English Roots in America

January 6, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: History, US History, Colonial History (1600-1775)
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■ Essential Question: –How did different values lead to different American subcultures in the Chesapeake, Southern, New England, & Middle colonies? ■ Warm-Up Question: –Based upon the documents provided, what are some key differences between the Virginia & New England colonies?

Four Colonial Subcultures ■The different values of the migrants dictated the “personality” of the newly created colonies; led to distinct (not unified) colonies –The Chesapeake –New England –Middle Colonies –The Lower South

European Settlements in North America by 1660

Chesapeake Colonies: Virginia & Maryland

Chesapeake Colonies

The Chesapeake: Dreams of Wealth ■After Walter Raleigh's failed Roanoke settlement, there was little interest in colonizing America; but Richard Hakluyt (& others) kept promoting colonies: –Possibilities for wealth –Rivaling Spain, Holland, France –Nationalism, anti-Catholicism, & anti-Spanish zeal

Entrepreneurs in Virginia ■The major obstacle to colonizing in America was funding; Queen Elizabeth would not spend tax revenue: –Joint-stock companies provided financing for colonies –In 1606, King James gave the London Company the 1st charter to establish colonies in America

The London Company, 1606

The London Co was later renamed the Virginia Company; English stockholders in Virginia Company expected instant profits

“The Virginia Colony” Reading & Discussion ■Based upon the reading –What were the expectations of the early Jamestown colonists? –What were conditions like during the early years of the Jamestown colony?

Entrepreneurs in Virginia ■ Jamestown was settled in 1607 along the Chesapeake Bay: Chesapeake colonists did not work for the –the location was unhealthy common good & many starved tobut death easy to defend from Spanish ships (but not from inland Indians) –Settlers had no experience in founding a settlement –Colonists expected to become immediately wealthy & failed to plant crops or prepare for longterm habitation in America

Jamestown Fort, 1609

Jamestown Colony

Spinning Out of Control Captain John Smith ■In 1608, John Smith imposed order in Jamestown & traded for food with natives ■But, Jamestown faced difficulties: The most powerful Native –Poor leadership harsh winters Americans east of & Mississippi River led to starving time (1609-1610) –In 1622 & 1644, Jamestown was attacked by Powhatan Indians

Confederacy The 1622Powhatan Powhatan uprising killed 347

Saved by a “Stinking Weed” ■John Rolfe introduced a tobacco hybrid that gave Jamestown a cash crop economy

Early Colonial Tobacco

1618 — Virginia produced 20,000 pounds of tobacco 1622 — Despite losing nearly 1/3 of its colonists in an Indian attack, 60,000 pounds produced 1627 — Virginia produced 500,000 pounds of tobacco 1629 — Virginia produced 1,500,000 pounds of tobacco

Saved by a “Stinking Weed” ■In 1618, headrights were used to encourage cultivation of tobacco & the settlement of Jamestown: – A 50-acre lot was granted to each colonist who paid for his own transportation, or for each servant brought into the colony – Led to huge tobacco plantations & thousands of new settlers who hoped to make their fortunes

English Migration, 1610-1660 Virginia’s growth was due largely to headrights

Why was 1619 a pivotal year for the Chesapeake settlement?

Virginia House of Burgesses ■In 1619, Virginia colonists created a legislative assembly to create local taxes & oversee finances ■The Virginia House of Burgesses became the 1st legislative assembly in America

How Many Slaves? ■ In 1619, the 1st African slaves arrived in Jamestown –In the 17th century, 1,000 slaves arrived in the New World per year –Through the 18th century, 5.5 million arrived in America –By 1860, 11 million slaves were brought to the New World –Before 1831, more African slaves came to America than Europeans

Population of the Chesapeake Colonies: 1607-1750

Time of Reckoning ■Despite the profits from tobacco, Virginia was a deadly place to live –Many died from disease –Numerous Powhatan attacks –Indentured servants were treated badly & cheated out of land when servitude ended –Few females (6:1 ratio) made families or reproduction difficult

Corruption and Reform ■In 1624, James I dissolved the Virginia Company & made Virginia a royal colony –But colonists continued to meet in the House of Burgesses –VA was divided into 8 counties each with a county court ■Very little changed; Jamestown colonists still focused with tobacco & continued to lack unity

