Chapter 11 Section 4

January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, US History, The Civil War And Reconstruction (1850-1880), Civil War
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Chapter 11 Section 4 Devastation and Freedom

Battle of the Wilderness • May 1864 • Intense fighting mostly in wooded areas • So intense it set the wooded areas on fire • Many of the wounded burned to death • Thick smoke led to many instances of friendly fire

Battle of the Wilderness • Grant’s forces took tremendous losses • But he refused to retreat like previous Union generals • He moved his army around the Confederates and continued heading South

What did the Battle of the Wilderness reveal about Grant’s strategy? • Under Grant’s leadership, troops would not retreat quickly • The Union Army would be more aggressive but be criticized for the tremendous loss of life

Battle of Spotsylvania • Happened 2 days after Battle of the Wilderness • Heavy fighting- in some spots Union dead were piled up 4 deep • Northerners began to protest the huge loss of life • Grant vowed to continued to fight on anyway

Battle of Cold Harbor • 8 miles from Richmond (Confederate capital) • Grant launches to direct charges on the Confederates- who were behind strong fortifications • 7,000 Union soldiers fall

• Grant lost 65,000 in 2 months • Many troops began pinning their names and address on their uniforms so they could be identified

What had the South hoped for in the election of 1864? • For Lincoln’s defeat and McClellan’s victory • McClellan promised to negotiate an end to the war

• However…

Describe General Sherman’s March to the Sea • November 1864 • Sherman leads 62,000 Union troops to capture Savannah, Georgia • Before he left for Georgia, he ordered Atlanta burnt to the ground • Destroyed everything from Atlanta to Savannah – 300 miles of destruction

How did General Sherman affect the outcome of the 1864 election and the end of the Civil War? • Sherman’s capture of Atlanta changed the political climate of the North • Now northerners believed they could win and no longer wanted to negotiate • More people would now support Lincoln

What were the terms of General Lee’s surrender to General Grant? • Appomattox Court House, Virginia • April 1865 • Southern soldiers could take their horses and mules and go home • The would not be considered traitors as long as they obeyed the laws where the lived • Grant then offered to feed Lee’s army

Guerrilla • Soldiers who use surprise raids and hit and run tactics – Many of Lee’s commanders suggested this rather than surrendering – Lee rejected this, fearing it would lead to more devastation to Virginia

Who was John Wilkes Booth? • Actor • Southern sympathizer • Originally wanted to kidnap Lincoln in exchange for southern prisoners of war – Led to unsuccessful attempts

• Decided to kill him instead (as well as General Grant and Vice President Johnson) • Only able to kill Lincoln, shooting him in the back of the head • Lincoln died shortly after

• Booth was eventually cornered in a tobacco barn in Virginia • Shot (against orders) – Northern leaders wanted him to stand trial

Thirteenth Amendment • Became law December 18, 1865 • The amendment ended slavery in the United States

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