Chapter 8

January 8, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: Arts & Humanities, Writing, Grammar
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C.W. Shelmerdine Introduction to Greek 2nd edition (Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008) Chapter 8

Shelmerdine Chapter 8 1. 3rd declension nouns 2. 3rd declension nouns: stems in -κ, -τ 3. The present active imperative, second person of thematic verbs and εἰμί 4. Connection 5. μέν and δέ

Shelmerdine Chapter 8 1. 3rd declension nouns 2. 3rd declension nouns: stems in -κ, -τ 3. The present active imperative, second person of thematic verbs and εἰμί 4. Connection 5. μέν and δέ

Shelmerdine Chapter 8 1. 3rd declension nouns • • •

This chapter introduces 3rd declension nouns. This is the last declension in Greek. The third declension contains nouns of all three genders (masculine, feminine, and neuter). Some groups of 3rd declension nouns display certain irregularities, so we will learn this declension in stages across Chapters 8-15.

Shelmerdine Chapter 8 1. 3rd declension nouns •

The basic endings for 3rd declension nouns are:

singular Nom. -ς Gen. -ος Dat. -ι Acc. -α Voc. = stem

plural Nom. -ες Gen. -ων Dat. -σι(ν) Acc. -ας Voc. = nom.

Shelmerdine Chapter 8 1. 3rd declension nouns •

When the special rules for neuter nouns are applied, the basic endings are: singular Nom. = stem Gen. -ος Dat. -ι Acc. = nom. Voc. = nom.

plural Nom. -α Gen. -ων Dat. -σι(ν) Acc. = nom. Voc. = nom.

Shelmerdine Chapter 8 1. 3rd declension nouns As so often, adding a σ to a Greek word poses problems, so nouns of the 3rd declension differ in how to form the nominative singular (-ς ending) and dative plural (-σι ending).

Shelmerdine Chapter 8 1. 3rd declension nouns 2. 3rd declension nouns: stems in -κ, -τ 3. The present active imperative, second person of thematic verbs and εἰμί 4. Connection 5. μέν and δέ

Shelmerdine Chapter 8 2. 3rd declension nouns: stems in -κ, -τ • •



Recall that a palatal (κ, γ, χ), when followed by a σ, is written ξ. Consequently, when the stem of a third declension noun ends in a palatal (κ, γ, χ), the nominative singular and dative plural show ξ. All such nouns are masculine or feminine. No neuter nouns in the third declension have stems ending in a palatal.

Shelmerdine Chapter 8 2. 3rd declension nouns: stems in -κ, -τ •

Thus the forms of κῆρυξ, κήρυκος ὁ “herald” singular Nom. κῆρυξ Gen. κήρυκος Dat. κήρυκι Acc. κήρυκα Voc. = nom.

plural Nom. κήρυκες Gen. κηρύκων Dat. κήρυξι Acc. κήρυκας Voc. = nom.

Shelmerdine Chapter 8 2. 3rd declension nouns: stems in -κ, -τ •



As a rule, neuter nouns in the third declension have no ending in the nominative singular (and hence in the accusative and vocative singulars), leaving just the stem. As a rule, words in Greek can end only in a vowel, ν, ρ or ς. –

The only exceptions are ἐκ “out of,” and οὐκ “not”

Shelmerdine Chapter 8 2. 3rd declension nouns: stems in -κ, -τ • •

Most neuter nouns in the third declension have stems ending in –τ, but a Greek word cannot end in -τ, so it drops. In the dative plural, τ + σ = σ, so the τ drops again.

Shelmerdine Chapter 8 2. 3rd declension nouns: stems in -κ, -τ •

Thus the forms of σῶμα, σώματος τό “body” singular Nom. σῶμα Gen. σώματος Dat. σώματι Acc. = nom. Voc. = nom.

plural Nom. σώματα Gen. σωμάτων Dat. σώμασι Acc. = nom. Voc. = nom.

nom. sg.: σωματ  σωμα dat. pl.: σωματσι  σωμασι

Shelmerdine Chapter 8 1. 3rd declension nouns 2. 3rd declension nouns: stems in -κ, -τ 3. The present active imperative, 2nd person, of thematic verbs and εἰμί 4. Connection 5. μέν and δέ

Shelmerdine Chapter 8 parse/parsing • 1st, 2nd or 3RD PERSON • SINGULAR or PLURAL • PRESENT, IMPERFECT, FUTURE, AORIST, or PERFECT • INDICATIVE, IMPERATIVE • ACTIVE

Shelmerdine Chapter 8 3. The present active imperative, 2nd person, of thematic verbs and εἰμί • •

This chapter introduces a new mood, the imperative. The imperative expresses a direct command.