Jamestown Colonization Pattern, 1620-1660

The Maryland Colony

Maryland: A Refuge for Catholics ■Initiated by Sir George Calvert (Lord Baltimore) as a refuge for English Catholics –In 1632, Charles I granted a charter for Maryland –To recruit laborers, Lord Baltimore required toleration among Catholics & Protestants

Maryland: A Refuge for Catholics ■Wealthy Catholics proved unwilling to relocate to America so Maryland became populated largely by poor Protestant farmers & indentured servants: –Maryland had few large tobacco plantations –Farmers (mostly poor tobacco planters) lived in scattered riverfront settlements

■Essential Question: –How did differences in values affect distinct American subcultures in the Chesapeake, New England, Southern, & Middle colonies? ■Reading Quiz Ch 3B (p 70-84)

New England Colonies

New England Colonies, 1650

Reforming England in America ■Queen Elizabeth’s reconciliation of Anglican & Catholic conflicts appeased many, but created 2 factious groups of extremists: –Catholics (many settled in Maryland) –Puritans who wanted Anglican Church stripped of Catholic rituals (made up of conservative “Puritans” & radical “Pilgrims”)

The Pilgrims in Plymouth ■Pilgrims were separatists who refused to worship in the Anglican Church, fled to Holland to avoid compromising religious beliefs ■Migrated to America in order to maintain distinct identity & settled in New England ■Formed the Mayflower Compact to create a “civil body politick” among settlers (became the 1st American form of self-gov’t)

The “Mayflower Compact” Reading & Discussion ■What are the Pilgrims agreeing to do by signing the Mayflower Compact? ■Is this a religious or a political document? Explain

Reforming England in America The origins of Thanksgiving

■Pilgrims founded Plymouth in 1620 –Faced disease & hunger; received help from local natives like Squanto & Massasoit –Plymouth was a society of small farming villages bound together by mutual consent but faced serious recruitment issues –In 1691, Plymouth was absorbed into the larger, more successful Massachusetts Bay colony

“The Great Migration” ■Puritans were more conservative than Pilgrims & wished to remain within the Church of England: –Believed in predestination, fought social sins, & despised Catholic rituals in the Anglican Church –In 1629, many Puritans felt King Charles I was ruining England ■From 1630-1640, John Winthrop led 16,000 Puritans to the Massachusetts Bay colony

The Great Puritan Migration

“A City on a Hill” ■Winthrop emphasized a common spiritual goal: to create a “city on a hill” as beacon of righteousness ■New England experienced unique demographic & social trends: –Settlers usually came as families –NE was a generally healthy place to live –Settlers sacrificed self-interest for the good of the community

“A City on a Hill”

■As Mass Bay colony grew beyond Boston, towns began to develop their own unique personalities: –Each town was independently governed by local church members (Congregationalism) –Allowed voting by all adult male church members (women & blacks joined but could not vote) –Officials were responsible to God, not their constituents

Congregationalism: Nucleated vs. Dispersed Villages

“A City on a Hill” ■NE town gov’ts were autonomous & most people participated due to common religious values ■Massachusetts Bay was more peaceful than other colonies: –Passed a legal code called the Lawes and Liberties in 1648 to protect rights & order –Created civil courts to maintain order & mediate differences

Limits of Dissent: Roger Williams

■Puritans never supported religious toleration, esp Roger Williams: –Williams was a separatist who questioned the validity of the colony’s charter because the land was not bought from natives –Promoted “liberty of conscience” where God (not leaders) would punish people for their “wrong” religious ideas ■Expelled to Rhode Island in 1636

Limits of Dissent: Anne Hutchinson ■Anne Hutchinson believed she was directly inspired by God: –Believed that “converted” people are not subject to man’s laws, only subject to God’s laws (Antinomianism) –Hutchinson challenged Mass Bay’s religious leaders ■She was banished to Rhode Island

Mobility and Division ■After absorbing Plymouth, the Massachusetts colony grew & spawned 4 new colonies: –New Hampshire –Rhode Island –Connecticut –New Haven

Mobility and Division ■New Hampshire formed in 1677; grew very slowly & was dependent upon Mass Bay ■Connecticut formed in 1662 due to fertile lands; resembled Mass Bay –Fundamental Orders was model of civil gov’t based on religious principles (the 1st written constitution in American history)

