Chapter 7 nationalism and sectionalism

January 25, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, European History, Europe (1815-1915), Industrial Revolution
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CHAPTER 7 NATIONALISM AND SECTIONALISM Section 1: Industry and Transportation

OBJECTIVES Summarize the key developments in the

transportation revolution of the early 1800s Analyze the rise of industry in the United States in

the early 1800s Describe some of the leading inventions and

industrial developments in the early 1800s

TRANSPORTATION REVOLUTION New methods of transportation and

manufacturing goods changed the way people lived and worked  US set on a course of industrialization

TRANSPORTATION REVOLUTION  Original 13 states along Atlantic coast  Major settlements along harbors/rivers  Easier to transportation

 19th century  Transportation carts, wagons, sleighs, stagecoaches pulled by horses or oxen on

dirt roads

IMPROVING THE ROADS  Turnpikes  Roads for which users had to pay a toll  Toll income meant to be used to pay for new roads  Very few turnpikes actually made money  Most failed to lower transportation costs or increase the speed of travel

 National Road  Country’s lone decent route made of crushed rock  Extended from Maryland to the Ohio River in 1818

STEAMBOAT GOES COMMERCIAL  Steamboat  1st major major advancement in transportation  Robert Fulton, the Clermont  Steamboat made travel easier to travel upstream against a current  Used to take 4 months to travel 1,440 miles from New Orleans to Louisville, KY along MS

and OH Rivers  steamboat made it in 20 days (1820)  6 days (1838)  Revolutionized transatlantic travel  1850, steamship crossed Atlantic in 10-14 days, compared to 25-50 days for a sailing


CANALS BOOM  Canals  2nd transportation advance of the early 1800s  Nations canal network grew from 100 miles in 1816 to 3,300 miles in 1840  Provided efficient water transportation that linked farms to the expanding


 Eerie Canal  Best known canal of the era  Completed in 1825

 Ran 363 miles across NY state from Lake Eerie to the Hudson River  Before the canal it could cost $100 to ship a ton of freight overland from the

Buffalo City to NYC  The canal lowered that cost to $4

 Eerie Canal helped make NYC the nation’s greatest commercial center  City grew  Canal also enhanced the value of farmland in the Great Lakes Region

RAILROADS FURTHER EASE TRANSPORT Railroads  Most dramatic advance in the 1800s  Technology mostly developed in Great

Britain  Used horses first, then developed steam powered engines  Cost less to build than canals and could scale hills easier  Trains moved faster than ships and carried more weight  Ex. a journey from NYC to Detroit, MI took

28 days by boat in 1800, but in 1857 the same trip took 2 days by train

CHECKPOINT  What were the major developments in transportation between 1800


HOMEWORK For homework, students will make a chart

titled “Transportation and Industry” and they will list the causes and effects of each new transportation improvement from 18001860.

TECHNOLOGY SPARKS INDUSTRIAL GROWTH Industrial Revolution  Began in Great Britain in 1700s  Machines that were powered by

steam or flowing rivers to perform work originally done by hand

Slater  Samuel Slater, skilled worker

built nation’s 1st water-powered textile mill in 1793 in Pawtucket, RI  “Father of the Industrial

Revolution”  Later built more factories

family system

MASSACHUSETTS INDUSTRY Francis Cabot Lowell  1811, toured England’s factory towns  After tour, he was able to organize a company Boston

Associates  1813, Associates built their first mill in Waltham, MA (cloth

manufacturer)  1820s, built more factories on Merrimac River and established a

new town called Lowell

 “Lowell girls”  Young, unmarried girls recruited from neighboring farms  After a few years, mist of the young girls left, got married, and

had kids

FACTORY WORK CHANGES LIVES Machines increased the speed of work and divided

labor into many small tasks done by separate workers  Process reduced the amount of skill needed and training required

 Factory owners can save money  Machines only make cloth or thread as opposed to final product  Checkpoint:  What changes occurred in the United States with the rise of industry

in the early 1800s  Increased the speed and volume of the production of goods such

as cloth and shoes. It also reduced the amount of skill and training needed for workers who made those goods. Factories in cities grew because of the rise in industry.

INVENTIONS TRANSFORM INDUSTRY & AGRICULTURE  Interchangeable parts  Helped make factories more efficient  Eli Whitney introduced the idea  Stop assembling weapons one at a time manufacture each individual part

 Innovation quickens communication  1837, Samuel F.B. Morse invented the electric telegraph allowed electrical

pulses to travel long distances along metal wires as coded signals  MORSE CODE

 Agriculture  Remained the largest industry despite new innovations  Only helped farms become more productive and being able to raise larger crops  1815, sold only 1/3 of harvest  1840, steel plow by John Deere and mechanical reaper by Cyrus McCormick  1860, the previous share doubled (partly because of greater fertility of Midwest


QUESTION What were the key inventions between

1820 and 1860?  The system of interchangeable parts, the sewing

machine, the telegraph, the plow, and the reaper

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