Shelmerdine Chapter 8 3. The present active imperative, 2nd person, of thematic verbs and εἰμί • •

Since most often someone gives a command to the person to whom they are speaking, imperatives are most often 2nd person. Greek has different forms for the singular imperative (commanding one person) and plural imperative (commanding multiple people).

Shelmerdine Chapter 8 3. The present active imperative, 2nd person, of thematic verbs and εἰμί •

The present imperative uses these endings: – –



Thus – –



-ε (singular) -ετε (plural)

λῦε “be free!” λύετε “[y’all] be free!”

Notice the plural form is identical with the indicative.

Shelmerdine Chapter 8 3. The present active imperative, 2nd person, of thematic verbs and εἰμί •

The present imperatives of εἰμί are: – –



ἴσθι “be…!” ἔστε “[y’all] be…!”

Notice the plural form is identical with the indicative.

Shelmerdine Chapter 8 3. The present active imperative, 2nd person, of thematic verbs and εἰμί •

The imperative expresses a command, for example, –

ἀεὶ πιστεύετε τοῖς ἀγαθοῖς ἀνθρώποις. •



“Always trust good people.”

Vocatives logically accompany imperatives: –

μένε ἐν τῇ κώμῃ, ὦ νεανία. • “Stay in the village, young man.”

Shelmerdine Chapter 8 3. The present active imperative, 2nd person, of thematic verbs and εἰμί •

To negate an imperative, use μή, not οὐ. –

μὴ λῦε τὸν ἵππον, ὦ στρατιώτα. •

“Don’t loose the horse, soldier.”

Shelmerdine Chapter 8 1. 3rd declension nouns 2. 3rd declension nouns: stems in -κ, -τ 3. The present active imperative, second person of thematic verbs and εἰμί 4. Connection 5. μέν and δέ

Shelmerdine Chapter 8 4. Connection •

Both English and Greek can connect simple sentences with “and” and “but” –

ἡ Γοζίλα διώκει καὶ φεύγομεν εὐθύς. •



“Gozilla is pursuing, and we run away immediately.”

ἡ Γοζίλα διώκει ἀλλὰ φεύγομεν εὐθύς. •

“Gozilla is pursuing, but we run away immediately.”

Shelmerdine Chapter 8 4. Connection •

Greek has conjunctions which are postpositive, that is, they must come second in their clauses –

ἡ Γοζίλα διώκει, φεύγομεν δὲ εὐθύς. • •

“Gozilla is pursuing, and we run away immediately.” “Gozilla is pursuing, but we run away immediately.”

Shelmerdine Chapter 8 4. Connection •

Greek has conjunctions which are postpositive, that, is, they must come second in their clauses –

φεύγομεν, ἡ γὰρ Γοζίλα διώκει . • •

“We run away, for Gozilla is pursuing.” “We run away, because Gozilla is pursuing.”

Shelmerdine Chapter 8 4. Connection •

Greek has conjunctions which are postpositive, that, is, they must come second in their clauses –

ἡ Γοζίλα διώκει, φεύγομεν οὖν εὐθύς. • •

“Gozilla is pursuing; therefore, we run away immediately.” “Gozilla is pursuing, so we run away immediately.”

Shelmerdine Chapter 8 4. Connection •

The Greek conjunction τε is both postpositive and enclitic: –

οἵ τε στρατιῶται καὶ οἱ ναῦται •



“both the soldiers and the sailors”

οἱ στρατιῶταί τε καὶ ὁ στρατηγός •

“both the soldiers and the general”

Shelmerdine Chapter 8 4. Connection •

As an enclitic, τε can throw its accent on a preceding proclitic, like οὐ, and the two are often written as one word: –

οἱ στρατιῶται διώκουσιν οὔτε τοὺς Πέρσας οὔτε τοὺς Ἀθηναίους. •

“The soldiers pursue neither the Persians nor the Athenians.”

