Chpt 28 PPt

January 5, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, European History, War And Revolution (1914-1938), Russian Revolution
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The Crisis of the Imperial Order, 1900-1929 Chapter 28

Origins of the Crisis in Europe and the Middle East

The Ottoman Empire and the Balkans 

By the late 19th century the Ottomans were on the decline 

Young Turks and Germany

Nationalism, Alliances, and Military Strategy 

Causes of WW1 

Nationalism Undermined large multiethnic empires  Crusade for liberty  Revenge for past injustices  Heal class divisions 

  

Alliance system Militarism Germany’s ambition

Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia in 1914 Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand 

Two Alliances  

Triple Alliance Triple Entente

The “Great War” and the Russian Revolutions, 1914-1918

Stalemate, 1914-1918 

Western Front  

Unbroken line of trenches For __ years the war was inconclusive

The Home Front and the War Economy 

Demands for trench warfare   

Stringent controls (rationing) Recruitment of: British naval blockade

Africa  

British and French overran German colonies Used for crops, labor, and soldiers

The U.S. capitalized on the war. How?

The Ottoman Empire at War 

Allies with Germany in 1914   

Unsuccessful against Russia Deport of Armenians Closed Dardanelles Straits

British subversion 

Hussein ibn Ali of Mecca

Balfour Declaration of 1917 

“establishment of Jewish national homeland in Palestine”

Britain troops in Mesopotamia

Double Revolution in Russia, 1917  

Russian incompetent by 1916 Czar (tsar) overthrown in 1917 

Vladimir Lenin’s “Bolshevik Revolution”

The End of the War in Western Europe, 1917-1918 

German resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare brought the U.S. into war in April 1917. 

Zimmerman Letter

The arrival of U.S. allowed Allies to counterattack against Germany.  Armistice signed on November 11th, 1918. 

Peace and Dislocation in Europe, 1919-1929

The Impact of the War 

Effects  

Physical destruction Refugees Immigrants to: 

Closed door policy

Influenza epidemic 1918-1919 

Killed over __ million people

Hastened mines, railroad, and factory production 

The Peace Treaties 

Paris Peace Conference   

David Lloyd George Woodrow Wilson Georges Clemenceau

Treaty of Versailles 

Humiliated Germany   

War guilt clause Reparations Demilitarization

Austro-Hungarian Empire fell 

New countries created from:

Russian Civil War and the New Economic Policy 

Russian Civil War Continued 3 more years  By 1921, Communists defeated their political enemies  By 1922, the Soviet republic of Ukraine and Russia merged to create ________. 

Soviet Union built a modern socialist industrial economy by extracting resources from the peasants in order to pay for industrialization. Lenin dies in 1924, _____ succeeds.

An Ephemeral Peace 

The decade after the end of the war can be divided into two periods: five years of painful recovery and readjustment (19191923) followed by six years of growing peace and prosperity (1924-1929). Germany 

French occupation inflation

China and Japan: Contrasting Destinies

Social and Economic Change 

China 

Rapid population, unfavorable land, heavy taxation, and flooding Social tension

Japan 

Non-arable land, natural resources, natural disasters Industrialization Search and Results economic growth caused social tension between zaibatsu and poor farmers Prosperity depended on ____ and ____. Page 13

Revolution and War, 1900-1918 

China 

Boxer Affair in 1900 led to desire of overthrow of Qing and modernization of country. Sun Yat-sen elected president but presidency turned over to general Yuan Shikai

Japan 

 

Joined ____ in WW1 Benefit from: Conquered German colonies in China 

Twenty One Demands

Chinese Warlords and the Guomindang, 1919-1929 

Paris Peace Conference 

Allowed Japan to retain China 

Protests in Beijing 1919

Chinese warlords Supported army through plunder and arbitrary taxation 


In the 1920s China reorganized forming the Chinese Communist Party and industrial modernization. However, corruption and incompetent administration kept China poor.

The New Middle East

The Mandate System 

German and Ottoman were given as colonies to the Allies.  

German was Class B Ottoman was Class A Britain- Palestine, Iraq, and Trans-Jordan  France- Syria and Lebanon 

The Rise of Modern Turkey 

Mustafa Kemal formed a nationalist government in 1919 and reconquered Anatolia and area around Constantinople from W. Europe. Modernization    

 

Secular Alphabet Family Women Dress resistance

Arab Lands and the Question of Palestine 

Changes in Middle East  

Nomads Population grew 50% Westernization

Maghrib (Algeria, Tunisia, and Morocco)  

France monopolized government jobs and businesses Arabs and Berbers remained poor and suffered from discrimination

England  

declared Iraq and Egypt independent in 1922 Limit wave of Jewish immigration in Palestine that began in 1920

Society, Culture, and Technology in the Industrialized World

Class and Gender 

Class 

 

Declined and displays of wealth came to be regarded as _____. Increase in white collar work Decline in blue collar. Why?

Women  

Suffrage 1915-1934 No effect on politics. Why?

Revolution in the Sciences 

Discover of sub-atomic particles, quanta, Einstein’s theory of relativity undermined _____’s physics and offered new opportunity for: Innovation in social sciences challenged traditional values.  

Sigmund Freud Emile Durkheim

The New Technologies of Modernity   

Airplanes Radio Film in 1920s 

U.S., Japan, India, Turkey, Egypt 

Diffusion on American culture

Health and hygiene 

Medicine, sewage treatment, pluming, soap 


Technology and the Environment  

Skyscrapers Automobiles  

Replaced horses Suburbs

Damns and canals 

Generate electricity

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