Chapter 7-The French Revolution and Napoleon
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Chapter 7-The French Revolution and Napoleon
France in the 1700’s
Most advanced country in Europe Center of the Enlightenment Cultural Center Large population> 25 million Prosperous foreign trade BUT………..
Old Regime- 3 Estates $ division between the “haves” and “havenots”= revolution Enlightenment ideas- Equality, Liberty, democracy- American Revolution- “Popular sovereignty” Economic problems: High taxes, debt from wars Weak leader: Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette
Social Inequality - three estates
Three estates First Estate (upper clergy) 1% of population, taxed peasants Second Estate (nobles) - 2-3% of population, paid no taxes, taxed peasants Third Estate (Bourgeoisie, peasants, workers) - paid up to 1/2 of income in taxes
Enlightenment Ideas/ American Rev.
Belief all men should have liberal freedoms Right and just to remove unjust gov’t Equality for all United States Dec. of Independence and Constitution-France helped Colonies win their independence
King Louis XVI
Weak leader Preferred personal interests, delegated authority Incapable of decisive action Wife- Marie Antoinette-Not well-likedAustrian- Married Louis XVI @ 14 years oldLived luxuriously (diamond necklace affair)
Louis XVI & Marie Antoinette
Causes - Economic
French economy bankrupt Wars, Louis XVI lifestyle Nobles not taxed Crop failures Debt - 1/2 budget goes to interest Bourgeoisie begin questioning King
Prior to the Estates-General the delegates from the 1st and 2nd Estates had more weight or value to the votes their delegates placed. This led for the 1st and 2nd Estate to always outvote the 3rd estate even though the 3rd Estate had more delegates. Delegates from the 3rd Estate wanted to change that though-they believed everyone should have the same value to their vote. Therefore, the 3rd estate would always out vote the 1st and 2nd estates.
One delegate from the 3rd Estate, Abbe Sieyes, said,” What is the Third Estate? Everything. What has to been up to now in the political order? Nothing. What does it demand? To become something herein.” Sieyes suggested the 3rd Estate form the National Assembly and pass laws and reforms in the name of the French people.
On June 17, 1789 the third estate voted to have a National Assembly. This was the 1st move toward revolution. The 3rd Estate was immediately locked out of the Estates General and they broke into an indoor tennis court where they agreed to stay until a new constitution was written. They called their agreement the Tennis
Tennis Court Oath
National Assembly declared (June 20, 1789)
Louis realized he needed to do something before he lost all of France, so he ordered the clergy and the nobles to join the National Assembly. He also brought in Swiss guards to protect him in Paris. People heard about the Swiss guards and they immediately began to gather weapons in order to protect themselves from a possible massacre. On July 14th an angry group went to the Bastille, a prison, looking for gunpowder. The angry crowd overthrew the kings guards and the people took control of the Bastille. July 14th is known as a French national holiday.
A Great Fear Sweeps France
People began to panic which led to a period called the Great Fear. This period occurred when rebellion spread to the countryside. Peasants began to attack their feudal lords and demand their freedom. A group of 6,000 women protested the rising cost of bread. “Let them eat cake” They lashed out the king and the queen and they demanded they immediately leave Versailles and return to France. This was the last time the king was at Versailles.
Revolution Brings Terror
The National Assembly adopted a statement of Revolutionary Ideas— A Declaration on the Rights of Man.—All men are born and remain free and equal in rights. It also included equal justice, freedom of speech, and freedom of religion. Olympe de Gouge wrote—a Declaration on the Rights of Women
State Controlled Church
The state took cover church lands and said that priests had to be elected by property owners and paid as state officials. The church lost its land and political power. The church land was sold off to pay off debt. This act angered the peasants---why? Louis escapes, but is caught
Conflicting Goals Cause Division
A limited constitutional monarchy was created—the king would still hold executive powers but the assemblymen would make the laws. 1791-the National Assembly closed because the constitution was complete and the Legislative Assembly took over.