Shelmerdine Chapter 8 4. Connection •

If the negative is μή, the combination is written similarly: –

ἐθέλω μήτε διώκειν μήτε φεύγειν. •

“I want neither to pursue nor to flee.”

Shelmerdine Chapter 8 4. Connection •

MOST IMPORTANT: In Greek, normally every single sentence has a conjunction linking it to the previous sentence!

Shelmerdine Chapter 8 1. 3rd declension nouns 2. 3rd declension nouns: stems in -κ, -τ 3. The present active imperative, second person of thematic verbs and εἰμί 4. Connection 5. μέν and δέ

Shelmerdine Chapter 8 5. μέν and δέ •

Among the most common Greek conjunctions are μέν and δέ, which are both postpositive –

ἡ μὲν Γοζίλα διώκει, φεύγομεν δὲ εὐθύς. • •

“Gozilla is pursuing, and we run away immediately.” “Gozilla is pursuing, but we run away immediately.”

Shelmerdine Chapter 8 5. μέν and δέ •

Good Greek uses μέν and δέ to contrast the items they follow: –

ῥᾴδιον μέν ἐστι λέγειν, χαλεπὸν δὲ πείθειν. •



ὁ μὲν ποιητὴς γράφει, ὁ δὲ κριτὴς διδάσκει. •



The poet writes, and the judge teaches.

ὁ ποιητὴς γράφει μέν, διδάσκει δὲ οὔ. •



It is easy to speak, but difficult to persuade.

The poet writes, but he does not teach.

ὁ ποιητὴς γράφει καλὰ μέν, μακρὰ δέ. •

The poet writes beautiful things, but long ones.

Shelmerdine Chapter 8 5. μέν and δέ •

Greek uses μέν and δέ to contrast different sets of the same noun: –

οἱ μέν στρατιῶται ἐδίωκον, οἱ δὲ ἔφευγον. •



οἱ μέν τῶν ποιητῶν πείθουσιν, οἱ δὲ οὔ. •



“Some of the poets persuade, but others do not.”

οἱ μέν πιστεύουσι τοῖς λόγοις, οἱ δὲ τοῖς ὅπλοις. •



“Some soldiers were pursuing, and others were fleeing.”

Some (men) trust in words, others in weapons.

αἱ μέν πλούσιαί εἰσιν, αἱ δὲ οὔ. •

Some (women) are wealthy, but others are not.

Shelmerdine Chapter 8 Xenophon of Athens Ξενοφῶν ὁ Ἀθηναῖος (c.430-c.355 BC)

Greece

Armenia

The March of the Ten Thousand

The March of the Ten Thousand

Ἀρμένιοι

Shelmerdine Chapter 8 οἱ δὲ Ἀρμένιοι τὰς οἰκίας ἔχουσι κατὰ τῆς γῆς· ταῖς δὲ οἰκίαις τὸ μὲν στόμα μικρόν, κάτω δὲ μεγάλαι. αἱ δὲ εἴσοδοι τοῖς μὲν ὑποζυγίοις ὀρυκταί εἰσιν, οἱ δὲ ἄνθρωποι καταβαίνουσιν ἐπὶ κλίμακος. ἐν δὲ ταῖς οἰκίαις εἰσὶν αἶγές τε καὶ ἄλλα ζῷα· οἱ δὲ Ἀρμένιοι τὰ ζῷα ἔνδον θεραπέυσουσιν ἐν δὲ ἀγγείοις ἐστὶν οἶνος· καὶ τὸν οἶνον εἰς τὸ στόμα μύζουσι καλάμοις.

