Ch9SpainLooksWest - FR Haythorne Junior High
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Social Studies 8: Unit 2--Worldviews in Conflict Chapter 9: Spain Looks Westward
Christopher Columbus Read the intro to the chapter on page 193. We know from the Renaissance unit that Columbus set out from Spain in 1492 and landed in the Americas. In this chapter, we will focus on what was happening in Spain at the time and what factors led King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella to support Columbus’s venture.
Geography and Religion Look at the map on page 194. Note Spain’s geographical location. It pushes west into the Atlantic Ocean. For centuries, seafaring people like Columbus must have gazed out on the Atlantic Ocean and wondered what lay on the other side.
Geography and Religion The people of Spain have a saying: “La geographica manda,” which means, “Geography controls everything.” Spain’s location between Africa and Europe had a great influence on its religious history.
Introduction to Muslim Spain At the beginning of the Middle Ages, almost everyone in Spain, as in the rest of Europe, was Christian. Spain was ruled by the visigoths, a people who had invaded Spain from the north at the end of the Roman Empire. Internal struggles and a series of weak rulers left the area vulnerable to an attack from the outside.
Introduction to Muslim Spain In 711, a Muslim force led by Tariq ibn-Ziyad crossed the Strait of Gibraltar and landed in Spain. In a few years, the Muslims conquered almost the entire Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal). Spain fell under Muslim rule at this time.
Introduction to Muslim Spain In order to create a sense of national identity, the new rulers began the construction of a large, beautiful mosque in the city of Cordoba. In time, many Christians converted to Islam, but some did not.
Mosque in Cordoba
Muslim Spain: Life & Society For the next 5 centuries, Spain was part of a large empire. The Arab Islamic world was part of the largest economic trade zone in the world. This empire included people from many cultures, each with their own customs. Muslim rulers and rich merchants supported the arts. However the arts reflected Islamic (Muslim) values.
Muslim Spain: Centres of Learning Learning was greatly valued in Muslim society as a way of understanding the universe and to aid in living an ethical (morally proper) life. The world’s first university was established in Cairo in 971, (over 200 years before the first university in Europe).
Muslim Spain: Centres of Learning Some of the cities of Muslim Spain (Cordoba, Seville, and Granada) became great areas of learning. Muslims studied medicine and science, translating books and essays of the ancient Greeks, who they admired. Islamic scholars knew much more about natural science than Europeans.
Muslim Spain: Religious Tolerance Muslim Spain was a society that was tolerant of religious minorities (they allowed them to exist). The Christians controlled a narrow Northern strip. This led to the Reconquista, which was a war about religious differences.
Modern Day Connections Read “Voices” on page 198 to see how religious tolerance is practiced in many countries today, including Canada. Our Charter of Rights and Freedoms guarantees religious freedoms.
The Spanish Reconquista The sectioning of Al-Andaluz into a number of independent states (principalities) led to the loss of a unified Muslim state. This led the way for the Reconquista. The Reconquista began as a way for Christian kingdoms to expand their power and influence.
The Spanish Reconquista Christians across Europe came to help Spanish Christians win territory from Muslims. The Spanish developed a new fighting technique that made them the deadliest fighting force in Europe. By January 1492, Spain was a Christian land.
The Spanish Reconquista Look on page 199 and discuss the questions. Look at the timeline and the map to see the reclaiming of Spain by Christian forces.
The Spanish Reconquista http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/com mons/c/ca/Spanish_reconquista.gif
Creating a Christian Spain The Reconquista was a long process. King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain were so devoted to their religion that the pope in Rome gave them a special title—”Catholic Monarchs.” The events of the Reconquista influenced their future behaviour and decisions greatly.
The Spanish Inquisition: Now What? To unite Spain, King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella took over the Spanish Inquisition from the Church. The Inquisition was a state-run system of courts that put people of non-Catholic faiths on trial for their beliefs. Muslims and Jews were given a choice: convert or be exiled (sent out of country).
The Spanish Inquisition (Extra) Muslims and Jews lived in fear that they would be discovered and punished for their religious beliefs. The exile of Jews and Muslims had a negative effect on Spain. Many of these people made up the educated middle class, which made economic growth difficult for Spain.
The Spanish Inquisition Many Jews and Muslims were tortured in order to get them to reveal their religious beliefs and to convert to Catholicism.
“Nobody Expects the Spanish Inquisition”
Spanish Inquisition: Saving Souls Ferdinand and Isabella believed they had a religious duty to convert as many people as possible to Catholicism. This belief became part of the Spanish worldview, and was one of the main reasons why the king supported Columbus’s plans. New land=new people to convert. Missionaries were sent with explorers in order to do this.
Gold and Glory As we learned in Chapter 5, one of the key motivations for European explorers was the search for gold. Explorers wanted to be wealthy. The monarchs who supported the explorers needed gold to support their countries’ economies. European economies were based on their supplies of gold and silver during the Renaissance.
Gold and Glory: Wealth for Spain In 1492, Spain had used up all its gold and silver. Fighting a war was expensive. The Christians had been fighting the Muslims for many years, which used up all the gold reserves. Ferdinand and Isabella hoped that Columbus would bring back gold from his travels to support the Spanish economy.
Gold and Glory: Wealth for Spain Columbus found small amounts of gold in his early voyages, but he exaggerated how much there was in the areas he visited. As a result, the king and queen were happy to continue to support Columbus’s voyages. The desire for trade and gold drove Spain’s exploration of the American continents.
King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella
King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella
Changes Between Columbus’s 1st and 2nd Voyages More ships in his fleet. More people in his company. Many different types of people to do different jobs when new land was discovered: – Sailors – Soldiers (for protection in case of war) – Missionaries (to convert people) – Settlers (to develop permanent settlements) Columbus was told specifically to take over (to claim) any newly found land.
Personal Wealth Traditionally, Spanish nobles had two ways to support themselves: war and land. Nobles fought for their monarch, and were rewarded with land. They took crops/livestock from the peasants living there. One group of nobles, called hidalgos, did not own land because after the Reconquista there was a land shortage.
Personal Wealth (con’t) The hidalgos believed their class was too high to work with their hands—it was demeaning (below them). To earn income, they became involved in business/commerce and went to the Americas to seek their fortune.
The Black Legend of the Conquistadors Read the “Voices” article on page 210. Other countries (France, Holland, England) launched a propaganda campaign against Spain and the Conquistadors in order to turn people against Spain and to further their own colonies in the world.
Taking a Risk for Glory Not all people who risked going to the Americas were people who sought riches. Some wanted to make a name for themselves and to earn respect in Spain for finding new lands. Cortés, who we will be learning about in the next chapter, was already a wealthy man before he went to the Americas. He was seeking glory and fame.
How does El-Cid fit into this? Read the “Zoom In” section on page 211 and the information on page 212. A statue of El-Cid is located in San Diego, and is one way Spanish people recognize their culture. A 12th-century Spanish epic poem celebrates El-Cid’s positive, knightly qualities.
El-Cid’s Knightly Qualities Military success Loyalty Fairness Faith in God All these qualities became part of the code of chivalry, which governed the behaviour of all Christian soldiers.