Chapter 2

January 12, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Social Science, Political Science, International Relations
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Chapter 2 Comparative Development: Differences and Commonalities among Developing Countries

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Defining the Developing World  

The UN’s System World Bank’s System – Classification by levels of GNI per capita (Table 2.1)



The UNDP’s Human Development Index – Classification by levels of human development (Table 2.9)



The OECD’s system

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Table 2.1

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Table 2.1 (cont’d)

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Table 2.1 (cont’d)

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Figure 2.1

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Figure 2.1 (cont’d)

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The Structural Diversity of Developing Economies 

 



Size and income level (Table 2.2) Historical background Physical and human resources Ethnic and religious composition

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Relative importance of public and private sectors Industrial structure (Table 2.3)

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Table 2.2

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Table 2.3

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Common Characteristics of Developing Nations 

Low levels of living – Per capita national income (Figure 2.2)

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Figure 2.2

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Table 2.4

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Common Characteristics of Developing Nations 

Low levels of living – Per capita national income – Relative growth rates of national and per capita income (Table 2.5)

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Table 2.5

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Common Characteristics of Developing Nations 

Low levels of living – Per capita national income – Relative growth rates of national and per capita income – Distribution of national income (Table 2.6)

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Table 2.6

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Common Characteristics of Developing Nations 

Low levels of living – Per capita national income – Relative growth rates of national and per capita income – Distribution of national income – Extent of poverty (Table 2.7)

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Table 2.7

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Common Characteristics of Developing Nations 

Low levels of living – Per capita national income – Relative growth rates of national and per capita income – Distribution of national income – Extent of poverty – Health (Figure 2.3 and Table 2.8)

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Figure 2.3

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Table 2.8

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Common Characteristics of Developing Nations 

Low levels of living – Per capita national income – Relative growth rates of national and per capita income – Distribution of national income – Extent of poverty – Health

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– Education – The Human Development Index

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Table 2.9

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Table 2.10

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Common Characteristics of Developing Nations   

Low levels of living Low levels of productivity High rates of population growth and dependency burdens (Table 2.11)

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Table 2.11

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Common Characteristics of Developing Nations   



Low levels of living Low levels of productivity High rates of population growth and dependency burdens Substantial dependence on agricultural production and primary exports (Table 2.12 and Figure 2.4)

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Table 2.12

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Figure 2.4

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Common Characteristics of Developing Nations  



Low levels of living Low levels of productivity High rates of population growth and dependency burdens







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Substantial dependence on agricultural production and primary-product exports Prevalence of imperfect markets Dependence and vulnerability

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How Developing Countries Today Differ from Developed Countries in Their Earlier Stages 



 



Physical and human resource endowments Per Capita incomes and levels of GDP in relation to the rest of the world Climate Population size, distributions and growth Historical role of international migration

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  



International trade benefits Basic R&D capabilities Stability and flexibility of political-social institutions Efficacy of domestic economic institutions

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Convergence? 



Evidence of unconditional convergence is hard to find (Figure 2.5) There is some (controversial) evidence of conditional convergence

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Figure 2.5

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Concepts for Review    

    

Absolute poverty Brain drain Crude birthrate Convergence Death rate Dependency burden Developed world Foreign exchange Gross domestic product (GDP)

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   

Gross national product (GNP) Human Development Index (HDI) Imperfect markets Income gap Income inequality Incomplete information

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Concepts for Review (cont’d)  

 

 

Infant mortality rate International poverty line Labor productivity Least developed countries (LLDCs) Levels of living Low income countries (LICs)

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 







Malnutrition Middle-income countries (MICs) Mixed economic systems Newly industrialized countries (NICs) Physical resources 2-36

Concepts for Review (cont’d) 







Primary industrial sector Production function Purchasing power equivalent Purchasing power parity (PPP)

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 





Resource endowment Secondary industrial sector Tertiary industrial sector World Bank

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Figure A2.1

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Figure A2.2

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Figure A2.3

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Figure A2.4

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