Shelmerdine Chapter 8 οἱ δὲ Ἀρμένιοι τὰς οἰκίας ἔχουσι κατὰ τῆς γῆς· ταῖς δὲ οἰκίαις τὸ μὲν στόμα μικρόν, κάτω δὲ μεγάλαι. αἱ δὲ εἴσοδοι τοῖς μὲν ὑποζυγίοις ὀρυκταί εἰσιν, οἱ δὲ ἄνθρωποι καταβαίνουσιν ἐπὶ κλίμακος. ἐν δὲ ταῖς οἰκίαις εἰσὶν αἶγές τε καὶ ἄλλα ζῷα· οἱ δὲ Ἀρμένιοι τὰ ζῷα ἔνδον θεραπέυσουσιν ἐν δὲ ἀγγείοις ἐστὶν οἶνος· καὶ τὸν οἶνον εἰς τὸ στόμα μύζουσι καλάμοις.

Shelmerdine Chapter 8 καθάπερ γὰρ τὸ σῶμα ἕν ἐστιν καὶ μέλη πολλὰ ἔχει, πάντα δὲ τὰ μέλη τοῦ σώματος πολλὰ ὄντα ἕν ἐστιν σῶμα, οὕτως καὶ ὁ Χριστός· ἕν (neut. sg. nom./acc.) one καθάπερ... οὕτως Just as…so μέλη (neut. pl. nom./acc.) limb ὄντα “although they are” οὕτως in this way πάντα (neut. pl. nom./acc.) all (predicate position) πολλά (neut. pl. nom./acc.) many (predicate position)

Shelmerdine Chapter 8 καὶ γὰρ ἐν ἑνὶ πνεύματι ἡμεῖς πάντες εἰς ἓν σῶμα ἐβαπτίσθημεν, εἴτε Ἰουδαῖοι εἴτε Ἕλληνες, εἴτε δοῦλοι εἴτε ἐλεύθεροι, καὶ πάντες ἓν πνεῦμα ἐποτίσθημεν. ἐβαπτίσθημεν “we were baptized” ἐλεύθερο ς –η -ον free Ἕλλην -ος ὁ Greek ἕν (neut. sg. nom./acc.), ἑνὶ (dat. sg.) one ἡμεῖς we Ἰουδαῖος –α -ον Jewish πάντες (m./f. pl. nom./acc.) all (predicate position) πνεῦμα –ατος τό breath, spirit ἐποτίσθημεν “we were made to drink”

Shelmerdine Chapter 8 καὶ γὰρ τὸ σῶμα οὐκ ἔστιν ἓν μέλος ἀλλὰ πολλά. ἐὰν εἴπῃ ὁ πούς, Ὅτι οὐκ εἰμὶ χείρ, οὐκ εἰμὶ ἐκ τοῦ σώματος, οὐ παρὰ τοῦτο οὐκ ἔστιν ἐκ τοῦ σώματος· καὶ ἐὰν εἴπῃ τὸ οὖς, Ὅτι οὐκ εἰμὶ ὀφθαλμός, οὐκ εἰμὶ ἐκ τοῦ σώματος, οὐ παρὰ τοῦτο οὐκ ἔστιν ἐκ τοῦ σώματος· ἐὰν if εἴπῃ (3rd sg. aorist) “says” ἕν (neut. sg. nom./acc.) one μέλος (neut sg. nom./acc.) limb ὅτι because οὖς, ὠτός τό ear

ὀφθαλμός –οῦ ὁ eye παρὰ τοῦτο “because of this” πολλά (neut. pl. nom./acc.) many (predicate position) πούς, ποδός ὁ foot χείρ, χειρός ἡ hand

Shelmerdine Chapter 8 εἰ ὅλον τὸ σῶμα ὀφθαλμός, ποῦ ἡ ἀκοή; εἰ ὅλον ἀκοή, ποῦ ἡ ὄσφρησις; νυνὶ δὲ ὁ θεὸς ἔθετο τὰ μέλη, ἓν ἕκαστον αὐτῶν, ἐν τῷ σώματι καθὼς ἠθέλησεν. (1 Cor. 12.12-18)

ἀκοή -ῆς ἡ listening εἰ if ἔθετο (3rd sg. aorist) arranged ἕκαστος –η -ον each ἕν (neut. sg. nom./acc.) one καθὼς just as

μέλη (neut. pl. nom./acc.) limb νυνὶ as it is now ὅλος –η -ον whole ὄσφρησις –εως ἡ seeing ὀφθαλμός –οῦ ὁ eye ποῦ where?

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