himself as the dictator.

Japan after WWI 

 

For WWI, Japan had supported the Allies. After the war, Japanese agriculture and industrial exports to Europe increased. However, when the Great Depression began, Japan’s trading partners began to limit their imports to support local industry. Many Japanese workers lost their jobs. Silk farmers also suffered because the Americans and Europeans could no longer afford the silk. In 1932, the rice crop failed and this caused famine. Japanese ultranationalists blamed their politicians. They became angrier when the USA, Canada and Australia shut out immigrants.

In order to obtain more raw materials and markets for Japanese products, Japan invaded Manchuria in 1931. By 1937, the military controlled the Japanese government and Japan was at war with China. They brought back traditional warrior values such as obedience to the emperor and also created a cult around the Emperor Hirohito.

Charismatic Leaders 

Adolf Hitler promised Germans that he would restore the national pride by making Germany the leading nation on Earth. Hitler promised:   

Not to recognize the Treaty of Versailles Rebuild Germanys armed forces and take back lost territories Restore the superiority of the “Aryan race” – those of white European descent with Germanic and Nordic peoples being the purest

Nazi propaganda experts used radio, movies, public address systems, and giant posters to keep Hitler’s image and message before the public. They used pamphlets and rallies to attract the masses. At the rallies, the people would chant, “Today Germany, Tomorrow the whole world.”

In Japan, democracy faded with ultranationalism to be replaced with a one-party state ruled by the military. Emperor Hirohito had no power in Japan, even though he was believed to have divine power. The commanders of Japan’s armed forces decided on the country’s national interests and made most of the foreign policy decisions that led Japan into WWII. It was the military leaders that decided to invade China and capture territory belonging to other nations. They justified this by saying that Europe and the USA did the same. In 1941, General Tojo Hideki became prime minister of Japan and transformed Japan into a military dictatorship. He promised the people that Japan would dominate Asia.

Tojo Hideki

Instilling Ultranationalistic Values 

 

Germany, Italy, Japan and the Soviet Union have all used various means to promote the extreme nationalistic values. The military and police forces were used to protect and strengthen these values. Education was used to instill these values in the youth. Culture, art, music and media were used to express these values and to drown out those who opposed them.

In Germany, Hitler used propaganda to glorify the past victories and accomplishments of the German people. He used the operas of Richard Wagner while condemning modern art and music. Books were destroyed if they went against the values of the Third Reich. The German people were asked to build an empire that consisted of the “master race.” This empire would last for thousand of years. Germany stated that it must rid the nation of anyone who was considered inferior. This consisted of (in the Nazi mind) Jews, socialists, Roma (gypsies), homosexuals, and people with disabilities. Students were taught from elementary to university Nazi values and were shielded from any challenges that were not part of the Nazi values. In the summer of 1933, ultranationalist students burned books that were seen as un-German.tehn

View more...


Copyright � 2017 NANOPDF Inc.