Mobility and Division ■New Haven set up in 1636 because Puritan leaders wanted a colony with closer relationship between church & state ■Rhode Island drew highly independent colonists who practiced religious toleration (founded by religious dissenter Roger Williams)

New England Colonies, 1650

The Middle Colonies: New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware

The Middle Colonies, 1685

New York ■NY was established as “New Netherlands” by the Dutch West India Co. (the great economic rival to England & Spain) ■Its small population was diverse; included Finns, Swedes, Germans, Africans, & Dutch ■In 1664, the English fleet captured the colony with little resistance

New York ■After begin taken by England, New York (which included New Jersey, Delaware, & Maine) became the personal property of James, the Duke of York –Inhabitants had no political voice beyond the local level –James gained little profit from the colony

Pennsylvania ■Pennsylvania founded by a radical religious sect called Quakers ■Quakers believed in “Inner Light”: – Rejected idea of original sin & predestination – Believed that each person could communicate directly with God – All are equal in eyes of God & can be saved (conversion was essential to faith)

Penn's "Holy Experiment" ■Quakers were persecuted in New England for their beliefs; William Penn founded Pennsylvania in 1681 as a “holy experiment” – As a society run on Quaker principles that promoted religious toleration & protection of the rights of property-less –Appealed to English, Welsh, Irish, German immigrants

Quick Discussion Question: In what ways was Penn’s “holy experiment” in Pennsylvania similar to Winthrop’s “city on a hill?”

William Penn & Native Americans

Settling Pennsylvania ■Immigration to PA led to a very ethnically, nationally, & religiously diverse population ■Quarrels were common (unlike homogeneous VA & Mass Bay colonies), but PA prospered ■In 1701, Penn granted self-rule to PA colonists & independence to Delaware counties

Urban Population Growth: 1650-1775

The Lower South

Settling the Lower South

Carolina ■Although Carolina relied on slave labor & agriculture (& therefore looked like Chesapeake colonies) it was very different due to: –Diversity of settlers –Environment very different from the Chesapeake –No “Solid South” yet

CarolinaProprietors was established a “political utopia” ofasthe Carolinas & experimented with early forms of democracy

■Carolina was granted a charter in 1663 to eight “proprietors” to reward their loyalty: –Proprietors were inspired by John Locke & created a government led by wealthy lawmakers but with veto power for average citizens –But Carolina had difficulty recruiting settlers in its first years

The Barbadian Connection ■English planters from the Caribbean island of Barbados were recruited to Charles Town: –Barbadians brought a strict, cruel slave code with them –Demanded greater self-gov’t within Carolina; led to 1729 strife that led to division of colony into North & South Carolinas

Charles Town, South Carolina, the only southern port

Indigo & Rice: crops of the Carolinas

The Carolinas and Georgia

Founding of Georgia Georgia was in many ways a “social utopia” because it offered a fresh startinfor manyby of ■Georgia was founded 1732 the lowest English citizens James Oglethorpe as a strategic buffer between the Carolinas & Spanish Florida ■Oglethorpe offered Georgia as a refuge for imprisoned debtors from England ■By 1751, Georgia was a small colony with a slave-owning plantation society

A secretary of one of The Proprietary Colonies By Lord Baltimore as 8 proprietors hoped the proprietors was a heaven forEnglish Catholics Granted to William Penn (son ■ Most were created to create a politically GivenJohn as aLocke gift to the colonies James, English naval hero) as a had by royal charter, but democratic colony Dukeof ofaYork (the brother of some land of religious King Charles II) freedom charters granted land to individuals:

–Maryland (1634) –Carolina (1663) –New York (1664) –New Jersey (1665) –New Hampshire (1680) –Pennsylvania (1681) –Delaware (1704)

Conclusions ■All the colonies faced early an struggle to survive ■Distinct regional differences intensified & persisted throughout the colonial period ■It was not until the American Revolution that colonists began to see themselves as a distinct “American” people

Closure Question ■ Did any of these colonies live up to the expectations of their founders: –Virginia? –Massachusetts Bay? –Carolina? –Pennsylvania? ■ Which colony would you have chosen to live in? Why?

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