Chapter 13-Industrial and Social Revolution

April 26, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, European History, Europe (1815-1915), Industrial Revolution
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Chapter 13-Industrial and Social Revolution

Agricultural Revolution ●





Landowners began to use crop rotation to increase the amount of food produced. The crop being grown would change each season The invention of machines meant less workers were needed on farms As a result, families developed cottage industries where wool was spun into cloth. This work was often done at home

Inventors and their Machines ●





Many inventions had to do with farming Jethro Tull created a seed drill that planted seeds in a straight line Andrew Meikle made a threshing machine which cut down on the number of workers needed and allowed for easier work

Inventors and their Machines ●





Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin which allowed 1 worker to process 50 lbs of cotton per day, an increase of 49 lbs Cyrus McCormick created a reaping machine that allowed much more wheat to be cut per day John Fowler designed a steam tractor to plow fields and dig drainage channels

Industrial Revolution ●



The enormous changes in manufacturing caused the 18th and 19th centuries to be known as the Industrial Revolution Factories were soon built that had a larger output of goods. Animals and water were used first to power the machines but a new source needed to be found

Inventors and their Machines ●



The steam engine was one of the most important inventions James Watt made improvements that increased the efficiency of the steam engine

Inventors and their Machines ●



Making clothing was a long and difficult process until John Kay invented the flying shuttle which allowed for cotton to be woven much faster The invention of the spinning jenny by James Hargreaves allowed for cotton to be made into thread faster

Industrial and Commercial Relations ●







Inventors began to sell their machines and became known as entrepreneurs Richard Arkwright became one of the most famous entrepreneurs and also created the patent which protected inventions from being copied In order for the entrepreneurs to create inventions, they needed capital, money supplied by wealthy investors https://www.flocabulary.com/industrial-re volution/

Social Reform ●



In many countries, child labor was common and living and working conditions were dirty and dangerous Over time, the workers began to organize into unions to fight for more rights, higher pay and safer working conditions

Government Reform ●



England passed the 1833 Factory Act which forbade children under 9 from working in a textile mill and only allowed children from 9 to 13 to work 8 hours per day The Mines Act stopped women and boys under 10 from working in mines and the Ten Hour Bill limited all women and children to a 10 hour day

Religious Transformation ●









Preachers became more influential at this point John Wesley created a new denomination of Christianity and traveled Britain on horseback, giving over 42,000 sermons in his life George Whitefield gave sermons to as many as 20,000 people and was instrumental at being used to lead people to Christ http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=87eVOpbcoVo

End of the Slave Trade ●





Individuals began to speak out more often against slavery John Newton, the author of Amazing Grace, was a former slave ship captain who fought against his former occupation William Wilberforce was a member of Parliament influenced by Newton who led the fight against slavery in Britain and supported the Committee for the Abolition of the Slave Trade

Slavery in America ●





While the slave trade became illegal in America, the practice of slavery was still allowed The South was the main supporter of slavery. William Lloyd Garrison and Frederick Douglass were two of the most influential abolitionists. Garrison was the editor of an abolitionist newspaper and Douglass was a former slave who used his experiences as persuasion in his speeches

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