3 Divisions of the Legislative Assembly
Radicals (Liberals)-They sat on the left side of the hall and were called “left winged” The most extreme of this group were also called SansCulottes (those without knee breeches) They wanted extreme changes in the government--common people should hold the power Moderates—sat in the middle—wanted some changes, but not as extreme as the radicals. Conservatives- They sat on the right side of the hall and they liked the limited monarchy. Emigres were the most extreme group within the conservatives.
War and Extreme Measures
Austria and Prussia demanded that Louis be brought back to the crown. In response the Legislative Assembly declared war on Austria. The French were not prepared to fight Austria and Prussia who joined in when war was declared—(why??) When the Prussians threatened to destroy Paris if the revolutionaries hurt Louis and his family, Parisians invaded the Royal Palace and Louis and his family were kept in a stone tower.
The fighting continues
As the war went on the Legislative Assembly decided to get rid of the current constitution which called for a constitutional monarchy and therefore get rid of the king. The new governing body was the National Convention.
The people in the street had more power than the National Convention and the most radical group was called the Jacobins. Jacobins were middle class people who wanted to get rid of the king and create a republic. Jean Paul Marat and George Danton were leaders of the Jacobins and with their influence they was able to get enough support to have France abolish the monarchy and create a republic.
The death of a king
Jacobins tried Louis for treason, found him guilty and sentenced him to death. Louis was killed by the guillotine in front of thousands. Jacobins realized they still had a war to fight, so they initiated the draft—women were included in the draft.
Terror Grips France
A group developed in France that wanted to create a “republic of virtue”—they wanted to rid France of all of its past nobility and monarchy. This group led by Maximillien Robespierre changed the calendar to be more scientific—they divided the calendar into 12 months and 30 days and they closed all churches in Paris.
Committee of Public Safety (?)
Robespierre became leader of the Committee of Public Safety, which would get rid of people that were deemed by Robespierre to be enemies of the Republic. People would be tried in the morning and guillotined in the afternoon. July 1793-July 1794 Robespierre ruled France as a dictator and his rule was called the Reign of Terror— the most famous victim was….
On her way to the guillotine she said, “Monsieur, I beg your pardon. I did not do it on purpose.”
George Danton was also a victim of the Reign. In the end 3,000 were in killed in Paris and some speculate 40,000 were killed in total.
End of Terror
National Convention turns on Robespierre in 1794 and they put him to death by guillotine…The Reign of Terror ended with his death. 1795 Moderates drafted a new constitution which called for 2 house legislature and a 5 member executive branch called the Directory.
Napoleon Forges an Empire
Great military genius Took control of France in a coup d’etat Gains peace agreement w/Britain, Austria and Russia France under Napoleon:
Fairer taxes Improved schools Napoleonic Code- some restrictions
Napoleon Creates Empire
1804- Crowned Emperor New World Problems Haiti- Defeated by slaves led by Toussaint L’Ouverture Sells Louisiana Territory to United States Turns attention to Europe-Builds empire Loses Battle of Trafalgar-1805 to British Only able to control empire from 18071812
Napoleon’s Empire Collapses
Three big Mistakes: Continental system- designed to hurt Great Britain & make Europe more self-sufficientweakened economy of France Peninsular War- conflict w/ Spain & Portugalfuels “nationalism” Invasion of Russia- scorched earth- Decimates Napoleon’s army April 1814- Surrenders to Coalition Forces
Hundred Days-March-June, 1815
Banished to Elba (1814) New King Louis XVIII (Louis XVI’s brother)- becomes unpopular- Napoleon comes back (March 1815) Defeated at Waterloo 1815 (Hundred Days ends) Banished to St. Helena’s –dies 1821
Congress of Vienna
Lasted 8 months- wanted to create a “Balance of Power” and peace Klemens von Metternich-Austria-3 goals: Limit France’s power Restore “balance of power” Return monarchs to thrones (Hobbes) Established peace for nearly 40 years Some were constitutional monarchies and some Absolute Monarchies (Enlightened) Set the seeds for Nationalistic revolutions to come