Chapter 22A

January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, European History, War And Revolution (1914-1938), Russian Revolution
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Chapter 22 Returning to Normalcy

Mrs. Hauber US History

Section 1: Postwar Reaction  

  

 

Allied Intervention in Russia Labor Strife Urban Riots Bomb Scares First Red Scare Prohibition Women’s Suffrage

1. Allied Intervention in Russia 

Alllied Intervention in Russia – –

March 1917—Czar Nicholas II was overthrown by revolution in Russia Alexander Kerensky—leader of provisional government of Russia until it fell to the Communists Lenin—Bolshevick (Communist) leader that overthrew Russia’s government

Allied Intervention in Russia (continued)   

Bolshevicks took Russia out of WWI Many American troops stayed in Europe after the armistice of 1918 to fight communism. Allies aided Russia to fight against the Communists in the “Great Russian Civil War” of 1918-1920 George Creel created a fear in America against the threat of communism

2. Labor Strife 

The government’s truce with labor unions was over Worker’s now went on strike – –

Anxious to keep wartime benefits Threatened by soaring prices

Union violence increased  After many strikes failed, there was a decline in unions in the 1920s 

3. Urban Riots  

Anti-black feelings grew Lynching—barbarous act of a mob that hanged a person without the right to do so. “The Red Summer”— summer of 1919 that was marked by an increase in racial tension

Urban Riots (continued)   

There were over 25 race riots Worst riot was in Chicago Mitchell Palmer— Attorney General who feared communists were everywhere. Palmer raids

4. Bomb Scares 

 

Mayor Ole Hanson—receives bomb in the mail Senator Hardwick—received package and maid had her hands blown off Bomb went off on wall street killing 38 people

5. Mitchell Pursues Bolshevicks 

In November of 1919, Mitchell had over 250 members of Union of Russian Workers arrested Ordered Raids on communist meetings – –

4000 thrown in jail 556 deported

6. Fear of Foreigners 

 

Immigration Restriction League—every immigrant must be able to read to be admitted. Distinction between “new immigrants” and “old immigrants” Felt that by accepting immigrants, we were committing “race suicide”

7. Immigration Laws 

Immigration Act (1921)—set a limit on the number of immigrants per year National Origins Act (1929) --Reduced quotas based on the natural origin of the people of the US. – – –

Favored Northern and western Europe Barred all Chinese, Japanese, & other Asians Canadians and Latin Americans were exempt

1. Warren G. Harding 

  

Publisher of a newspaper State Senator; US Senator Isolationist Chose “best minds” to help in the Presidency “Ohio Gang”—Harding’s friends (cronies) that used their official position for their own enrichment

2. Foreign Affairs 

Harding was against League of Nations Signed a separate treaty with Germany in July of 1921. Prevention of a naval arms race

3. Domestic Policies   

Recession early on Asked Congress for higher tariffs, lower taxes, and less government spending. Emergency Tariff Act (1921)—Raised the rates on agicultural products and was designed to put an end to the downward trend of tariff rates Fordney-McCumber Tariff—imposed the highest tariff rates in US history

5. The War Debts 

Many allied nations put pressure on the US to scale back or cancel war debts. They felt:   

Most of the money borrowed was spent in the US War had been a common cause It was unlikely they could pay it back anyway (especially with the US’s increase in tariffs)

US came up with separate agreements with each country

6. The Washington Conference 

1st successful disarmament conference where three separate treaties emerged: 

Five Powers Treaty—agreed to limit the number of capital ships Nine powers Treaty—Agreed to observe Open Door Policy in China Four Powers Treaty—Agreed to protect one another’s possessions in the Pacific

8. Harding Scandals 

Veterans Bureau Scandal—Charles Forbes was responsible for the misappropriation of $250 million veteran funds. 

Sentenced to two years in prison

Teapot Dome Scandal—Albert Fall secretly leased naval oil reserves to people in return for “loans”. 

Convicted of bribery and sentenced to 1 year in prison

7. Harding’s Death 

 

Became aware of scandals Died of a heart attack However, it was rumored that he died of food poisoning or suicide

Section 3: Keeping Cool with Coolidge     

President Coolidge Election of 1924 Government Helps Business Farm Problem Election of 1928

1. President Coolidge     

Mayor Governor of Massachusetts “Silent Cal” Admirer of American Business Did not believe in government interference (laissez-faire)  Became President when Harding died

2. Election of 1924    

Coolidge (R) Davis (D) LaFollette (Progressive) Coolidge won by an overwhelming majority  His victory was clouded by the death of his youngest son.

3. Economy under Coolidge  Prosperity ensued  National Debt went down  Stock-market boom  Farmers were the exception

4. Government Helps Business  Free enterprise—freedom from government intervention  Regulatory Agencies should only help businesses  FTC, Federal Reserve Board, and Dept. of Commerce promoted fair practices and cooperations among companies

Gov’t Helps Business (continued)  Monopolies were formed again  Supreme Court ruled that they were not restraining trade

5. The Farm Problem  Farmers were no longer enjoying wartime prosperity  The more they produced, the less they made  Higher tariffs were not enough  Coolidge vetoed measures intended to bring relief to the farmers

6. McNary-Haugen Bill  Farmers would keep prices the same and the government would buy the surplus  Failed twice in Congress  Passed he third time.  However, Coolidge vetoed it.

7. Election of 1928    

Coolidge chose not to run again Herbert Hoover (R) Smith (D) Smith was a Catholic who favored the repeal of Prohibition  Hoover wins because of his humanitarian record

Section 4: Life in the Jazz Age New Products Health and Education Roaring Twenties Roar of the Factories

1. New Products Automobile 1900—very rare 1918—7 million New highways and roads

Shopping Centers First one in Kansas in 1922


New Products (continued) Radio KDKA—first station in Pittsburgh Broadcast the Harding-Cox Returns

Phonograph Invented by Edison Blacks brought jazz and blues north Duke Ellington. Louis Armstrong, and Bessie Smith


2. Health and Education Vaccines US spent more on education than any other countries put together.

3. “Roaring Twenties” Speakeasies—illegal bars Flappers—young women with short hair and short skirts Music Sporting Events Babe Ruth Boxing Fights

Charles Lindbergh—1st non-stop flight from NY to Paris

4. Roar of the Factory Frederick Taylor—Father of Scientific Management Henry Ford—employed the use of the assembly line Electric conveyer belt Model T Car rolled off every seconds!


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